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Chapter 3

Information Encoding, Errors Detection and Correction

Note: Note: Data can be corrupted during transmission. For reliable communication, errors must be detected and corrected.

10.1 Types of Error

Single-Bit Error Burst Error

Note: Note: In a single-bit error, only one bit in the data unit has changed.

10.1 Single-bit error

Note: Note: A burst error means that 2 or more bits in the data unit have changed.

Burst errors :
 Due

to external interference like lightning which last for several seconds.  Parity checking method is not useful for burst errors.

10.2 Burst error of length 5

Types of error
 Content

errors: Error in the contents of message, 1 may become 0 and vice versa integrity errors : missing blocks of data or delivered to wrong destination.

 Flow

Error Detection
 Error

detection is the ability to detect the presence of errors caused by noise or other impairments during transmission from the transmitter to the receiver.  Error correction is the additional ability to reconstruct the original, error free data.

Need of error control code


 Error

are introduced during transmission of

data.  Reliability of data transmission is effected due to these errors.  One or more data bits are added to data to detect errors.

Error control techniques


 Error

detection techniques  Error correction techniques

Error detection
code word  Received code word  Number of errors  Distance  Transmitted

10101100 11101100 1 1

FEC
 Searches

for most likely correct keyword.  When error is detected then the distance between received word and all possible valid words is measured.  The nearest valid code word is the most likely correct version of the received code word.

Backward Error Correction


 Receiver

detects error and sends a request for retransmission.  It imposes less bandwidth overhead than FEC but requires more time.  It is suitable when errors are less and bandwidth needs to be optimized.

Note: Note: Error detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra bits for detecting errors at the destination.

10.4 Detection methods

Parity
 MSB

is parity bit, other all 7 bits are data

bits.  Parity can either even or odd.

Parity bits
 Even

parity means the number of 1s in the given word including the parity bit should be even (2, 4, 6, ...)  Odd parity means the number of 1s in the given word including the parity bit should be odd (1, 3, 5, ...)

Note: Note: In parity check, a parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of 1s is even (or odd for odd-parity).

Example 1
Suppose the sender wants to send the word world. In ASCII the five characters are coded as 1110111 1101111 1110010 1101100 1100100

The following shows the actual bits sent


11101110 11011110 11100100 11011000 11001001

Example 2
Now suppose the word world in Example 1 is received by the receiver without being corrupted in transmission. 11101110 11011110 11100100 11011000 11001001 The receiver counts the 1s in each character and comes up with even numbers (6, 6, 4, 4, 4). The data are accepted.

Note: Note: Simple parity check can detect all singlesingle-bit errors. It can detect burst errors only if the total number of errors in each data unit is odd.

Note: Note: In two-dimensional parity check, a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block.

Figure 10.15 Division in CRC encoder

Figure 10.16 Division in the CRC decoder for two cases

10.8 Binary division in a CRC generator

10.9 Binary division in CRC checker

10.10 A polynomial

10.11 A polynomial representing a divisor

Data unit and checksum

Note: Note:
The sender follows these steps:
The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits. All sections are added using ones complement to get the sum. The sum is complemented and becomes the checksum. The checksum is sent with the data.

Note: Note:
The receiver follows these steps:
The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits. All sections are added using ones complement to get the sum. The sum is complemented. If the result is zero, the data are accepted: otherwise, rejected.

Example 7
Suppose the following block of 16 bits is to be sent using a checksum of 8 bits. 10101001 00111001 The numbers are added using ones complement 10101001 00111001 -----------11100010 00011101 10101001 00111001 00011101

Sum Checksum

The pattern sent is

Example 8
Now suppose the receiver receives the pattern sent in Example 7 and there is no error. 10101001 00111001 00011101 When the receiver adds the three sections, it will get all 1s, which, after complementing, is all 0s and shows that there is no error. 10101001 00111001 00011101 Sum Complement 11111111 00000000 means that the pattern is OK.

Hamming Code:
find errors using Hamming code method we have to use parity check method.  Parity check method can be even or odd parity.
 To

Positions of redundancy bits in Hamming code

10.15 Redundancy bits calculation

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