Rotodynamic Pump

Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump casing. A partial vacuum is created that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.

Centrifugal Pump
‡ Converts kinetic energy to pressure energy. ‡ Friction losses are high for higher velocity fluids, hence lower overall efficiency. ‡ This is avoided by converting some of the velocity to pressure

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Prime mover Volute casing .

ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High efficiency Produces smooth and uniform flow Wide range of capacity Ease of operation and maintenance DISADVANTAGES ‡ Loss of priming easily ‡ Efficiency depends upon operating design head & speed. .

There are three types of casings: Volute centrifugal Turbine pump Regenerative Pump .Increasing the pressure Achieved in the casing.

Horizontal shaft centrifugal pump construction .

dip-stick and drain plug. Another wearing part is a stuffing box packing where the drive shaft emerges from the back of the impeller casing. . This needs to be periodically tightened to minimize leakage. although graphited PTFE is more effective if available. this is subject to wear by particulate matter in the water and can be replaced when the clearance becomes large enough to cause significant loss of performance. it has a filler. The packing is usually graphited asbestos. To prevent back-leakage from the exit of the impeller around the front of it to the entry. although excessive tightening increases wear of the packing. The back of the pump consists of a bearing pedestal and housing enclosing two deep-groove ball-bearings. while the impeller may be bronze or steel.Horizontal shaft centrifugal pump components the casing and frame are usually cast iron or cast steel. This particular pump is oil lubricated. a closely fitting wear ring is fitted into the casing around the front rim of the impeller.

IMPELLERS .

The guide vanes are usually cast with a back plate.The impeller of the centrifugal pump converts the mechanical rotation to the velocity of the liquid. termed front cover. . The liquid is then guided from the inlet to the outlet of the impeller by vanes . and a front plate. It has an inlet eye through which the liquid suction occurs. termed shroud or back cover.

and leaves at an angle between radially and axially.FLOW OUT FROM IMPELLERS ² centrifugal pumps: fluid enters axially. ² axial pumps: fluid enters and leaves axially. and is discharged radially. ² mixed--flow pumps: fluid enters axially. .

the most efficient impeller is an axial flow. but still achieve higher efficiency and larger flow rates than a centrifugal volute pump.Where high flows at low heads are required (irrigation pumps). Conversely. for high heads and low flows a centrifugal (radial flow) impeller is recommended. The mixed flow pump is a useful compromise to avoid the limited lift of an axial flow pump. .

. Semi-open 3. Closed 2.CONSTRUCTION OF IMPELLERS There are three types of construction seen in an impeller. Open. The three types are: 1. These are based on the presence or absence of the impeller covers and shrouds.

Various types of centrifugal pump impellers A and B are both open impellers. but double suction pumps are more complicated and expensive. A and C are impellers for a single-suction pump. Centrifugal pump impeller variations The advantage of a doublesuction arrangement is that there is little or no end thrust on the pump shaft. .iii. while B and D are for a doublesuction pump in which water is drawn in symmetrically from both sides of the impeller. while C and D are shrouded impellers.

‡ Three common types of casings are: ² Diffuser ring ² Volute casing ² Vortex casing .CASING ‡ A casing is provided for housing the impeller and supporting the bearing provided for the shaft.

DIFFUSER RING ‡ A diffuser ring with guide vanes surrounds the impeller ‡ These guide vanes are placed at such an angle that water enters without shock. ‡ These are commonly known as turbine pumps as they resemble a reversed radial flow reaction turbine. And mostly used for developing high heads. ‡ More expensive than volute pumps. .

.VOLUTE CASING ‡ Spiral volute pumps incorporate a logarithmic spiral. the purpose of which is to closely match the volumetric flow-rate of the impeller at the best efficiency point.

‡ Thus the water enters the vortex chamber from the impeller with a whirling motion. ‡ Thus it increases the efficiency of the volute chamber by reducing the eddy formation. ‡ Annular space known as vortex chamber is provided between the impeller and volute casing.VORTEX CASING ‡ Improvement of volute pump. ‡ suited for grit applications with higher concentrations of solids and sludge .

borehole pump (where limitations on the impeller diameter are caused by the borehole. making multi-staging an essential means to obtain adequate heads Only vertical bore holes Higher cost of motor .

is mounted above the wellhead and drives the pump. which may be located as much as 2000 ft below the ground surface. There are primarily two types of production well pumps a. Lineshaft turbine pumps b. In a line shaft pump the driver. submersible pumps The difference is the location of the driver. by means of a lineshaft. the driver is located below the pump itself and drives the pump through a relatively short shaft with a seal section to protect the motor from the well fluid. . electric motor.Pumping is often necessary to bring geothermal fluid to the surface. In submersible pumps.

Submersible pump .Multi-stage and Borehole Rotodynamic Pumps A submersible pump is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation.

. High efficiency Smooth and even flow In case of repair full pump to be removed. Noiseless operation.SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Centrifugal pump closely coupled with motor Does not require long drive shaft Motor operates at a cooler temperature.

the primary means to achieve this with a single impeller centrifugal pump are either to drive the impeller faster or to increase its diameter.Multi-stage and Borehole Rotodynamic Pumps Where high heads are needed. . mounted on the same shaft. Extra pump stages can be fitted quite easily to produce a range of pumps to cover a wide spectrum of operating conditions. a more practical solution is to use a multiple impeller pump in which the out put from it from one impeller feeds directly. Limitations like bore hole diameter exist. through suitable passages in the casing. to the next.

MULTISTAGE IMPELLERS .

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