SOLID
MECHANICS
CONTINUUM
MECHANICS
3D
(SOLID)
2D
(TRUSS)
1D
(BAR)
ELEMENT
FORMULATION FOR
FEM
ASSUMPTIONS
Deformations are small
Behavior of material is linear
Dynamic effects are neglected
No gaps or overlaps occur during the
deformation of the solid
1 DIMENSIONAL
Ex: Elastic bar
(linear stress analysis/ linear elasticity)
? To find stress distribution((x)) in bar
deformation (x)
displacement of points (u(x))
STRONG FORM
Equation and boundary for physical system
Partial differential equations (ordinary
differential equation1D)
WEAK FORM
Integral equation of strong form
Formulate FEM
STRONG FORM WEAK FORM
DISCRETE EQUATIONS
APPROXIMATION OF FUNCTIONS
Bar condition
1. Equilibrium
2. Elastic stressstrain law
3. Displacement compatible
4. Satisfy strain displacement equation
Equilibrium eq. of int. force(p(x)) and ext force(b(x)) in x axis
direction
l b
dx
du
AE
x
x x E x
x
u
x
x u x x u
x
x x A x p
x A
x p
x
x b
x
x p
x
x b
x
x p x x p
x x p x
x
x b x p
= +
<
A
A +
=
= > =
= +
=
A
+ +
A
A +
= A + + A
A
+ +
x 0 0 ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( 
) (
) (
) (
0 ) (
) (
0 )
2
(
) ( ) (
0 ) ( )
2
( ) (
I W
I
W W
Divide with x
Limit x=0
stress
strain
Hooks Law
2
nd
order ordinary diff. eq
STRONG FORMSOLUTIONS
CLUE  either LOAD or DISPLACEMENT at boundary (2 ends)
Essential boundary condition/ Displacement boundary
condition
x=l or u(x=l)=u
Natural boundary condition/traction boundary condition
x=0
unknown is u(x)
(data) given are and ,
) (
) 0 (
0 ) (
0
b u t
u l x u
t
dx
du
E x
b
dx
du
AE
dx
d
x
= =
=
'
+
'
= =
= +
=
W
STRONG
FORM
t
A
p
dx
du
E
x
= =
'
+
'
=
=
) 0 (
) 0 (
) 0 (
0
W
Traction (stress) bound.
Cond. (natural)
Disp. bound. Cond. (essential)
Governing strong form eq.
WEAK FORM
What?
 Restated a partial diff eq. into integral form (a trial solution)
How to create ??
1. For governing eq. Multiply w(x) and integrate with domain(0,l)
2. For trace boundary multiply w(x)A at x=0 (no integral bcoz only
holds at point)
w(x) is weight /test/arbitrary function where w(l) =0
w t
dx
du
E wA
w dx b
dx
du
AE
dx
d
w
x
l
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
=
'
+
'
0
0
0
0
(1)
Some restriction on weak form
denotes that w(x) is an arbitrary fn
weight fn enforcer to be zero by its arbitrariness
we did not enforce boundary cond. It is easy to construct trial or
candidate solutions u(x) that satisfy displacement condition
Now, transform into the form containing first derivatives. That will
lead to a symmetric stiffness matrix and simplify the treatment of
traction boundary
Second derivation of u(x) need smooth trial solution(easy to
construct by 1 D)
The trial solution that satisfy WEAK FORM is the solution of the
STRONG FORM
A trial solutions that is smooth and satisfies the essential boundary
cond. admissible
A weight function that is smooth and vanishes on essential bound.
admissible
w
MATH
=
=
= > + =
= =
l
x l x
l
l
l
l l l
dx
dx
dw
f wf wf dx
dx
dw
f wf dx
dx
df
w
dx
dx
dw
f dx wf
dx
d
dx
dx
df
w
dx
dw
f wf
dx
d
dx
df
w
dx
dw
f
dx
df
w wf
dx
d
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (   ) (
Rearrange the Weak Form EQ where f=AE(du/dx)
'
+
'
'
+
'
l
l
l
dx
dx
du
AE
dx
dw
dx
du
wA dx
dx
du
AE
dx
d
w
0 0 0
Rewrite and subtitute stress, =AEdu/dx
= = +
= =
l l
x l x
l w wbdx dx
dx
du
AE
dx
dw
wA wA
0 0
0
0 ) ( with w 0 ) ( ) ( W W
For w(l)=0, and Second term of eq (1), (wAt)
x=0
= + =
=
l
x
l
l w wbdx t wA dx
dx
du
AE
dx
dw
0
0
0
0 ) ( with w ) (
(x=0)=t
WEAK
FORM
Arbitrary Boundary condition
Boundary of 1D which consists of two end points is denoted by
Boundary for displacement
u
Boundary for traction
t
The traction and displacement both cannot be prescribed at the same boundary
u
8
t
=0
u
t
=0
Unit normal to the body as, n where n=1 at x=0 and n=+1 at x=l
Notation of indicates any limits of integration
Admissible weight Fn.
And H is infinite dimensional set
u
on
on
0 0 ) (
+ =
+ =
'
+
'
=
= +
u u
t
dx
du
En n
l x b
dx
du
AE
dx
d
t
W
+ =
+
;
l
o
U w wbdx t wA dx
dx
du
AE
dx
dw
t
0
) (
_
u
w H x w x w U + = = on 0 , ) ( ) (
1
0
STRONG FORM
WEAK FORM
DISCRETIZATION
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
=
l
T
T
l
l w w bdx w dx
dx
du
AE
dx
dw
0
0 x
T
0
0 ) ( with A) t (w 
The procedure
1. Evaluate the weak form for FE trial solutions and weight fn.
2. By invoking the arbitrariness of the weight fn. Deduce a set of linear algebraic eq.
3. Use transpose of weight fn as w(x) is scalar and for consistency
Global
The FE weight fn.
w(x)w
h
(x)=N(x)w
Where N(x)= matrix shape fn
w(x)=w
1
N
1
(x)+w
2
N
2
(x)+w
3
N
3
(x)
The trial solution
u(x) u
h
(x)=N(x)d
Where u(x)=u
1
N
1
+u
2
N
2
+u
3
N
3
Replace the weak form over the entire domain by sum of
integrals over the element domains.
0
2
1
2
1
1
=
,

'
+
'
'
+
'
=
=
e
e
e
e
el
x
x
e eT eT
e
e e
T
x
x
e
n
e
A t w bdx w dx
dx
du
E A
dx
dw
0 x
) ( 
E to indicate
element
element ,e, weight fn. and trial fn
eT eT
T
e
eT eT eT
e e
e
e e e
dx
dw
w
dx
du
x u
B w N w
d B d N
=
'
+
'
=
= =
,
, ) (
Substitute element weight fn. and trial fn
0 ) (
0
1
2
1
2
1
=
,

=
=
+
;
x
e eT
x
x
eT e e e e
x
x
eT
n
e
eT
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
el
t A bdx dx E A
f
f
K
N N d B B w
;
= =
e
e
e
dx E A dx E A
e e e eT e e e
x
x
eT e
B B B B K
2
1
e
e
t
e
e
e
t A bdx t A bdx
e eT eT
x
e eT
x
x
eT e
+
;
+
;
=
+ = + =
f
f
N N N N f
e
) ( ) (
0
2
1
ELEMENT STIFNESS MATRIX &
ELEMENT EXTERNAL FORCE MATRIX
Element stiffness matrix Element external force matrix
Element & Global matrix relationship
Element and global matrix relation
w
e
=L
e
w d
e
=L
e
d
Substitutes into weak form of element
domains;
0
1 1
=
'
+
'
= =
el el
n
e
n
e
e eT e e eT T
f L d L K L w
Global/assembled stiffness matrix Global/assembled external force matrix
=
=
el
n
e
e e eT
1
L K L K
=
=
el
n
e
e eT
1
f L f
Resubtitute into eq
0 0
0 ) ( 0 ) (
1
1
= = =
= = =
w w
l w w w
T
T
except r w , f Kd r
except f Kd w
Where r is called the residual
2 Dimensional
KINEMATICS (STRAIN DISPLACEMENT RELATION)
Displacement in matrix and vector form,
j u i u u
u
u
y x
y
x
T T
T
+ =
= u ,
Strain and shear strain
2
E E K
I I
+ =
=
1
,
y
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
y
xy
y
yy
x
xx
strain vs displacement eq.
\ = \ =
=
y
x
s s
xy
yy
xx
x
u
u
u
K
I
I
I
= \
\
x
y
y
x
is Where
S
s
/
/
0
/
0
/
operator matrix gradient symmetric a
STRESS AND TRACTION
Stress component matrix for 2D
=
yy
xy
xy
xx
W
W
W
W
X
Unit normal to the surface, n
j n i n n
y x
T T
T
+ =
The force equilibrium of triangular body shown in Fig. 9.14
0
T
T T
T
= + dx dy d t
y x
W W
Dividing by d and noting that dy=n
x
d and dx=n
y
d
0
T
T T
T
=
y y x x
n n t W W
Multiply by unit vectors i and j
n n n t
n n n t
y y yy x xy y
x y xy x xx x
T T
T T
.
.
W W W
W W W
= + =
= + =
Stress and Traction in matrix form
n t =
EQUILIBRIUM
Figure 9.5 shows body force and the surface traction acting in the xyplane
Body force and traction vectors are written as
0 ) , (
2
,
2
, ,
2
,
2
= A A + A
'
+
'
A
+ + A
'
+
'
A
A
'
+
'
A
+ + A
'
+
'
A
y x y x b x
x
y x x
x
y x y y
x
x y y
x
x
y y x x
T
T T T T
W W W W
The equilibrium equation is given by
j t i t t j b i b b
y x y x
T T T T T
T
+ = + = ,
Dividing the above eq. by xy, taking limit as x 0, y0,
0 , 0
0
= + \ = + \
= +
y y y x
y
x
b b
j i b
y x
W W
W
W
T T
T T
T
T
T
form; vector the in
and vector unit by multiple and
or
0 b = + \
T
S
Equilibrium Eq.
CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION (STRESS & STRAIN EQ)
Hookes Law
D =
Matrix D will depends on whether one assumes a plane stress or a plane strain.
Plane strainthe body is thick relative to xy plane
strain normal to plane
z,
is zero
shear strain that involves angles normal to plane,
xz
&
yz
are assumed to vanish
Plane stressthe body is thin relative to dimensions in xy plane.
no loads are applied on z faces, stress normal to xy plane,
zz
is vanish
For isotropic 2D
+
=
=
2 / ) 2 1 ( 0 0
0 1
0 1
) 2 1 )( 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 0 0
0 1
0 1
1
2
v
v v
v v
v v
v
v
v
v
E
E
D
D
Plane stress
Plane strain
STRONG & WEAK FORMS
Equilibrium Eq., Kinematics Eq., Constitutive Eq. with a boundary condition as
+ = + + = + + =
t t u
7 +
T
u u
and on u u , 0
u
t y x
T
on d)
on and c)
u D b)
on a)
+ =
+ = =
\ =
; = + \ = + \
u u
t n t n
b b
y x
y y y x
T T
T T
T T
W W
W
W W 0 , 0
STRONG FORM
To obtain weak form, define weight fn. and trial fn. Using Greens theorem and finally
_ a
_ a, ,
, ,
1
0
1
0
u
u
w H U
H U where
U w w w w
+ = =
+ = =
; + + = ; \ \
; +
on 0 u u
on u u u u
bd d t ud D ) (
T
T
s
T
s
t
WEAK FORM
DISCRETIZATION
Global nodal displacement matrix
? A
np np
yn xn y x y x
u u u u u u ...
2 2 1 1
= d
Element trial solution
Element weight fn.
Element shape fn.
Weak form over element domains
e
Express the strain in terms of element shape fn. and nodal displacement
e e e e
(x,y) y x y x y x ; = < d N u u ) , ( ) , ( ) . (
e e eT eT T
(x,y) y x y x y x ; = < N w w w ) , ( ) , ( ) . (
=
e
nen
e e
e
nen
e e
N N N
N N N
0 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
2 1
2 1
N
0
1
=
,

; + ; \ \
=
; + ;
nel
e
eT eT e
s
e eT
s
e e
t
e
d d d b w t w u D w
e e e e
s
e
s
e
xy
yy
xx
d B d N u = \ = \ = <
= I
K
I
I
I
Strain displacement matrix, B
e
Element stiffness matrix
Element external force matrix
Weak form
;
; =
e
d E A
e e e eT e
B B K
e
e
t
e
f
f
t N N f
+ =
;
;
d bdx
eT eT e
e
F
n
e
e eT
n
e
e e eT T
el el
 L K L w f L d w
f K
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
= =
0
1 1
= \ =
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
e
n
e
n
e e e e
e
n
e e
e
n
e e
e s e
en en
en
en
...
0 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 1
N B
Where, weight fn are
eT eT T e e T e
s
B w w B w = = \ ) ( ) (
F
T
F
T
w
w
= =
=
r w , f Kd r
f Kd w
0
0 ) (
General Equation
3D2D1D
Entity Domain Boundary
One Dimension(1D)
Two Dimensions(2D)
Three Dimension(3D)
Line Segment
Two dimensional area
Volume
Two end points
Curve
Surface
3D
0 b
= + \
= \
T
s
yz
xz
xy
zz
yy
xx
T
s
y x z
z x y
z y x
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
=
= =
z
y
x
z
y
x
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
n
n
n
t
t
t
n t
n t
T
W W W
W W W
W W W
X
X X
Equilibrium
Stresstraction relation
Straindisplacement relation
Isotropic Hookes Law
? A ? A
z y x
T
yx xz xy zz yy xx
s
u u u
u
= =
\ =
u I I I I I I I
I
D
D
+
=
=
2
2 1
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
2 1
0 0 0 0
0 0
2
2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
) 2 1 )( 1 (
v
v
v
v v v
v v v
v v v
v v
E