ME 323 : I.C Engines Combustion in I.

C Engines

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 1 March 1, 2012 Slide 1

INTRODUCTION

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 2 March 1, 2012 Slide 2

 Combustion  Conditions for combustion  Ignition Limits  Combustion Equations  Stoichiometric Combustion  Air requirement  Composition of air
March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna I.C. Engines Laboratory
Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 3 March 1, 2012 Slide 3

 Air-fuel ratio  Fuel-air ratio  Relative air-fuel ratio  Equivalence ratio  Pre-mixed and Diffusion combustion  Swirl/Squish/Turbulence
March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna I.C. Engines Laboratory Slide 4 March 1, 2012 Slide 4

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J. Mallikarjuna I. M. Chennai .600036 Slide 5 March 1. 2012 Slide 5 . 2012 Dr.C.March 1.

2012 Slide 6 . Mallikarjuna I.600036 Slide 6 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.967 or 29 kg/kmol. March 1.C. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. M.For all calculation : O2 = 21% . N2 = 79% and ratio of N2/O2 is 3. 2012 Dr.76 Average molecular mass of air is 28. Chennai .

2012 Dr. M.600036 Slide 7 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J. 2012 Slide 7 .C. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai .March 1.

2012 Dr.  Squish/Squash :   The radial inward motion of the air-fuel mixture towards (squish) and away from the axis of the engine (squash). Very much required for the gasoline engines. Mallikarjuna Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .C. Very much required for diesel engines.  Turbulence :   Random mixing of the burned and unburned gases very much required for both Otto and Diesel engines.600036 . Swirl :   The orderly motion of the air particularly almost parallel to the axis of the engine. M. I. 2012 Slide 8 March 1. J. Engines Laboratory Slide 8 March 1.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.March 1. Chennai .C. M. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 9 . Mallikarjuna I.600036 Slide 9 March 1. 2012 Dr.

March 1. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr.C. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai . J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 10 .600036 Slide 10 March 1.

Chennai . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.Normal Combustion in SI Engines March 1.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J. M. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I.600036 Slide 11 March 1. 2012 Slide 11 .

2012 Slide 12 .600036 Slide 12 March 1.March 1. J. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.C. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai .

J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.600036 Slide 13 March 1. 2012 Slide 13 . 2012 Dr.C. Chennai . Mallikarjuna I.March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M.

2012 Dr. Chennai .600036 Slide 14 March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I. M. 2012 Slide 14 .C.Combustion in SI engine March 1.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. Chennai . Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.March 1.600036 Slide 15 March 1. J. 2012 Slide 15 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M.

M. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 16 .C.450 and TDC TDC and 45° 450 and 900 90° and BDC BDC and TDC Flames not detected Type of cycle early burn cycle Fast burning cycles slow burn cycles Late burn cycles delayed burn cycles misfires and partial burn cycles Good combustion is almost entirely made up of fast burn cycles. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. March 1. poor combustion consists of a high proportion of late and delayed burn cycles. Chennai .COMBUSTION QUALITY Flames detected between .600036 Slide 16 March 1. J.

Fuel 2. Mixture ratio: March 1.600036 Slide 17 March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai . 2012 Slide 17 .EFFECT OF ENGINE VARIABLES ON IGNITION LAG 1.C. J.

C.3. Initial temperature and pressure 4. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.600036 Slide 18 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 18 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Electrode gap : March 1. M. J. Chennai .

Chennai . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.600036 Slide 19 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.5. M. J.C. 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 19 . Mallikarjuna I. Turbulence: March 1.

600036 Slide 20 March 1. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. J.EFFECT OF ENGINE VARIABLES ON FLAME PROPAGATION 1.C. Fuel-air ratio : March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Chennai . 2012 Slide 20 .

600036 Slide 21 March 1.Rate of Burning March 1. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai . J. 2012 Slide 21 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr. M.C. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

C. M. Chennai . 2012 Slide 22 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr.600036 Slide 22 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I. J.March 1.

J.600036 Slide 23 March 1. 2012 Dr. Chennai . 2012 Slide 23 . Mallikarjuna I. M. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.2.C. Compression Ratio March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

3. Intake temperature and pressure 4. Engine load 5. Turbulence 6. Engine Speed 7. Engine size

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 24 March 1, 2012 Slide 24

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 25 March 1, 2012 Slide 25

Combustion Chambers for Four Stroke SI Engines

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 26 March 1, 2012 Slide 26

Early Ricardo turbulent combustion chamber (1968)

March 1, 2012 Dr. J. M. Mallikarjuna

I.C. Engines Laboratory

Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 600036

Slide 27 March 1, 2012 Slide 27

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C.600036 Slide 28 March 1. J. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. M. 2012 Slide 28 . Chennai . Mallikarjuna I.Old type Combustion Chambers for SI engines March 1.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . J. 2012 Slide 29 . M. Mallikarjuna I.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 29 March 1. 2012 Dr.March 1.

C.March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 30 .600036 Slide 30 March 1. M. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai .

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . J. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr.March 1.C. M. 2012 Slide 31 .600036 Slide 31 March 1.

C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J.600036 Slide 32 March 1. M. 2012 Dr. Chennai . 2012 Slide 32 . Mallikarjuna I.March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I.600036 Slide 33 March 1. J. Chennai .March 1. M.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 33 .

J. 2012 Slide 34 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.Combustion Chambers for Two Stroke SI Engines March 1. Chennai . M. 2012 Dr.600036 Slide 34 March 1. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C.

J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 35 March 1.March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 35 .C. 2012 Dr. Chennai . M. Mallikarjuna I.

Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Slide 36 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 36 March 1. 2012 Dr.March 1. J. Chennai . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. M.

600036 Slide 37 March 1.Abnormal Combustion in SI Engines March 1. 2012 Dr. M.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai . J. 2012 Slide 37 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . 2012 Slide 38 . Mallikarjuna I. M. J.March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C.600036 Slide 38 March 1. 2012 Dr.

Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 39 March 1. 2012 Slide 39 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . 2012 Dr.March 1.C. M. J.

2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 40 . Mallikarjuna I.C.600036 Slide 40 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J.p-t diagram of a normal cycle March 1. Chennai .

C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 41 . Mallikarjuna I. J.600036 Slide 41 March 1.p-t diagram of a knocking cycle March 1. Chennai . M.

J. 2012 Slide 42 . Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr. rpn : Actual Performance number rpn ! Performance number corresponding to the imep of 100 March 1.600036 Slide 42 March 1.Knock Limited Parameters  Knock Limited Compression Ratio  Knock Limited Inlet Pressure  Knock Limited Indicated Mean Effective Pressure  Performance number is defined as the ratio of Klimep with the fuel in question to Klimep with isooctane when the inlet pressure is kept constant. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. M.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai .  Relative performance number.

2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.EFFECT OF ENGINE VARIABLES ON KNOCK  Density factors  Time factors  Composition factors March 1. M. J. Chennai .C.600036 Slide 43 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 43 . Mallikarjuna I.

Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr. J. 2012 Slide 44 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.Density Factors:  Compression Ratio  Mass of Inducted Charge  Inlet Temperature of the Mixture  Temperature of the Combustion Chamber Walls  Retarding the Spark Timing  Power Output of the Engine March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . M.600036 Slide 44 March 1.C.

2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.Time Factors:       Turbulence Engine Speed Flame Travel Distance Engine Size Combustion Chamber Shape Location of Spark Plug March 1.C. J. 2012 Slide 45 . Chennai .600036 Slide 45 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Mallikarjuna I.

Mallikarjuna I. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .Composition Factors:  Fuel-Air Ratio:  Octane Value of the Fuel: March 1. 2012 Slide 46 . 2012 Dr.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 46 March 1. J. M.

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J.C. Mallikarjuna I. M. 2012 Dr.March 1.600036 Slide 47 March 1. Chennai . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 47 .

Chennai . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 48 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. 2012 Dr. J.KNOCK RATING OF SI FUELS March 1. Mallikarjuna I. M.600036 Slide 48 March 1.

2012 Slide 49 . M.600036 Slide 49 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I.Normal Combustion in CI Engines March 1. Chennai .

600036 Slide 50 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. 2012 Slide 50 . Chennai .March 1. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I.

C. Mallikarjuna I. M. Chennai . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 51 March 1. 2012 Dr. J.Schematic representation of a fuel jet March 1. 2012 Slide 51 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

2012 Slide 52 .C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai .600036 Slide 52 March 1. Mallikarjuna I. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.Disintegration of a fuel jet March 1. 2012 Dr. M.

600036 Slide 53 March 1. 2012 Slide 53 . Chennai . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J. M. Mallikarjuna I. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr.March 1.C.

March 1. 2012 Slide 54 .600036 Slide 54 March 1. J. Mallikarjuna I. M. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.

J.C. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.Effect of fuel-air ratio on power output of CI engine March 1. M.600036 Slide 55 March 1. 2012 Dr. Chennai . 2012 Slide 55 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J.Stages of combustion in CI engines March 1. 2012 Slide 56 .600036 Slide 56 March 1. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .C. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.

600036 Slide 57 March 1.P-t diagram showing delay period March 1. Chennai . 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 57 . J.C. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I. M.

2012 Slide 58 . 2012 Dr. Chennai .C.Steps of combustion process in CI engine March 1. M.600036 Slide 58 March 1. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Mallikarjuna I.

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Chennai . 2012 Slide 59 . J. Mallikarjuna I. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.600036 Slide 59 March 1.C.Combustion Rate (CI) March 1. 2012 Dr.

Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr. Chennai . 2012 Slide 60 .Effect of varying the amount of fuel injected on P. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.diagram March 1.C. J. M. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 60 March 1.

2012 Slide 61 .FACTORS AFFECTING THE DELAY PERIOD        Compression ratio Engine speed Power output Atomization of fuel and duration of injection Injection timing Quality of the fuel Intake temperature Intake pressure March 1. J.600036 Slide 61 March 1. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. Chennai . M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

M. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Slide 62 . Chennai .C.600036 Slide 62 March 1. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J.Effect of compression ratio on maximum air temperature and minimum autoignition temperature March 1.

Mallikarjuna I. Chennai . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. M.Effect of speed on ignition delay in a diesel engine March 1.600036 Slide 63 March 1. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 63 .C.

M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . 2012 Dr. J. Mallikarjuna I.Effect of injection timing on indicator diagram March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. 2012 Slide 64 .600036 Slide 64 March 1.

M. 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 65 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. J.600036 Slide 65 March 1.C. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.Effect of engine variables on ignition delay March 1. Chennai .

600036 Slide 66 March 1. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . 2012 Dr. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. M.Abnormal Combustion in CI Engines March 1. 2012 Slide 66 . Mallikarjuna I.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 67 .March 1. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Mallikarjuna I.C.600036 Slide 67 March 1. Chennai . 2012 Dr.

J.600036 Slide 68 March 1.March 1. Mallikarjuna I.C. Chennai . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 68 .

M. J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 69 March 1. 2012 Dr.March 1.C. 2012 Slide 69 . Mallikarjuna I. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.March 1. M. 2012 Slide 70 . Mallikarjuna I. J.600036 Slide 70 March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. Chennai . 2012 Dr.

2012 Slide 71 . 2012 Dr. M. Chennai .March 1.C.600036 Slide 71 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Mallikarjuna I. J.

M. 2012 Dr.Combustion Chambers for Four Stroke CI Engines March 1. 2012 Slide 72 . Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai .C.600036 Slide 72 March 1. J. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.

2012 Slide 73 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. J. M. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.600036 Slide 73 March 1. Chennai .CI Engine Combustion chambers ‡ Open chamber or DI engine ‡ Divided chamber or IDI engine March 1. Mallikarjuna I.C.

2012 Dr. J. Mallikarjuna I. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M.C. Chennai . 2012 Slide 74 .March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.600036 Slide 74 March 1.

Chennai . Mallikarjuna I. J.600036 Slide 75 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.C. 2012 Slide 75 . M.March 1. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

J.600036 Slide 76 March 1.Phases of Combustion in Toroidal open combustion chamber March 1. Chennai . Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Slide 76 .C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Dr.

Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai . 2012 Dr.600036 Slide 77 March 1. M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Mallikarjuna I.M-Combustion chamber March 1. J.C. 2012 Slide 77 .

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 78 .IDI Combustion chambers Swirl generation:  Induction induced swirl  Compression induced swirl  Combustion induced swirl March 1. Chennai .C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 78 March 1. Mallikarjuna I. M. J. 2012 Dr.

600036 Slide 79 March 1. M. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Slide 79 . 2012 Dr.C.March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Chennai . J.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.Comet March 1.C. Chennai . J. M. 2012 Dr. 2012 Slide 80 .600036 Slide 80 March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I.Combustion in Ricardo swirl Chamber .

600036 Slide 81 March 1. 2012 Dr. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. M.C. 2012 Slide 81 . J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Mallikarjuna I. Chennai .Swirl chambers March 1.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 82 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.March 1.600036 Slide 82 March 1. M. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. J. Chennai .C.

Pre-combustion chambers March 1. Mallikarjuna I.600036 Slide 83 March 1. J. 2012 Dr. Chennai . M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 83 .C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.

M. 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I.Mercedes Benz Pre-combustion System March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. 2012 Slide 84 .600036 Slide 84 March 1. Chennai . J. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai . 2012 Dr. Mallikarjuna I. M. J.March 1. 2012 Slide 85 .600036 Slide 85 March 1.

 Higher fuel-air ratios can be used without smoke.Advantages of DI engines  Fuels of poorer ignition quality can be used. March 1. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory.600036 Slide 86 March 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 86 . M. J. Chennai . Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.  Single-hole injection nozzles and moderate injection pressures can be used and can tolerate greater degrees of nozzle fouling.C.

 More difficult cold starting because of greater heat loss through the throat. which result in lower thermal efficiency and higher pumping loss. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr. J.Disadvantages of IDI Engines  More expensive cylinder construction. Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.C. 2012 Slide 87 .600036 Slide 87 March 1. Chennai .  Poorer fuel economy due to greater heat losses and pressure losses through the throat. M. March 1.

600036 Slide 88 March 1. M. Mallikarjuna I. 2012 Dr.Knock Rating of CI Engine Fuel ‡ Cetane number ‡ Variable compression ratio engine ‡ CFR Engine March 1.C. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. 2012 Slide 88 . Engines Laboratory Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. Chennai . J.

J. 2012 Slide 89 Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory. 2012 Dr.THE END March 1. Chennai .C. Mallikarjuna I.600036 . M. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Engines Laboratory Slide 89 March 1.

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