Naturalization Act of 1790


Naturalization Act of 1790

Naturalization Act of 1790 was the first immigration law passed by U.S Congress in March 26,1790, that provided the primary rules toward the granting of national citizenship.This law gave the citizenship to only "free white persons" if lived within limits of U.S for 2 years excluding servants, Africans, Asians and slaves. The article said: " It allows individuals to apply for citizenship, if they were "free white people", being of good character and live in United States for 2 years"

Naturalization Act of 1790

Target Group!
The law specifically targeted the Africans and Asians:
Late 1800's - Early 1900's 1960 Native Americans and Africans were rejected citizenship and other rights in U.S. The Asian born were 5 percent of the foreign- born population in U.S and African immigrants were just 0.4 percent of all foreign born in the United States. Since the Immigration and Naturalization act of 1965, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans have migrated to the United States. The African countries immigration increased around 200%. Since the immigration and Naturalization act of 1965, more than 10.6 Million Asian immigrants has increased.

1965 -

1990 to 2000 2009 -

Naturalization Act of 1790

Historical Circumstances!
1773England Stops Emigration to the Colonies; Fines Imposed upon Emigrants and Ship Masters Violating the Law

1781178917901790 -

Articles of Confederation kept citizenship and naturalization of aliens under individual states' control.

Constitution was written United States population was about 4 million The first successful U.S cotton mill was established at the falls of the Blackstone River.

Naturalization Act of 1790
Advocates in Government & Society!
The Federalists were the ones in favor of the Naturalization Act of 1790. ‡
The Federalists like Alexander Hamilton supported this law because they believed a strong government was necessary to provide order so that business and industry could grow.

‡ Hamilton's support for merchants and manufacturers was in favor of the arrival of Europeans who could help in industrialization of U.S. He envisioned America becoming an industrial power.

Naturalization Act of 1790
Opposition in Government & Society!
The Democratic-Republican Party was the one who opposed the Naturalization Act of 1790.
‡ The Anti-Federalists & Thomas Jefferson opposed the Act, because they wanted the small central government which could reduce the power of Federalist. ‡ The Anti-Federalists were in favor of the protection of individuals freedom and they also feared a flood of merchants who would keep down the common farmer- citizens and support the Federalist Party. ‡ American citizens at that time in US were fearful that the foreigners would take away their rights just like England did.

Naturalization Act of 1790 Effects of the Law!
‡ Considering the French Revolution's reign of terror and opposition among Federalists and Democratic- Republicans (Anti- Federalists), some Anti- Federalists even wanted to overthrow the Federalists. This all led to the passage of the Alien and Sedition acts.


The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists that were signed into law by president John Adams.

‡ US Government considered Aliens (immigrants) as a danger to a nation.
‡ The Naturalization Act limited the freedom of speech and increased the residency requirement for American citizenship to fourteen years.

Naturalization Act of 1790

‡ The Act of 1790 was superseded by the Naturalization Act of 1795. It extended the residence requirement to five years. ‡ The Naturalization Act of 1870 extended citizenship to African who were born in the United States. ‡ The 1952 Naturalization Act prohibited racial and gender discrimination in naturalization. ‡ The 15th Amendment in 1868 granted citizenship to people born within the United States regardless of their parents' race, citizenship, or place of birth. ‡ The 1898 Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, granted citizenship to an Chinese who born in American with Chinese parents,and in order to extending citizenship to Asian born in the U.S.

Naturalization Act of 1790

Connection to Today!
‡ The repeal of Naturalizaion act in 1795 is very important because it affected many laws, and change the citizenship policy over the time and some part of it still exists today (getting citizenship in 5 yrs). ‡ This law allowed the U.S to become the world's best country in terms of success, power and dignity because of the various immigrants with various talents and skills. ‡ Ex: Steve Wozniak is the son of Polish immigrants.

Naturalization Act of 1790

Debate Question! What our nation would look like if the Alien and Sedition Acts were not passed?

Naturalization Act of 1790

"Naturalization Act of 1790" "Migration Information Source" "Alien and Sedition Acts" "Naturalization Act (1790)" "Historical Timeline" "Hamilton Vs. Jefferson"

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