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WILLIAM & MARY

 WILLIAM & MARY When the Dutch stadholder William III of Orange and his wife. which in turn had been influenced by Italian Baroque design. and furniture incorporated japanning (a simulation of Oriental lacquer) and woven cane panels. William reigned until his death in 1702 (Mary died in 1694). and contrasts of colour were typical elements of this style. His rule was marked not only by the adoption of many Dutch traditions. Elaborate turnings. that country became linked directly to the Continent and ceased to be a provincial island. severe curves. flat surfaces and architectural trim that would be the chief influence on American furniture for more than a century . but by the importations of Dutch craftsmen to England. Also. This Anglo-Dutch taste had its roots in the French court style of Louis XIV. trade with China prompted the vogue for Oriental objects at this time. An original English contribution was a form of case furniture with simple. large unified shapes. Mary II. carvings in high relief. became joint monarchs of England in 1689.

Simpler lines with more delicate proportions than before were seen. There was no dressing table: usually a gilded framed mirror hung over the toilet table. WILLIAM AND MARY 1689-1702 This period was named after the marriage of the English Mary Stuart. bureaux. William & Mary Stool c. . First cabriole leg was often left square. Legs often connected with x shaped stretchers with a finial at the junction. Tallboys began to develop raised off the unusual stand. Feet were simple bun or pear shaped or goat·s hoof. Stretchers were left flat with a veneered surface. The chair backs were shaped slightly to fit the shape of your back and the back legs were splayed out at the bottom to prevent the chair from tipping backward. 1690  FEATURES OF WILLIAM AND MARY FURNITURE ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Upholstery became popular with the stuff over technique. was borrowed from Holland. Gate leg tables. William & Mary Side Table c. Inverted cup turning and tapered trumpet. Apart from the bed. Smaller dining rooms changed the emphasis on dining furniture. which is identified with the Queen Anne Period. ebony. The china cabinet was developed to hold the Queens· hobby. tables and easy chairs were used. Front fall writing cabinets were developed. the daughter of James II to the Dutch William of Orange. The Cabriole leg. 1680The Dutch prince brought with him new ideas of comfort for the ordinary person. collecting delft and oriental porcelain. Bureaux were made strong enough to allow for a bookcase to be added on top for convenience. The bureau with a bookcase was set on stands. Walnut timber was used for furniture. The furniture in his reign saw the first beginnings of real comfort. Back legs matched front legs. satinwood and ivory. which meant the stretcher was gradually phased out. bedroom furniture had not yet taken. but the craftsmen who left their mark on English Furniture history. day beds. Flemish Scroll. 1680The King not only imported ideas from Holland. Cabinets. Elaborate veneering and marquetry replaced carving ² using holly. Oriental lacquer finishes over cheaper timbers became more common. Upholstery became common.

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QUEEN ANNE .

All four of the cabriole legs sit on padded feet. possibly under the influence of the simple and elegant lines of imported Chinese furniture. variations on other Queen Anne-style chairs.    A QUEEN ANNE STYLE FURNITURE is a style of furniture design that developed during and around the reign of Anne. cushioned seats." and examples in common use include "curving shapes. Queen Anne chairs are characterized by vasiform splats and frequently featured a horseshoe shape. In addition to simple curvilinear lines and cabriole leg." In Britain. although Queen Anne reigned earlier.µOther elements characterizing the style include pad feet and "an emphasis on line and form rather than ornament. the style of Queen Anne's reign is frequently described as "late Baroque" rather than "Queen Anne. lighter. are fully upholstered with the exception of the exposed wood legs and jave sides folded inward to keep heat contained within the chair. . But the intricate ornamentation of post-Restoration furniture was abandoned in favour more conservative designs. often found on the crest and knees. The shoulders of the back droop slightly to give a more feminine look to the style. in contrast to the squared shoulders of the masculine King George wingback chair." while in the United States the term "Queen Anne" describes decorative styles from the mid-1720s to around 1760. The cabriole leg has been described as "the most recognizable element" of Queen Anne furniture. and more comfortable than its predecessors. and practical secretary deskbookcase pieces. Queen Anne furniture is "somewhat smaller. The Queen Anne style was a continuation of the William and Mary style of furniture design. the cabriole leg. Queen of Great Britain (1702-1714).[7] Other important decorative elements included carved shell and scroll motifs. Wingback chairs. wing-back chairs. Cabriole legs were influenced by the designs of the French cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle and the Rococo style from the French court of Louis XV .

It is very informal. irregular and asymmetric. very intricate gables. some hated it for its artificiality while other loved for its exuberance. it was more popular among increasing middle classes who just wanted to show their success. a hue of Old European styles. with some Dutch. the style is an admixture of few genuine Queen Anne principles. both in architecture and interior decoration. this style is marked by its picturesque details.  ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES and interior décor was very distinctive in nature and showed off: ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Trends of being classical but with out any proportions Highly hipped roofs Metal painted cupolas over turrets Gables which were straight Hung walls with profusion of tiles Red brick adornment Tri-sided bays White woodwork Sash windows with minor panes in the upper half Fan lights Wrought iron works Decorative terracotta embellishments with designs such as sunflowers . the real response among the designers was inconsistent. Very muted colours were preferred while vibrant colours were out. multi-paned windows and some Japanese elements. they wanted a new look for their houses. ² ² Also known as ´shingle styleµ. delicate furniture was chosen and the style guide was mixed and matched with other styles. How ever. Though popular in Americas during early 1880·s. Fine.‡ QUEEN ANNE style is quite classical. In reality.

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CHIPPENDALE .

a leading York cabinetmaker. Thomas Chippendale ‡ ‡ He was born in Otley. Yorkshire. By 1748 he was established in London and in 1754 he produced the world·s most famous book on furniture: The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker·s Director. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Little is known about his early life. One of his most famous commissions was Dumfries House. but it was this book that turned him into a household name. But his father·s work continues to inspire century furniture makers today. but it is believed he served a family apprenticeship and he was almost certainly employed by Richard Wood. There were over 3000 cabinetmakers in London and they couldn·t understand why Chippendale had given away all his trade secrets. the only child of John. said to be worth £18 million today. in 1718. filling it full of his famous rococo designs. the home of the Fifth Earl of Dumfries. he continued to work for some of the UK·s richest people. the daughter of a stonemason. After his death in 1779 his son Thomas carried on the family business until his bankruptcy in 1804. While lots more people could now afford his designs. It was designed by the Adam Brothers and Chippendale was the interior designer. a joiner and Mary.

Chippendale style is closely related to the earlier Queen Anne style. Chairs. ‡ Chippendale Style Legs: ² Many Chippendale pieces have cabriole legs (the curving design illustrated in the photo shown here). have straight legs but other elements of Chippendale style are still present. The claw-and-ball foot was already passé with English furniture craftsmen at this time. Schwartz. according to American Furniture: Tables. Furniture makers in Philadelphia slanted toward Rococo influence resulting in more elaborately carved legs.‡ Background on Chippendale Style: ² American furniture crafted in the Chippendale style from about 1750-1780 was named after London cabinetmaker Thomas Chippendale's work. but it is important to remember that furniture designs sometimes overlapped as tastes changed. American cabinetmakers from Newport. This style falls within the Colonial period. American furniture made in the Chippendale style was conservative in comparison to English designs from the same timeframe. according to Schwartz. ‡ Chippendale Style Feet: ² American cabinetmakers often incorporated the claw-and-ball foot (as illustrated in the photo shown here) into their Chippendale style designs. Sofas and Beds by Marvin D. such as side chairs and small tables. . Rhode Island often used classically styled reeded or fluted legs as well. Some pieces.

‡ Later Chippendale Styles: ² Many reproductions of the Chippendale style were produced around 1900 during the late-Victorian period. but are not prevalent. ‡ Other Chippendale Style Features: ² Chippendale style settees. ² Shell motifs carrying over from the Queen Anne period may be present (like the one illustrated in the photo shown above).‡ Woods Used in Chippendale Style Pieces: ² The finest Chippendale style pieces were usually crafted from mahogany. although some chairs have less ornate splats. Walnut. stools and chairs were often upholstered with the finest of fabrics. Even today Chippendale influence is found in formal furniture design and manufacturing including the use of cabriole legs and claw-and-ball feet. in comparison they do not have the finely crafted details found in early Chippendale style pieces. ² Top railings on chairs frequently have a yoked shape. . Back splats on arm and side chairs can be intricately pierced. While these are antiques in their own right. cherry and maple were used for less expensive furniture made in this style.

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walnut and oak are usually seen in Queen Anne era pieces. . He took from many sources and incorporated French.Difference Between The Chippendale And Queen Anne Styles? ‡ Elemental and textbook differences can be found in the type of woods used. Chinese and other elements into a completely different view of furniture during his life. Chippendale liked mahogany and the spice route navigators of that day found Cuban wood to be the best. Those styles drew from Dutch architecture since the royal families came from Holland.