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Lecture 8:

AEROBIC (BIOLOGICAL) PROCESS

INTRODUCTION
Principal application of biological processes removal of biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter nitrification denitrification phosphorus removal waste stabilisation The cheapest treatment process Classified into two (based on growth of micoorganisms) Suspended growth activated sludge, oxidation ditch, aerated lagoon, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) Fixed film growth - trickling filter, rotating biological contactor

MICROBIAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION Oxidation and synthesis

(bacteria) COHNS + O2 + nutrients p p p CO2 + NH3 + C5H7NO2 + other end products (Organic) (cells)

Endogenous respiration
C5H7NO2 + 5O2 p p p 5CO2 + 2H2O + NH3 + energy (bacteria)

FACTORS AFFECTING AEROBIC PROCESS


Dissolved oxygen (DO) > 0.5 mg/L (2 mg/L) DO > 3.0 mg/L for nitrification process Temperature affects growth rate and oxygen transfer pH between 4.0 to 9.5; optimum at 6.5 7.5 Nutrients BOD5 : N : P = 100 : 5 : 1 Free from toxic materials Mixing (turbulence, flat propeller, blades, rpm, etc.) Time (sufficient for adsorption, permeation, oxidation, synthesis)

ACTIVATED SLUDGE
Suspended growth system Wastewater stabilised biologically under aerobic conditions Consists of two main reactors i.e. aeration tank and clarifier Aerobic environment created in aeration tank by mechanical aeration or diffused air Biomass produced separated from liquid effluent in clarifier Portion of sludge is recycled into aeration tank Three types Completely mixed without sludge recycle Completely mixed with sludge recycle Plug-flow with sludge recycle

COMMON VARIATIONS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

Step aeration Tapered aeration Contact stabilization Pure-oxygen activated sludge Oxidation ditch High rate Extended aeration

Design Activated Sludge


Description Minimum number F/M ratio HRT Oxygen requirements MLSS DO in tank Sludge yield, Y Decay coefficient, kd Sludge age,
c

Unit kg BOD/kg MLSS.d h mg/L mg/L kg MLSS/kg BOD d-1 d kg/m3/d

Design Criteria 2 0.25 0.50 6 16 1500 3000 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.03 0.07 5 10 0.3 0.7

kg O2/kg BOD rem 1.5

Organic loading

DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS

Types of A/S Completely mixed Extended Aeration

tc day 4-15 20-30

F/M kg BOD5 /kg MLSS 0.2-0.4 0.5-0.15

VL kg BOD5 /m3 0.8-2.0 0.16-0.40

t hr 3-5 18-24

kg O2 /kg BOD 0.7-1.0 1.2-2.0

MLSS mg/L 3000-6000 3000-6000

Q(So - S) v 10  1.42(Px ) R= f
f = conversion factor for converting BOD5 to BODu (~0.68)

-3

ACTIVATED SLUDGE

MASS BALANCE ANALYSIS


Q Q + QR Qe Xe

Aeration Tank

X QR XR XR Qw

Accumulation = inflow outflow

0 = X (Q+QR) Xe(Qe) XR(QR) XR(Qw)


Qe Xe

Q + QR

Aeration Tank

X QR XR XR Qw

Accumulation = inflow outflow

0 = XR(QR) X(Q+ QR)

FORMULATION / EQUATIONS
MLSS v V Sludge age ! SS e v Q e  SS w v Q w

V Aeration period, U ! Q

Q(So - S e ) (S o - S e ) Specific substrate utilization, U ! ! VX UX

dX / dt g Observed growth yield, Yobs ! dS / dt t


Qr v 100% Return sludge rate ! Q in

YU  k d Y ! 1  Uc kd U

QS o So F ! ! M VX UX

Q waste v X waste Sludge Production ! QS o

YQ(So - S e ) Volatile solids in waste sludge, Px ! 1  Uckd

EXAMPLE 1
A conventional activated-sludge plant without primary clarification operates under the following conditions: Design flow = 2.14 MGD Influent BOD = 185 mg/L SS = 212 mg/L Aeration basins: 4 unit, 40 x 40 ft2 x 15.5 ft deep MLSS = 2600 mg/L Recirculation flow = 1 MGD Waste Sludge Quantity = 39,000 GPD SS in waste sludge = 8600 mg/L Effluent BOD = 15 mg/L, SS = 15 mg/L Calculate the: aeration period, BOD loading, F/M ratio, SS and BOD removal efficiencies, Sludge age and Return activated-sludge age

SOLUTION
Aeration basin volume = 4 (40)2 x 15.5 x (7.481/106) = 0.74 mil gallon Aeration basin, dt = 0.74 mil gallon / 2.14 MGD x 24 hr = 8.3 hr BOD loading = [(2.14 MGD x 185 mg/L x 8.34) / (4 x 402 x 15.5 /1000 ft3)] = 33.3 lb/day / 1000 ft3 F / M = [(2.14 MGD x 185 mg/L x 8.34) / (0.74 mil gallon x 2600 mg/L x 8.34)] = 0.21 lb BOD/day / lb MLSS. Suspended Solid removal = [(212 15) / (212) x 100%] = 93% BOD removal efficiency = [(185 15) / (185) x 100%] = 92% Suspended solids in the effluent = 2.101 MGD x 15 mg/L x 8.34 = 262 lb/day Suspended solids in waste activated sludge = 0.039 MGD x 8600 mg/L x 8.34 = 2797 lb/day Sludge age = [(0.74 mil gallon x 2600 mg/L x 8.34) / (2797+ 262 lb/day)] = 5.2 days Return sludge rate = [(1.0) / (2.14) x 100%] = 48%

Activated Sludge Treatment


Aerobic Granulation

CONVENTIONAL NUTRIENT REMOVAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM


Pre-treatment Influent Aerobic tank Effluent Sludge Digester Equalization tank Anaerobi c tank CH
4 Sludge Dewatering

Denitrification

Sludge

AEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE


Effluent
Pretreatment Selecto r

SBR

Influent

Aerobi c tank

Denitrificati on

Anaerobic tank

Effluen t
Sludge Digester

C H
4Sludge

Dewateri ng

Aerobic Granular Sludge Reactor


Sludge

Activated Sludge Treatment


Extended Aeration

Common Variations of Activated Sludge Process EXTENDED AERATION


Long detention time and low F/M ratio in aerator to maintain culture in endogenous phase

Influent

Effluent Secondary clarifier Reactor Excess sludge

Return sludge (omitted in some system)

EXTENDED AERATION
Activated sludge processes with long HRT (in the order of 24 hrs) and long sludge age MLSS high, so insensitive to shock loads Designed either plug flow or completely mixed Operates at low BOD loading and in endogenous phase, thus growth rate and sludge yield are low Normally used to handle domestic waste from small communities accept variable loading better than CMAS Disadvantage/Challenge formation of filamentous microorganisms species which difficult to settle High oxygen requirement

EXTENDED AERATION SLUDGE


Description
Minimum number of aeration F/M HRT Oxygen requirement MLSS DO level in tank Sludge yield, Y Decay coefficient, kd Sludge age,
c

Unit
kg BOD/kg MLSS.d h kg O2/kg BOD rem. mg/L mg/L kg sludge prod./ kg BOD rem d-1 d

Design Criteria
2 0.05 0.1 18 24 2 3000 5000 2 0.4 0.6 0.06 15 35

EXAMPLE 1

A small extended aeration plant without sludge wasting facilities is loaded at a rate of 170 g/m3.d with an aeration period of 24 hr. The measured suspended solids buildup rate in the aeration tank is 40 mg/L/d. What percentage of the raw influent BOD is converted and retained as MLSS? If the MLSS concentration is allowed to increase from 2000 to 6000 mg/L before wasting solids, how long would this buildup take?

SOLUTIONS
Because the aeration period is 24 hr, BOD load/day g/m 3 .d = 170 mg/L. d
liter of tank ! 170 y m3

MLSS buildup 40 mg/L.d ! v100% BOD applied 170 mg/L.d

23.5%

6000 - 2000 mg/L Buildup time ! ! 100days 40 mg/L.d

EXAMPLE 2
Two activated sludge aeration tanks at Taman University, Skudai are operated in series. Each tank has the following dimensions: 7 m wide x 30 m long x 4.3 m effective liquid depth. The plant operating parameters are as follows: Flow = 0.0796 m3/s, MLVSS = 1500 mg/L, MLSS = 1.40 MLVSS, Soluble BOD5 after primary settling = 130 mg/L. Determine the aeration period and F/M ratio

SOLUTIONS = V/Q = (7x30x4.3)/(0.0796) = 11,344 s = 3.15 h x 2 tanks = 6.3 hrs F/M = QSo/VX = ?? [Answer: aeration period = 6.3 h; F/M = 0.33 mg/mg. day]

SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR (SBR)

Activated Sludge Treatment

SBR PROCESS

Batch process which takes place in ONE reactor Consists of FIVE basic operating mode

DESIGN OF SBR
Description
Minimum number of reactor F/M Oxygen requirement DO level in tank Sludge yield, Y Decay coefficient, kd Sludge age,
c

Unit
kg O2/kg BOD rem. mg/L kg sludge prod./ kg BOD rem d-1 d

Design Criteria
1

kg BOD/kg MLSS.d 0.05 0.2 ~6.5 0.75 1.10 0.06 15 35

FILL REACT IDLE


influent 60 min. 1 min. Cycle air 121 min.

DRAIN 5 min.
3 min. effluent

SETTLE

FORMULATION / EQUATIONS
Batch Model Reactor with Completely Stirred Tank Reactor

dS  ! QSo - QS  rsu  dt

where rsu ! -

Q mSX Y(K s  S)

Influent = Effluent + Production Wasted (or Consumed) Example of Substrate

Q m SX QS o  Y ( K  S )  ! (Q - Q w )S  Q w S s
Substrate in influent Substrate consumed = Substrate in effluent Substrate in Wasted

BENEFITS OF SBR
Smaller size than CMFR Be able to absorb shock load better than CMFR and PFR allow HRT to be prolonged until desired quality is reached Better sedimentation tank

Activated Sludge Treatment


Membrane Bioreactor (MBR)

MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR (MBR)


A new version of activated sludge system Utilises microporous membranes for solid/liquid separation in lieu of secondary clarifiers

MBR Design Consideration


Equalization Sufficient tank with in-line or off-line storage Preliminary Treatment Removal of grits and materials (screen < 2mm) Solid Retention Time (SRT) and HRT SRTs as 5 20 days, not strongly related to biopolymer fouling HRT may consider in short, 4 6 h Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) Immersed MBR of MLSS from 8,000 18,000 mg/L Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Anoxic = 0 0.5 mg/L; Aerobic = 1.5 3 mg/L; Membrane = 2 6 mg/L Flux rates Consider in between 25 46 L/m2. h

ADVANTAGES OF MBR
Secondary clarifiers and tertiary filtration processes are eliminated, thereby reducing plant size. Quality of solids separation is not dependent on the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration or characteristics. Since elevated mixed liquor concentrations are possible, the aeration basin volume can be reduced, further reducing the plant size. Can be designed with long sludge age, hence low sludge production. Produces a MF/UF quality effluent suitable for reuse applications or as a high quality feed water source for Reverse Osmosis treatment. Indicative output quality of MF/UF systems include SS < 1mg/L, turbidity <0.2 NTU and up to 4 log removal of virus (depending on the membrane nominal pore size). In addition, MF/UF provides a barrier to certain chlorine resistant pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The resultant small size can be a feature used to address issues of visual amenity, noise and odour

EXAMPLE OF MBR APPLICATION

Cauley Creek, GA: MBR


Constructed in 2 x 2.5 MGD phases (total 5 MGD) Plant is optimized for meeting discharge limits of 0.13 mg/L total P and 0.5 mg/L ammonia Staff indicated not much the plant can do to further reduce energy consumption without potentially violating system warranties or permit

Pooler, GA: MBR

2.5 mgd MBR, operated 24 hours, staffed 8hr/day The plant has discharge limits for ammonia, but not for phosphorus Cut back on the aeration to only night times Turned off UV to save energy

Membrane Fouling
TMP

BIOLOGICAL WASTE TREATMENT APPLICATION


Treatment Method Activated Sludge Mode of Operation Completely mixed or plug flow, sludge recycle Degree of Treatment > 90% removal of organics Land Requirements Earth or concrete basins (3.66 6.10 m deep), (0.561 2.262 m3/m3. day), (5.52 34.4 m2/ 103 m3.day) 5.52 34.4 m2/103 m3. day Equipment Diffused or mechanical aerators, clarifiers for sludge separation and recycle. Remarks Excess sludge dewatered and disposed of

Trickling Filter

Continuous application; may employ effluent recycle

Intermediate or high, depending on load

Plastic packing, 6.10 12.19 m);

Pre-treatment before publicity owned treatment works (POTW) or activated sludge plant

BIOLOGICAL WASTE TREATMENT APPLICATION


Treatment Method RBC Mode of Operation Multistage continuous Degree of Treatment Intermediate or high Land Requirements Equipment Remarks

Plastic disk

Solids separation required

Anaerobic

Complete mix with recycle; upflow or downflow filter; fluidized bed, upflow sludge blanket

Intermediate

Gas collection required; pretreatment before POTW or activated sludge plant

Choose: Aerobic or Anaerobic


Aerobic process
COD

Anaerobic process
COD>3000 mg/l
BOD>2000 Slow

< 3000 mg/l

 BOD <2000 mg/l  Fast biodegradable matters


Low-strength Advanced

mg/l

biodegradable matters process

waste

High-strength waste
Pre-treatment

process

Biodegradation  2 types:
Mineralization Organic compounds are converted by living organisms to minerals (nonorganic) end products MAINLY AEROBIC PROCESS Biotransformation Parent organic compounds are not completely mineralized, a portion is converted into other organics ANAEROBIC PROCESSES

SEMESTER II SESSION 2008/2009

CHAPTER 8 AEROBIC

CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE (CAS)

COMPLETE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

Common Variations of Activated Sludge Process OXIDATION DITCH


Similar to extended aeration, except the aeration is done by brush-type aerators, thus reducing electricity Brush-type aerators Influent

Effluent Return sludge

OXIDATION DITCH (OD)

AERATED LAGOON SYSTEM


System Aerated Lagoon Advantages Lower land requirement Relatively simple construction, operation and maintenance Large efficiency in BOD removal Disadvantages Equipment Slight increase in the sophisticated level. Need a continuous of sludge removal (2 5 years) High energy requirements

Low possibility of odor Fast filling of the problem sedimentation lagoon with sludge (2 5 years

HOMEWORK 1
What is the purpose of the activated sludge process in treating wastewater? What is the functioning of Returned Activated Sludge (RAS) in aeration tank? What happens to the air requirement in the aeration tank when the strength (BOD) of the incoming wastewater increases? With an aid of diagram shows the following symbol in the conventional wastewater treatment plant (completely mixed reactor). The diagram must consist of primary treatment, biological treatment and secondary clarifier.

HOMEWORK 2
A conventional activated sludge plant without primary clarification operates under the following conditions:
Design flow = 8100 m3/day Influent BOD = 185 mg/L SS = 212 mg/L Aeration basins: 4 units, 12 m square x 4.5 m deep MLSS = 2600 mg/L Recirculation flow = 3800 m3/d Waste sludge quantity = 150 m3/d SS in waste sludge = 8600 mg/L Effluent BOD = 15 mg/L, Effluent SS = 15 mg/L Calculate the following: aeration period BOD loading F/M ratio SS removal and BOD removal Sludge age (SRT) Return activated sludge age