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Shock Clinical syndrome characterized by a systematic imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. Results in a state of inadequate blood flow to body organs and tissues, causing life-threatening cellular dysfunction
Cellular Homeostasis and Hemodynamics
A cardiac output sufficient to meet bodily requirements An uncompromised vascular system, in which the vessels have a diameter sufficient to allow unimpeded blood flow and have a good tone (the ability to constrict or dilate to maintain normal pressure) A volume of blood sufficient to fill the circulatory system, and a blood pressure adequate to maintain blood flow Tissues that are able to extract and use the oxygen delivered through the capillaries
Stroke volume (SV) Amount of blood pumped into the aorta with each contraction of the left ventricle SV= ESP - EDP Cardiac Output (CO) Amount of blood pumped per minute into the aorta by the left ventricle CO= SV x HR Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) MAP= CO x SVR
Stage 1: Early, Reversible, and Compensatory Shock MAP falls 10 to 15mmHg below normal levels Circulating bloodvolume is reduced by 25% to 35% (1000ml or more) Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system Renin-angiotensin response Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Stage 2: Intermediate or Progressive Shock in MAP of 20mmHg or more Fluid loss of 35 to 50% (1800 to 2500ml of fluid) Aerobic to anaerobic metabolism Stage 3: Refractory or Reversible shock Irreversible stage Tissue anoxia: generalized and cellular death Death of cells death of tissues death of organs death of the body .
Multisystem Effects of Shock Cardiovascular Early No change Progressive Slightly BP Slowly rising HR Sinus tachycardia Thready pulse Late MAP <60mmHg Steadily BP Steadily C/O Imperceptible pulsesT .
Respiratory respiratory rate Respiratory acidosis Potential Complication ARDS Gastrointestinal Early GI motility Late Paralytic ileus Ulceration of GI mucosa Potential Complication Bowel necrosis .
oral mucosa. nail beds.lips.moist skin Late Edema .Hepatic Early glucose production Progressive glucose production= hypoglycemia lactic acid conversion= metabolic acidosis Progressive Complication Destroyed Kupffer cells= systematic bacterial infections Integumentary Pallor (skin. conjunctiva) Cool.
apathy Progressive Lethargy Late Coma Urinary renal perfusion GFR Late Oliguria Potential Complications Acute tubular necrosis Kidney failure .Neurologic condition sympathetic activity consciousness Early Restlessness.
Diagnostic Tests Blood hemoglobin and hematocrit Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) Serum electrolytes Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Blood cultures White blood cell count and differential Serum cardiac enzymes Central venous pressure .
Types of Shock .
Hypovolemic Shock Most common type of shock and often occurs simultaneously with other types in intravascular volume of 15% or more The venous blood returning to the heart and ventricular filling drops Result: stroke volume. cardiac output. and blood pressure ( ) .
Cause Loss of blood volume from Hemorrhage Loss of intravascular fluid from the skin due to injuries such as burns Loss of blood volume Severe Dehydration Loss of body fluid from GI system due to persistent and severe vomiting or diarrhea or continuous nasogastric suctioning Renal losses of fluid Conditions causing fluid shifting Third spacing .
moist Cool. acidosis. or agitated Oliguria (less than 30ml/hour) Marked thirst. pale (includes trunk). confused. or absent peripheral pulses Mental status Urine output Other Alert and oriented Slight Thirst. capillary refill time Disoriented. lethargic. comatose Anuria Loss of reflexes. pale. mottled cyanosis Skin Cool.Assessment Findings System/ Assessment Blood Pressure Pulse Respirations Initial Stage normal to slightly slightly from baseline Normal (baseline) Compensatory and Progressive stages Hypotension Rapid. pale (in periphery. poor skin turgor with fluid loss. edematous with fluid shift Restless. shallow. weak Repid.crackles and wheezes Cool. or absent peripheral pulses . hyperkalemia. anxious. capillary refill time. thready Increased Irreversible Stage Severe hypotension Very rapid.
Collaborative Care Oxygenation Provide supplemental O2 Monitor SvO2 or ScvO2 Circulation Restore fluid volume Rapid fluid replacement using two large-bone (14-16 gauge) peripheral IVs Endpoint of fluid resuscitation: CVP 15mmHg PAWP 10-12 mmHg .
Supportive Therapies Correct the cause Use warmed fluids Medicines such as dopamine. dobutamine. epinephrine. and nor epinephrine may be needed to increase blood pressure and the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output). .
SwanGanz Catheter .
Cardiogenic Shock Occurs when the heart¶s pumping ability is compromised to the point that it cannot maintain cardiac output and adequate tissue perfusion .
Causes Myocardial infarction Cardiac tamponade Restrictive pericarditis Cardiac arrest Dysrhythmia Pathologic changes in the valves Cardiomyopathies Complications from cardiac surgery Electrolyte imbalances Drugs Head injuries causing damage to the cardioregulatory center .
pulmonary edema Skin: pale. moist Mental Status: restless. crackles and wheezes. CVP. anxious. labored. cyanotic. cold. pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.Assesment findings Blood pressure: hypotension Pulse: rapid. thready. arrhytmias . distention of veins of hands and neck Repirations: increased. lethargic progressing to comatose Urine output: oliguria to anuria Other: dependent edema.
angioplasty with stenting. emergent coronary revascularization Reduce workload of the heart with circulatory assist devices .Collaborative Care Oxygenation Provide supplemental O2 Intubation/ mechanical ventilation. if necessary Monitor SvO2 or ScvO2 Circulation Restore blood flow with thrombolytics.
Drug therapies Nitrates Inotropes Diuretics B-Adrenergic blockers Supportive Therapies Correct dysrhythmias .
Meningococcal septic shock with adrenal apoplexy .
This form of shock is most commonly called septic shock Common organisms causing sepsis include gramnegative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Escherichia coli. Sepsis leading to distributive shock occurs when organisms are present in the blood. and Klebsiella pneumonia) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) .
Through the activity of white blood vessels. the reactions start inflammatory and immune events known as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) .
cause small clots to form within the capillaries of vital organs. These toxin-host actions activate complement. increase capillary leakiness. endothelial cells of blood vessels). injure cells (esp. and increase cell metabolism .
Septic shock occurs when large amounts of toxins and endotoxins produced by bacteria are released into the blood. causing a whole-body inflammatory reaction. . These substances react with blood vessels and cell membranes.
cause small clots to form within the capillaries of vital organs. . These toxin-host actions activate complement. and increase cell metabolism. endothelial cells of blood vessels). increase capillary leakiness. injure cells (esp.
Metabolism becomes anaerobic because of decreased MAP. Damage to endothelial cells reduces anticlotting actions and triggers the formation of small clots. poor cell uptake of oxygen . clot formation in capillaries.
increased hydrostatic pressure in the blood. Such shifts are caused by increased size of capillary pores loss of plasma osmolarity. .Capillary leak syndrome Capillary leak syndrome leading to distributive shock occurs when fluid shifts from the blood to the interstitial space.
increased hydrostatic pressure in the blood. Such shifts are caused by increased size of capillary pores loss of plasma osmolarity. Capillary leak syndrome leading to distributive shock occurs when fluid shifts from the blood to the interstitial space. .
Conditions predisposing to sepsis-induced Distributive shock (Septic Shock) Malnutrition Immunosuppresion Large. open wounds Mucous membrane fissures in prolonged contact with bloody or drainage-soaked packing .
Gastrointestinal ischemia Loss of GI integrity Exposure to invasive procedures Malignancy Over 85 years of age Infection with resistant microorganisms Receiving cancer chemotherapy .
urine. wound drainage. colloids.Medical Management Specimens of blood. sputum. and blood products may be administered to increase the intravascular volume . and invasive catheter tips are collected for culture using aseptic technique Crystalloids.
Medication A third-generation cephalosporin plus an aminoglycoside .
intravenous lines. and pressure ulcers are monitored for signs of infection in all patients. Additionally. arterial and venous puncture sites.Nursing management All invasive procedures must be carried out with aseptic technique after careful hand hygiene. . surgical incisions. urinary catheters. traumatic wounds.
Fever is one of the body¶s natural mechanisms forfighting infections. an elevated temperature may not be treated unless it reaches dangerous levels (more than 40°C [104°F]) or unless the patient is uncomfortable. Thus. . Elevated body temperature (hyperthermia) is common with sepsis and raises the patient¶s metabolic rate and oxygen consumption.
the nurse monitors blood levels (antibiotic agent. white blood count . Efforts may be made to reduce the temperature by administering acetaminophen or applying hypothermia blankets Because of decreased perfusion to the kidneys and liver. creatinine. serum concentrations of antibiotic agents that are normally cleared by these organs may increase and produce toxic effects Therefore. BUN.
blood vessel dilation. increased blood vessel permeability (capillary leak). . pooling of blood in venous and capillary beds.Distributive shock It is by a loss sympathetic tone. All these factors can decrease mean arterial pressure(MAP) and may be started by nerve changes (neural-induced) or the presence of chemicals (chemicalinduced).
but shock results when the vasolidation is widespread or systemic. .Neural-Induced Distributive Shock Neural-induced loss of MAP occurs when sympathetic nerve impulses controlling blood vessel smooth muscles are decreased and the smooth muscles of blood vessel relax. This blood vessel dilation can be a normal local response to injury. causing vasodilation.
Risk factors Pain Anesthesia Stress Spinal cord injury Head trauma .
Chemical-induced distributive shock occurs when certain chemicals or foreign substances within the blood and blood vessels start widespread changes in blood vessel walls. sepsis.Chemical-Induced distributive Shock Chemical-induced distributive shock has three common origins: anaphylaxis. capillary leak syndrome. Exogenous Endogenous .
Risk factors Anaphylaxis Sepsis Capillary leak Burns Extensive trauma Hepatic dysfunction Hypoproteinemia .
.Obstructive Shock It is caused by problems that impair the ability of the normal heart muscle to pump effectively. The heart itself is normal. but conditions outside the heart prevent either adequate filling of the heart or adequate contraction of the healthy heart muscle.
Risk factors Cardiac tamponade Arterial stenosis Pulmonary embolus Pulmonary hypertension Constrictive pericarditis Thoracic tumors Tension pnemothorax .
Vasodilation occurs as a result of a loss of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation. Parasympathetic stimulation causes the vascular smooth muscle to relax or dilate. Sympathetic stimulation causes vascular smooth muscle to constrict. .
. the blood volume is displaced. Blood volume is adequate. because the vasculature is dilated. producing a hypotensive (low BP)state. In adequate BP result insufficient perfusion of tissues and cells that is common to all shock states.
Neurogenic Shock can caused by Spinal cord injury Spinal anesthesia or nervous system damage Lack of glucose BP and heart rate increase .
Dry skin rather than cool Moist skin seen in hypovolemic shock Bradycardia rather than tachycardia .
The stabilization of spinal cord injury or proper positioning of the patient .
Applying elastic cpmpression stocking and elevating the foot of the bed may minimize pooling of blood in the legs . Elevate and maintain the head of the bed at least 30 degrees to prevent neurogenic shock when the patient receives spinal or epidural anesthesia.
tenderness and warmth of the calves . redness. The nurse should check the lower extremity pain.
Occurs rapidly and life is threatening Occurs in patients already exposed to an antigen and who have developed antibodies Caused by Severe allergic reaction .
Removing the causative antigen (discontinuing an antibiotic agent) Epinephrine is given for its vasoconstriction action Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) Albuterol (Proventil) .
foods contrast agents. Asses for all allergies or previous reactions to antigens (medications. . latex). blood products.
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