Akshit Gupta 2010012 Arpit Anand 2010022 Jahnavi Kalyani 2010032 Pranjal Thapar 2010062 IIIT-Delhi

. ³ Circuit Switched ± Two nodes establish a circuit (communication channel) through the network before they communicate. Today it has evolved to a totally digital internal core.WHAT IS PSTN? ³ PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched telephone networks. . Consists of telephone lines. inter-connected by switching centers. fiber optic cables . only a network of fixed line telephone systems. allowing any telephone to communicate with any other Originally. . communications satellites etc.

computers or any other data devices which carry the analog signal. Modems ± modulates and demodulates signal using various modulation schemes Local loop ± physical link or circuit that connects end systems to the central toll offices Codec ± encodes or decodes a digital data stream or signal Trunk ± shared connections between toll offices Toll Office .COMPONENTS OF PSTN End systems .Telephones.telephone central office that generates toll call transactions .

MULTIPLEXING-WHAT AND WHY ? A method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Hence. The aim of the multiplexing is to share an expensive resource. Establishing an end-to-end connection is impractical. A large no. . require a need to develop suitable mechanism for communication between any two devices. multiplexing for sending messages simultaneously over a single channel. as such there are in PSTN. of devices.

‡ Advantages ± Only one carrier in the medium at any time ± Throughput high even for many users ‡ Disadvantages ± Precise synchronization is necessary .TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Numerous signals are transferred in a round robin fashion. signals are allotted time slots of fixed length. In TDM. one for each sub-channel or signal.

A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time ‡ Advantages ± works also for analog signals ‡ Disadvantages ± waste of bandwidth if traffic is distributed unevenly .FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands .

Used for optical fibers and not copper wires. Each channel has a unique code -All channels use the same spectrum at the same time -Implemented using spread spectrum technology -More complex signal regeneration Wave Division Multiplexing: It is the technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (ie. colors) of laser light. . ± One channel one space ± (Used in old telephone systems) ± a pair of copper wires to each subscribers Code Division Multiplexing : Technique in which each channel transmits its bits as a coded channel-specific sequence of pulses. space-division multiplexing simply implies different point-to-point wires for different channels.OTHER MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES Space Division Multiplexing : In wired communication.

TDM and PCM ---PCM is the technique which transforms an analog telephone circuit into a digital signal It involves three techniques a)Sampling b)Quantization c)Encoding --Combination of TDM and PCM is used for multiplexing . <--Sampling <--Quantization <--Encoding . TDM is the PCM is only compatible with TDM and not with FDM because levels assigned are band unlimited processes that cannot be shown in frequency domain.

several bit streams. are combined by a multiplexer Led to development of high speed optical transmission systems & digitization of satellite communication using TDMA Disadvantage: chains of multiplexers and their interconnection .DIGITAL SYSTEM HIERARCHIES 1. PCM frames are multiplexed together. At each level in the hierarchy. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchies ± Plesiochronous means almost Synchronous. known as tributaries. in stages. to form a hierarchy of bit rates.

) 2. using high capacity optical fiber transmission systems and time division switching Advantageous for the multiplexers used in these networks to be compatible with the switches used at the network nodes. . SDH .Synchronous Digital Hierarchies ± When the networks become fully digital.introduced to fulfill this requirement.544 Mbit/s and above to be multiplexed. they operate synchronously. SDH developed to allow streams 1. to create larger SDH frames known as Synchronous Transport Modules (STM).DIGITAL SYSTEM HIERARCHIES (Contd.

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