Environmental Pollution

Unit - 4

P. Ravindra Babu, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Biotechnology, Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology
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Definition-Pollution
POLLUTION : It is defined as an excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (air, water, and land ) making it less fit or unfit for life.

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Air Pollution

human beings and materials SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 4 . animals .What is air pollution? Air pollution may be defined as the presence of impurities in excess quantity (concentrations) and duration in the atmosphere to cause adverse effects on plants.

Helium. Hydrogen. ‡ Air pollution levels can be PPM or µg/m3 expressed either as SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 5 .Composition of Air: ‡ Major ± Nitrogen (N2). Xenon etc.54 gm/cc. Oxygen (02) ‡ Minor ± Argon (Ar) Carbondioxide (Co2) ‡ Trace ± Neon(Ne). Methane. ‡ Density of air is 1. Krypton.

y ANTHROPOGENIC: Burning of fossil fuels. forest fires. etc. sand storms. automobile exhausts. Hydrogen sulphide. warfares etc. domestic wastes.. industrial growth. agricultural activities. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 6 .Sources of Air Pollution y NATURAL SOURCES: Volcanic eruptions. and methane from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter.

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Types of Air Pollutants Air pollutants are generally grouped into the following two types: 1) Particulate pollutants 2) Gaseous pollutants SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 8 .

fog. Particulates can be composed of materials ranging in size smaller than 1 micron. They can be suspended droplets or solid particles or mixture of the two. Eg.Particulate pollutants The term ³particulate´ refers to all atmospheric substances which are not gases. smoke. Mist. are the SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 9 . Dust.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 10 . and are found there in the form in which they are emitted. ‡ PRIMARY AIR POLLUTANTS: There are directly emitted to the atmosphere.CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS ‡ On the basis of origin. air pollutants can be divided into Primary air pollutants and secondary air pollutants.

Methane (Marsh gas) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 11 . Sulphur dioxide (SO2). Carbon disulphide (CS2) Dimethyl sulphide [CH3S). Carbon monoxide ‡ SULPHUR COMPOUNDS: Carbonyl Sulphide (COS). and sulphate (S02-4) HYDROCARBONS: Benzene.‡ CARBON COMPOUNDS: Carbon dioxide. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S).

NO2. Asbestos. Mercury. Carbon tetra chloride. Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAH3) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 12 . Lead. Cadmium. Nickel.N20 ‡ METALS: Zinc. Berylium. ‡ TOXIC SUBSTANCES: Arsenic. Copper.‡ OXIDES OF NITROGEN (NOX): NO. Chromium.

Uranium-232.222. Carboxylic acids. ‡ Finer Particles (Less than 100µ in diameter.‡ ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Aldehydes. Organic sulphur compounds etc. Plutonium -239. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 13 .) ‡ Coarse Particles (Greater than 100 µ in diameter). Ketones. strontium 90. ‡ Radioactive compounds: Radium.

y Photochemical smog (coal induced. when water droplets are present in the atmosphere. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 14 .SECONDARY AIR POLLUTANTS y There are produced in air by interaction among two or more primary pollutants or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents (Chemical or Photochemical reactions) y Ozone formaldehyde PAN (Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate). H202 organic peroxides) y Formation of Acid mist (H2SO4 )due to reaction of sulphur dioxide and dissolved oxygen.

SECONDARY AIR POLLUTANTS SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 15 .

NOx Noise.. (Rotating . Cox . glass) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 16 . SO x.Organic Vapors. smoke. Sulphuroxides. (Ceramic Manufacture.‡ Sources Pollutants Power Plants ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Thermal Power Plants Nuclear Power Plants Hydro Power Plants Diesel generators Smoke. H2S . C-14 etc Methane from water logged area HC. smelting . Argon Sr ± 90. ‡ Non-Metallic Minerals ««. dust.. Mineral and Organic Particulates. Industries ‡ Non-Ferrous Metallurgical«. CO.fluorides. CO. CO2. refiring)«. CS-137.

dimethyl sulphide SO2 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Agriculture ‡ Spraying Pesticides. trucks. mercaptans. H2S. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 17 . lead. and Co. olefin paraffin etc. aircrafts. trains. ‡ fungicides Organic phosphates chlorinated hydrocarbon organic lead.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transportation: Automobiles (bike. Particulate Matter. methyl mercaptans. cars.) Pulp and paper (Kraft Process) HCS.

including irreplaceable buildings.Effects of Air Pollutants ‡ ACID RAIN: ‡ Acid rain is a serious environmental problem that affects large parts of the world. acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints. streams. statues. Acid rain is particularly damaging to lakes. forests and the plants and animals that live in these ecosystems. ‡ In addition. and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 18 .

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‡ erode buildings ‡ Alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils.‡ contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids ‡ contaminate drinking water and vegetation. ‡ damage aquatic life. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 20 .

Radio active Isotopes causes anemia (iron deficiency) leukemia (RBC deficiency).Effect on Humans: On An average man breathes 22. Nose. respiratory tract irritation Co(g) is a poisonous gas (hemoglobin + CO Illness and death Hydrogen fluoride causes florosis. cancer. Kidney and can cause abnormality in fertility and pregnancy. throat. genetic defects SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 21 Carboxyhaemoglobin) .silicosis (associated with silica dust) Asbestosis (associated with asbestos dust) Lead (from vehicles) Its high concentration can damage. Eye.000 times a day and takes in 16Kg of air each day. Dust . liver. and mottling of teeth.

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black. red spots on leaves ‡ Epinasty: Rapid growth of upper side of the leaves ‡ Chlorosis: Loss of green plant pigment chlorophyll (Yellow leaves) ‡ Abscission: Dropping of leaves. purple. ‡ Pigmented lesions: dark brown.Effect on Vegetation : ‡ Necrosis : Killing of tissues. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 23 .

Necrosis Epinasty Chlorosis SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 Abscission 24 .

‡ eroding of building surfaces. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 25 . ‡ fading of dyed materials.Effect on Materials ‡ Corrosion of metals. ‡ rubber cracking.

50 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3 1.0 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 70 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 50 µg/m3 75 µg/m3 0.0 µg/m3 1.Pollutant Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Respirable ** Particulate Matter (RPM) Lead (pb) Carbon Monoxide(CO) NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS* Concentration in Ambient Air Time Residential.0 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 140 µg/m3 200 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 0. Government of India notification.00 µg/m3 2.0 µg/m3 SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 26 * Ministry of Environment and Forests.75 µg/m3 1.0 µg/m3 4.5 µg/m3 5.1994 ** Particle size less than 10 µm . Weighted Industrial Sensitive Rural and Average Area Area other Annual 24 hours Annual 24 hours Annual 24 hours Annual 24 hours Annual 24 hours 8 hours 1 hour 80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 360 µg/m3 500 µg/m3 120 µg/m3 150 µg/m3 1.0 µg/m3 2.0 µg/m3 10.

like a stream or river. Gravitational Settling: Particles larger than 20µm in size settle down. that is enough to settle under gravity. Flocculation : Larges particles act as receptor for smaller ones to form a unit.Control of Air Pollutants Atmospheric self-clearing Processes: The atmosphere. has natural built in self clearing processes. the process is repeated until a small floc is formed. Dispersion: Wind decreases the concentration of Pollutants at any place. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 27 .

or fibrous medium.Devices used to Control Air Pollutants: (i) Setttling Chamber : . (iv) electrostatic precipitators: They utilize electric energy to assist in removal of particulate matter. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 28 . cellulose may be used as separators. like mats of wool. (iii) Filters: Cloth fabric.To collect solid particles (ii) Cyclone precipitator: Centrifugal forces tend to drive the suspended particles to the wall of the cyclone body.

Settling Chamber SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 29 .

Cyclone Precipitator SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 30 .

Electrostatic precipitators: SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 31 .

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 32 .Water Pollution Definition : ‡ The presence of foreign substances or impurities (Organic. inorganic. radiological or biological) in water making it unsuitable or unfit for use and cause health hazard..

Barium. ‡ Toxic Metals or Heavy Metals ‡ Asbestos ‡ Radioactivity SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 33 . Virus.Major pollutants and their sources ‡ BIOLOGICAL IMPURITIES: Bacteria. Sulfates. and Parasites ‡ INORGANIC IMPURITIES: Dirt and Sediment or Turbidity ‡ Total Dissolved Solids -Nitrates. and Fluoride. Copper. Sodium.

ORGANIC IMPURITIES: ‡ Tastes and Odors ‡ Pesticides and Herbicides ‡ Toxic Organic Chemicals ‡ Chlorine -.Trihalomethanes (THM's) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 34 .

under ground mines. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 35 .Causes of Water Pollution Two major causes:  Point sources and  Nonpoint (diffused )sources. Point sources: ‡ Those sources which can be identified at a single location. ‡ Industrial Effluents. Power Plants. Sewerage systems. offshore oil wells.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 36 .Non point sources: sources: ‡ They are the sources of generalized discharge of waste water whose location cannot be easily identified. acid rain deposition from the atmosphere. ‡ Leachate from municipal. industrial landfill sites and agricultural lands. ‡ subsurface flow. soil erosion. ‡ Eg: Run off into surface water.

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International Standards of minerals in Water Substance Ca Mg SO4 NO3 Chlorides Fluoride CaCO3 Desirable limit (Requirement) Mg/l 75 30 200 45 250 1.0 300 Permissible limit (mg/l) 200 100 400 100 1000 1.5 600 SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 39 .

temp. COD Toxic Chemical Effects.Fluoride Chemical Nutrient Effects Eutrophication Micro Organism Effects Radio Nuclide Effects SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 40 .Effects of Water Pollution ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Physical Effects ± color.pH Oxidation Effects ± BOD.

BOD Level (in ppm) 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Water Quality Very Good Moderate Fairly Polluted Very Polluted SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 41 .

Eutrophication SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 42 .

‡ Developing of proper sewage and industrial effluent systems can reduce incoming point source of pollution SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 43 .Control of Water Pollution ‡ Input Control: Pollutants should be prevented from being generated in the first place. ‡ Output Control: To control the pollutant and /or its effect after it has been produced.

‡ Aforestation. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 44 .‡ Domestic and industrial waste waters should be disposed of after treatment to the required level.

Waste water treatment methods ‡ Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP) ‡ Sewage Treatment plants (STP) ‡ Common and combined treatment Plants (CETP) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 45 .

toxic and non toxic materials . debris. polymers etc.Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP) ‡ It is designed to treat Industrial waste water to a standard acceptable ‡ To remove high amounts of contaminants like organics. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 46 .

The final treatment filtration cum absorption takes place by filters. ± secondary bio-treatment. It consists of three stages namely: ± primary treatment. the processed water goes for advance treatment and we get usable water which can be used further for irrigation and other purposes SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 47 ‡ ‡ . and settling. ‡ The effluent water is passed through various processes such as chemical dosing.‡ ‡ Effluent treatment plant is based on the aerobic respiration method. aeration. Finally. and ± tertiary treatment.

" ‡ The tanks are used to settle sludge while grease and oils rise to the surface and are skimmed off SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 48 . sewage flows through large tanks.Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) Primary Treatment ± ‡ Primary sedimentation stage. commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary sedimentation tanks.

organic short-chain carbon molecules. food waste. sugars.‡ Secondary treatment ‡ It is designed to degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste. ‡ The bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e. etc.g. fats. soaps and detergent.) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 49 .

‡ Fixed-film or attached growth systems include trickling filters and rotating biological contactors. ‡ Suspended-growth systems include activated sludge.‡ Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems. where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. where the biomass is mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed-film systems that treat the same amount of water SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 50 .

‡ Filtration over activated carbon.‡ Tertiary treatment -Filtration ‡ Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter. also called carbon adsorption. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 51 . removes residual toxins.

resulting in the reduction of its fertility (or productivity) with respect to the Qualitative and Quantitative yield of the crops. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 52 .Soil Pollution ‡ Definition : Contamination of the soil by considerable quantities of chemical or other substances.

sugar factories. textile mills. tanneries. mining . . steel industry. Chemical Industries.cement. ‡ Industrial waste mainly consists of organic compounds along with inorganic complexes and non biodegradable SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 53 materials. Oil refineries. distilleries.Sources of soil pollution ‡ Industrial Wastes: Pulp and paper mills. coal.

Uranium. Radium. Thorium.‡ Radioactive pollutants:. ‡ Some plants such as lichen and mushroom can accumulate Cs-137 and other radio nuclides which concentrate in grazing animals. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 54 . Carbon (C-14).Explosion of nuclear devices.

Ammonium nitrate.‡ Agricultural Practices: A wide range of agrochemicals are currently used by farmers to sustain food production ‡ Fertilizers: ‡ Nitrogen ± Urea. ‡ Phosphorus ± Potassium phosphate. Sulphate of Potash. Ammonium phosphate. ‡ Potassium ± Potassium nitrate. Ammonium Chloride. ‡ Pesticides: Chlorinated hydrocarbon Pesticide ± endosulfan. Ammonium. Metoxychlor. Sulphate. ‡ Organochlorine Pesticide ± DDT SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 55 .

Salmonella typhosa.‡ Biological agents: ‡ Pathogenic Microorganism present in the soil decrease soil fertility. ‡ Viruses ± Adenoviruses. Enteroviruses. Physical texture of soil. Leptospira. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 56 . ‡ Bacteria ± Mycobacterium.

Effect of soil pollution ‡ Soil acidification is the accumulation of acid in the soil. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 57 . ‡ However. ‡ It is a natural process which. operates over many thousands of years. under agricultural management. in natural ecosystems. acidification can accelerate with the rate of change being detectable over decades.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 58 . ‡ Soil organic matter contains acidic groups. ‡ Acidity is measured by determining the pH of a soil.‡ Increasing the organic matter content of the soil can acidify soil.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 59 . ‡ Most farming systems acidify the soil at a rate of 100-200 kg lime/ha/yr although crops are generally more acidifying than pastures.‡ Usually the rate of acidification is expressed as the amount of lime needed to neutralise the acid load generated each year (kg lime/ha/yr).

0. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 60 .g. calcium. molybdenum. some nutrients may become less available (e. potassium.g. manganese). aluminium. magnesium. copper) while other elements can reach toxic levels (e.‡ When soil pH falls below 5. ‡ Microbial processes that facilitate nutrient recycling can be reduced and the ability of plants to use subsoil moisture limited as a result of stunted root growth. becomes more acidic. phosphorus. the activity of soil fauna such as earthworms is also reduced. ‡ As soil.

K+.‡ Salinization: ‡ Soil salinization is the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation. ‡ high levels of salt in the soils ‡ landscape features that allow salts to become mobile (movement of water table) ‡ climatic trends that favor accumulation ‡ The ions responsible for salination are: Na+. Ca2+. Mg2+ and Cl- SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 61 .

Marine Pollution 
The sea, which covers around 70 per cent of the earth's surface, is home to millions of fish, mammals, microorganisms, and plants. It is a vital source of food for both animals and people. Thousands of birds rely on the sea for their daily food supplies. Fishermen throughout the world catch over 62 90 SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 million tonnes of fish every year.

Definition: Degradation of the marine environment as a result of contamination of some sort by chemicals, biological agents, sediment and radiation.

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Sources of marine pollution
‡ Point source: ‡ Any pollution from a confined and discrete conveyance, such as pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, well. ‡ It is clearly discernable in terms of origin (municipal sewage outfall, oil tanker spills, offshore oil well blowouts)
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marine debris.Non-point-source pollution: It is ill-defined or diffused sources. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 65 . urban runoff. air pollution. forestry. runoff (harbors) agriculture.

‡ This leads to pollution by sewage. fungicides. and by dumping of radioactive waste into sea. ‡ Dumping of plastic packing material into the sea. agricultural waste. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 66 . by discharge of oils and petroleum products. garbage. pesticides.‡ It is believed that everything that is carried away by rivers ultimately ends up in seas. and heavy metals.

The following are the lengths of time it takes several forms of litter to biodegrade: Materials Tin cans Painted wood Newspaper Paper towels Disposable diapers Time to degrade 50 years 13 years 6 weeks 2-4 weeks 450 years Materials Wool Plastic six pack rings Plastic bottles Aluminium cans Cotton Time to degrade 1 year 400+ years 450 years 200 years 1-5 months Polystyrene foam Indefinite! SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 67 .

Effects of Marine pollution Two basic ways by which chemical contaminants can affect living marine resources: ‡ 1. ‡ 2. By contaminating those fisheries resources that other species. including humans. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 68 . By directly affecting the exposed organism¶s own health and survival. may consume.

dispersants.Control of Marine Pollution ‡ The oil can be collected off the water surface by specialized oil skimming barges. emulsion breakers. ‡ Bioremediation : It is a process by which the degradation of organic chemical contaminants occurs as a result of biochemical activity of micro organisms. and manual mopping. poly isobutylene based recovery aids that convert oil into more easily handled visco elastic substance. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 69 . floating absorbents such as straw and saw dust. and preventors (demoussifiers). ‡ Chemical Control: Sinking agents such as chalk. surface pumps.

NOISE POLLUTION .

rhythm and the mood of the person. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 71 . duration. namely air .water and soil. ‡ It annoys and hurts people both psychologically and physiologically.‡ Any loud sound which is unpleasant and unwanted is commonly referred to as noise. ‡ Noise is a physical form of pollution and is not directly harmful to the life supporting systems. ‡ It depends upon its loudness.

Units of Measurements ‡ Two properties of sound are important. ‡ The unit for measurement of intensity is Decible. ‡ One Decibel is the smallest change of sound intensity which an average healthy human ear can perceive. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 72 . namely the pitch or frequency and Intensity or pressure or energy (loudness). ‡ ‡ Pitch or frequency refers to the rate of vibrations of the sound and is measured in Hertz (Hz).

Metal works. ‡ During advertisements: Household gagadgets: Vaccum cleaners. radio. TV. printing press. ‡ Agricultural Machines: Tractors. Harverters. Mosque etc. tillers SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 73 . elections. stereo.etc. worships in temples. engineering works etc.‡ Stationary sources: ‡ Industrial sources : Textile. ‡ Use of loudspeakers on various occasions like festivals. grinder.

Sources of Noise ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mobile Sources: Road traffic Air traffic Railways Navigation ‡ Motor Cycle 94(dB) ‡ (2-Cylinder 4 ±stroke) ‡ Scooter (1Cylinder 2 stroke) 80 db SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 74 .

Effects of Noise pollution ‡ It effects on hearing ability. ‡ If these cells are subjected to repeated sounds of high intensity they can be permanently damaged leading to impairment of hearing. ‡ Human ears have sensory cells in inner ear for hearing. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 75 .

Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear Auditory canal Pinna Eustachian tube SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 76 .

Effect of Sound Waves SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 77 .

‡ Lowering of concentration and effect on memory. ‡ Emotional disturbance SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 78 . ‡ Psycological effects: ‡ Depression ‡ Insomnia as a result of lack of undisturbed sleep straining of senses.‡ Physiological effects: ‡ Headache by dilating blood vessels of the brain.

Otological (ear effects) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 79 . high blood pressure.‡ Noise Pollution levels and its Harmful effects: Db Upto 23 30 ± 60 60 ± 90 70 ± 120 Effects No disturbance stress. tension Psychological effects Damages health.

Noise pollution control ‡ The source path receiver concept SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 80 .

‡ Tightening the loose nuts.At the source ‡ Lubrication of machines generally reduces the noise produced. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 81 . ‡ Reducing the eccentricity generally reduces vibration and noise.

‡ Construction of noise barriers on roadsides for the benefit of the nearby residential communities.In the path ‡ Keeping the noisy machine covered in an enclosure so that the sound does not escape and reach the receiver. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 82 . ‡ Sound-proof the building: Use heavy curtains on the windows. Seal all air leaks to reduce the noise coming in from outside . acoustical tile on the ceiling and walls. rugs on the floors.

Receiver ‡ provide earplugs SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 83 .

General measures to reduce noise pollution ‡ Don't use horns except in an emergency. and appliances in good condition. ‡ Purchase the least noisy air conditioner or vacuum cleaner ‡ Create a demand for quieter appliances ‡ Respect your neighbor's right to quiet ‡ Tell your friends about the hazards of noise SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 84 . air conditioners. ‡ Keep auto and truck engines.

General measures to reduce noise pollution ‡ Get Organized ‡ Become Knowledgeable ‡ Be Persistent: You Can Reduce The Noise! ‡ Keep conversation and rest areas in the home away from sources of noise. ‡ Turn down the volume of stereos, especially those with headphones.
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THERMAL POLLUTION
Definition
‡ Addition of excess of undesirable heat to water that makes it harmful to man, animal or aquatic life.

‡ ³ Excessive raising or lowering of water temperature above or below normal seasonal ranges in the streams, lakes or oceans as a result of the discharge of hot or cold effluents into such water´.

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‡ The temperature of the water affects many physical, biological and chemical charecteristics of a river or lake. ‡ Cool water can hold more oxygen than warm water.
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Sources: Thermal pollution may be caused by : 1.Nuclear. Hydroelectric & Coal fired power plants 3.Domestic sewage SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 88 .Natural causes like forest fires & Volcanos 2.

‡ After the water is used.20C ‡ Emissions form nuclear reactor increases the temperature of water bodies SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 89 . its it put back into a water supply at 9 .Nuclear Power plants ‡ Nuclear Power plants use water as a cooling agent.

Coal fired power Plants ‡ Coal is utilized as a fuel ‡ condenser coils are cooled with water from nearby lake or river ‡ The heated effluents decrease the DO of water ‡ Damages the marine organisms SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 90 .

electric power industry using turbo generators will have a temperature ranging from 6.Industrial Effluents ‡ Discharged water from steam .10 C SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 91 .9 C than the receiving water ‡ In modern station. producing 100MW. nearly one million gallons are discharged in an hour with increase in temperature of the cooling water passing by 8.

canals or streams ‡ Municipal sewage normally has a higher temperature than the receiving water ‡ Increase in temperature of the receiving water decreases the DO of water. ‡ The foul smelling gases increased in water resulting in death of marine organisms SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 92 .Domestic sewage ‡ Sewage is commonly discharged into lakes.

Increased bacterial growth 5.Rate of Photosynthesis 6.Change in water properties 2.Thermal shock 7.Effects: The increase in temperature can cause following effects: 1. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 93 .Reduced dissolved oxygen 4.Disturbed ecosystem 3.Increase in toxicity.

Control of thermal pollution: ‡ Temperature of water can be reduced by taking water to wet or dry cooling towers . ‡ Cooling ponds ‡ Spray ponds ‡ Artificial lakes SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 94 .

speed the growth of fish and other aquatic animals for commercial purposes. Thermal enrichment: enrichment: This is when heated water from power plants may be used for irrigation purposes to extend plant growing seasons. this invariably can cause fish to migrate to a more suitable environment.Effects of thermal pollution ‡ Thermal shock: shock: The sudden change in temperature due to hot waste water can be of harm to fish and other aquatic animals that have been used to a particular level of water temperature. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 95 ‡ .

and Air Conditioning³) SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 96 .Thermal comfort ‡ Human thermal comfort is defined by ASHRAE as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment (ASHRAE Standard 55). Ventilating. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) ‡ Maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC design engineers ("Heating. (American Society of Heating.

‡ Thermal comfort is affected by heat conduction. ‡ Any heat gain or loss beyond this generates a sensation of discomfort SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 97 . ‡ Thermal comfort is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed to dissipate. convection. and evaporative heat loss. thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. radiation.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 98 . thermal discomfort has been known to lead to Sick Building Syndrome symptoms. Also. and in turn affect their performance and productivity of their work.Importance of thermal comfort ‡ It can affect the distraction levels of the workers.

6º C) warmer than their surrounding natural land cover.Heat island Effect ‡ The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s ‡ ³Heat island´ refers to urban air and surface temperatures that are higher than those of nearby rural areas. ‡ Many American cities and suburbs have air temperatures up to 10º F (5. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 99 .

e. ‡ The emission of energy from radioactive substances in the environment is oftenly called as 'Radioactive Pollution'.Nuclear Pollution ‡ Radioactive (nuclear) pollution is a special form of physical pollution related to all major life-supporting systems²air. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 100 . Uranium-235. such as Carbon-14. water and soil. etc. unstable isotopes). ‡ Radioactivity is the phenomenon of emission of energy from radioactive isotopes (i. Radium-226. Uranium-238. Uranium239.

Uranium
‡ Uranium is in limited supply, so nuclear energy is considered nonrenewable. ‡ The reason uranium is chosen is because it is radioactive. ‡ Radioactive isotopes, or radioisotopes, emit subatomic particles and high radiation as they decay into lighter radioisotopes, until they become stable. ‡ The isotope uranium235 decays into a series of daughter isotopes. ‡ The rate at which each radioisotope decays is determined by the isotopes half life, the amount of time it takes for one half of half the atoms to give off radiation and decay.

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‡ Radioisotopes can have half lives ranging from fractions of a second to billions of years. ‡ The halflife if uranium 235 is 700 million years. ‡ After several years in a reactor, enough uranium has decayed so that the fuel loses its ability to generate enough energy, and it must be replaced with new fuel. ‡ In some countries, the spent fuel is reprocessed and used again, but in most countries, spent fuel is disposed of as radioactive waste.
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Uranium

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the curie is being replaced by the becquerel. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 104 .Measuring Nuclear Radiation ‡ One way measure radiation is to count the number of nuclear transformations or explosions which occur in a given unit of radioactive substance per second. ‡ The activity of 1 gram of radium is called 1 curie (Ci).7 x 1010 becquerels of radium. ‡ This measure is usually standardized to radium. ‡ One gram of radium would equal 1 curie of radium or 3. the first radioactive substance to be discovered and widely used. 7 x 1010 nuclear transformations or disintegrations per second. In recent radiation protection guides. which indicates one atomic event per second. ‡ One gram of radium undergoes 3. named for Madame Marie Curie.

Sources The sources of radioactivity are both natural and manmade. ‡ (ii) Emissions from radioactive materials from the Earth's crust. ‡ People have been exposed to low levels of radiation from these natural SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 millenia. The natural sources include: ‡ (i)Cosmic rays from outer space: The quantity depends on altitude and latitude. it is more at higher latitudes and high altitudes. sources for several 105 .

e. ‡ Nuclear wastes (i. radioactive isotopes used as tracers and treatment of cancer and other ailments.‡ Man-made sources ‡ But it is the man-made sources which are posing a threat to mankind. ‡ use of radioactive material in nuclear power plants . industrial and research applications. ‡ The greatest exposure to human beings comes from the diagnostic use of X-rays. and ‡ use of radioactive materials in nuclear weapons. waste material that contains radioactive nuclei) produced during the: ‡ Mining and processing of radioactive ores. ‡ use of radioactive isotopes in medical. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 106 .

‡ All organisms are affected from radiation pollution. rate of diffusion and rate of deposition of the contaminant. ‡ Various atmospheric conditions and climatic conditions such as wind. ‡ The effects are cancer. ‡ The effects may be somatic (individual exposed is affected) or genetic (future generations) damage. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 107 . and the effects are extremely dangerous. temperature and rainfall also determine their effects. energy releasing capacity. shortening of life span and genetic effects or mutations.Effects ‡ The effects of radioactive pollutants depends upon half-life.

It can leave the cell unable to reproduce itself. reducing their quality of life until the family line terminates in sterilization and/or death.Effects ‡ ‡ ‡ The result of cell exposure to radiation causes cell death or cell alteration. Eventually there may be millions of such altered cells. The defective offspring will in turn produce defective sperm or ova. it can cause defective offspring. The change or alteration can be temporary or permanent. the sperm or ovum. leaving it able to reproduce other cells capable of generating this same altered hormone or enzyme. and the genetic `mistake' will be passed on to succeeding generations. Radiation damage can cause the cell to produce a slightly different hormone or enzyme than it was originally designed to produce still produce. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 108 ‡ ‡ . If the radiation damage occurs in germ cells.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 109 .

Some of the possible effects are : ‡ (i) Radiations may break chemical bonds. vomiting and loss of hair. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 110 .000 rads) kill the organisms by damaging the tissues of heart. men do not die but begin to suffer from fatigue. blood fails to clot. brain etc. (iv) Higher irradiation doses (10. natural resistance and fighting capacity against germs is reduced. radioactivity effects are experienced by man. ‡ (ii) Exposure at low doses of radiations (100-250 rads). (iii) Exposure at higher doses (400-500 rads). (vi) Through food chain also. blood cells are reduced. and the irradiated person soon dies of infection and bleeding. This affects the genetic make-up and control mechanisms. But recovery is possible. (v) Workers handling radioactive wastes get slow but continuous irradiation and in course of time develop cancer of different types. such as DNA in cells. nausea. the bone marrow is affected.

‡ Thus the only option against nuclear hazards is to check and prevent radioactive pollution. fission products and radioactive isotopes have to be totally stopped. ‡ waste disposal must be careful. efficient and effective. ‡ safety measures should be enforced strictly. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 111 .Control measures ‡ There is no cure for radiation damage. transport and use of radioactive fuels. ‡ For this: ‡ leakages from nuclear reactors. careless handling.

and ‡ safety measures should be strengthened against nuclear accidents. ‡ preventive measures should be followed so that background radiation levels do not exceed the permissible limits.‡ there should be regular monitoring and quantitative analysis through frequent sampling in the risk areas. ‡ appropriate steps should be taken against occupational exposure. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 112 .

Radiation Effects SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 113 .

‡ Atmospheric currents carries radioactive fallout from Chernobyl to the rest of the Northern Hemisphere. ‡ Engineers turned off the safety systems to conduct tests. ‡ Human error combined with unsafe reactor design caused an explosion that destroyed the reactor and sent clouds of radioactive debris into the atmosphere for almost 10 days. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 114 .Nuclear Disasters ‡ In 1986. an explosion at the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine caused the most severe nuclear power plant accident in history. ‡ The land for at least 19 miles around the plant is still contaminated today.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 115 .

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 116 .

Solid Waste SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 117 .

SOLID WASTE ‡ Definition: Solid waste ‡ ³Refuse from places of human or animal habitation. ‡ ³stuff to be thrown away." ‡ "useless or worthless material´." SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 118 ." ‡ ³A resource that is not safely recycled back into the environment or the marketplace.

are discarded as useless or unwanted are included in the term 'Solid-Wastes' or 'Refuse'. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 119 .‡ All solid and semi-solid wastes arising from human activities. ‡ It also depends on seasons. ‡ The quantity of solid-wastes produced depends upon the living standards of the population.

broken concrete and bricks. petroleum-contaminated soils and other wastes.Solid waste means all putrescible and nonputrescible wastes. asphalt. discarded or abandoned vehicles or parts thereof. commercial. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 120 . demolition and construction waste. ashes. manure. dead animals. discarded home and industrial appliances. infectious waste. rubbish. including garbage. vegetable or animal solid and semi-solid wastes. septic tank or other sludges. refuse. waste paper and cardboard. industrial. sewage sludge.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 121 . offensive products during such decomposition or which is capable of attracting or providing food for birds and potential disease vectors such as rodents and flies. which may give rise to foul smelling.‡ Putrescible means rapidly decomposable by microorganisms.

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 122 . fruits. paints. preparation. shoe polish. cooking and eating of foods. metals. batteries. fruit or vegetable residues resulting from the handling. leaves. vegetables. ‡ Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids. spray cans. flowers.Garbage ‡ It includes putrescible organic waste like the animal. Garbage: the four broad categories ‡ Organic waste: kitchen waste. bulbs. ‡ Toxic waste: old medicines. plastics. glass. chemicals. fertilizer and pesticide containers. ‡ Recyclable: paper.

etc. garden-trimmings. plastic. rubber. tin-cans. wood. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 123 . etc. card board. ‡ Non-combustible rubbish consists of glass. metals. textiles. ‡ Combustible rubbish includes paper.Rubbish: ‡ It includes combustible and non-combustible solid-wastes. aluminum cans. construction wastes. crockery. excluding food wastes or putrescible materials.

Solid waste SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 124 .

SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 125 .

and (iii) Hazardous wastes. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 126 . (ii) Industrial wastes.Types and Sources of Solid-wastes ‡ There are three general categories of solid-wastes: (i) Municipal wastes.

street-sweepings.Municipal wastes: ‡ Municipal wastes are those wastes which arise from residential . beaches.) and open areas (streets. play grounds. garages. demolition and construction wastes. hotels. highways. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 127 . parks. etc. institutions. commercial (markets.household activities. dead animals) etc.

‡ A waste is said to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics. chemicals. plant or animal life.. and explosives. corrosivity. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 128 .Industrial wastes: Industrial wastes are those wastes which arise from industrial activities. Hazardous Wastes: ‡ Typical hazardous wastes are radioactive substances. viz. biological wastes. flammable wastes. ‡ Are those wastes that pose a substantial danger immediately or over a period of time to human. ignitability. reactivity or toxicity.

Hospitals. Laboratories SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 129 . Nuclear plants. Research institutes.sources of hazardous wastes ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Industries.

plastic containers. etc. Rapidly growing technologies for most economic goods are leading to returnable packaging to non-returnable packaging. For example.Causes of Solid Wastes ‡ The main causes for the rapid growth in the quantity of solid wastes are: (i) Over-population. returnable glass bottles/ containers being replaced by non-returnable cans. resulting in their discard. to solid waste pollution. (ii) Urbanization. This leads. With production or per capita consumption. there is a tendency to declare items as obsolete. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 130 . (iii) Affluence. (iv) Technology.

‡ Rats depending upon these solid wastes may also cause plague. diarrhoea and amoebic dysentery may result in humans from eating contaminated food and water ‡ contamination through flies.Effects of Solid Wastes Pollution ‡ Causes various health and environmental hazards. ‡ The crops and water supply may also get contaminated and may result in large scale epidemic of cholera. such as : ‡ Diseases like bacillary dysentery. jaundice. endemic typhus like diseases through direct bite. SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 131 . trichinosis. salmonellosis. hepatitis etc. gastrointestinal diseases. which breed on the refuse dump and solid waste.

or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) . ‡ It includes computers.E-waste management ‡ e-Waste for short . end-of-life or discarded appliances using electricity.is the term used to describe old. fridges etc which have been disposed of by their original users SNIST/Biotech/Ravindra/ES/4 132 . consumer electronics.

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