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Hard bop is a style of jazz that is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music. Journalists and record companies began using the term in the mid-1950s to describe a new current within jazz which incorporated influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in saxophone and piano playing.
David H. Rosenthal contends in his book Hard Bop that the genre is to a large degree the natural creation of a generation of AfricanAmerican musicians who grew up at a time when bop and rhythm and blues were the dominant forms of black American music. Prominent jazz musicians included Horace Silver, Art Blakey, Miles Davis and Tadd Dameron .
Hard bop is sometimes referred to as "funky hard bop."The "funky" label refers to the rollicking, rhythmic feeling associated with the style. The descriptor is also used to describe soul jazz, which is commonly associated with hard bop. According to Mark C. Gridley, soul jazz more specifically refers to music with "an earthy, bluesy melodic concept and... repetitive, dancelike rhythms.... Note that some listeners make no distinction between 'soul-jazz' and 'funky hard bop,' and many musicians don't consider 'soul-jazz' to be continuous with 'hard bop.'"The term "soul" suggests the church, and traditional gospel music elements such as "amen chords" (the plagal cadence) and triadic harmonies seemed to suddenly appear in jazz during the era.
As I hope I have said in previous lectures, these various styles of jazz don t necessarily have an easy delineation. (As in- Hard Bop started on March 31st, 1951, at 5:32 PM . ) And obviously, there is a lot of overlap (Miles Davis a great example). However, as we saw with Bebop, with Cool, and now with Hard Bop, there can be movements which can be thought of as a reaction to earlier trends. Some Hard bop musicians wanted to get back to what they perceived as the earthiness of the African American roots of jazz-by playing jazz with more overt Blues, Gospel, and Swing.
George s Top 10 Hard Bop Musicians
1. Horace Silver 2. Art Blakey 3. Lou Donaldson 4. Benny Golson 5. Lee Morgan 6. Freddie Hubbard 7. Jackie MClean 8. Cannonball Adderly 9. Dexter Gordon 10. Hank Mobley 11. Sonny Rollins
Horace Silver (born September 2, 1928), born Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silva in Norwalk, Connecticut, is an American jazz pianist and composer. Silver is known for his distinctive humorous and funky playing style and for his pioneering compositional contributions to hard bop. He was influenced by a wide range of musical styles, notably gospel music, African music, and Latin American music and sometimes ventured into the soul jazz genre.
Song For My Father 1964 Filthy McNasty Blowin The Blues Away 1959
Arthur "Art" Blakey (October 11, 1919 October 16, 1990), known later as Abdullah Ibn Buhaina, was an American Grammy Award-winning jazz drummer and bandleader. Along with Kenny Clarke and Max Roach, he was one of the inventors of the modern bebop style of drumming. He is known as a powerful musician and a vital groover; his brand of bluesy, funky hard bop was and continues to be profoundly influential on mainstream jazz. For more than 30 years his band, Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, included many young musicians who went on to become prominent names in jazz. The band's legacy is thus not only known for the music it produced, but as a proving ground for several generations of jazz musicians; Blakey's groups are matched only by those of Miles Davis in this regard.
Moanin -Live with Lee Morgan and Benny Golson Free For All-Featuring Wayne Shorter Webb City-featuring Wyton Marsalis
Lou Donaldson (born November 1, 1926) is a jazz alto saxophonist. He was born in Badin, North Carolina. He is best known for his soulful, bluesy approach to playing the alto saxophone, although in his formative years he was, as many were of the bebop era, heavily influenced by Charlie Parker.
His first recordings were with bop emissaries Milt Jackson and Thelonious Monk in 1952, and he participated in several small groups with other jazz luminaries such as trumpeter Blue Mitchell, pianist Horace Silver, and drummer Art Blakey. In 1953, he also recorded sessions with the trumpet virtuoso Clifford Brown, and Philly Joe Jones. He was a member of Art Blakey's Quintet and appeared on some of their best regarded albums, including the two albums recorded at Birdland in February 1954 Night at Birdland.
Alligator Boogaloo Wig Blues-with Ben Dixon
Benny Golson (born January 25, 1929) is an American bebop/hard bop jazz tenor saxophonist, composer, and arranger. Few jazz musicians can claim to be true innovators and even fewer can boast of a performing and recording career that literally redefines the term "jazz". Benny Golson has made major contributions to the world of jazz with such jazz standards as:
Killer Joe, I Remember Clifford, Along Came Betty, Stablemates Whisper Not, Blues March, Five Spot After Dark, Are you Real? Benny Golson is the only living jazz artist to have written 8 standards for jazz repertoire. These jazz standards have found their way into countless recordings internationally over the years and are still being recorded.
His prolific writing includes scores for hit TV series and films: M*A*S*H, Mannix, Mission Impossible, Mod Squad, Room 222, Run for Your Life, The Partridge Family, The Academy Awards, The Karen Valentine Show, Television specials for ABC, CBS and NBC Television specials for BBC in London and Copenhagen, Denmark Theme for Bill Cosby's last TV show, A french film 'Des Femmes Disparaissent" (Paris) He has written music for national radio and television spots for some of the major advertising agencies in the country. Some of these commercials were for: Borateem, Canada Dry, Carnation, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Clorox, Dodge, General Telephone, Gillette, Heinz Foods, Jack in The Box, Liquid Plum'r, MacDonald's, Mattel Toys, Monsanto, Nissan, Ohrbachs, Ore-Ida Frozen Potatoes, Parliament Cigarettes, Pepsi Cola, Texaco
Stablemates Killer Joe
Edward Lee Morgan (July 10, 1938, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania February 19, 1972, New York City) was an American hard bop trumpeter. Influenced by Clifford Brown and Dizzy Gillespie, appeared on Blue Train when he was 19. Joined Art Blakey in 1958, began heroin use, which hurt his career The Sidewinder was a commercial success, (Chrysler used it without his permission)-got many Blue Note artists to use the boogaloo beat Recorded many albums throughout the 1960 s
The Jazz Life .
Morgan was murdered in the early hours of February 19, 1972, at Slugs', a jazz club in New York City's East Village where his band was performing. Following an altercation between sets, Morgan's common-law wife Helen More (a.k.a. Morgan), shot him in the chest onstage, killing him within moments. He was 33 years old. According to an eye witness, Miss More (13 years his senior) walked out of the club just before the last set. She returned and the band was already on stage. Lee was trying to get up there, but was talking with some people. He just started to get up the stage, when she entered and called his name. He turned around and she shot him in the heart. She then turned the gun on the club's doorman Ernie Holman, who grabbed her wrist and took the gun away from her. She started to scream "Baby, what have I done?" and ran to him. She was later arrested, tried, sentenced, and paroled by 1978..
The Sidewinder Hocus Pocus-interesting it's from the same recording Our Man Higgins
Frederick Dewayne "Freddie" Hubbard (April 7, 1938 December 29, 2008) was an American jazz trumpeter. He was known primarily for playing in the bebop, hard bop and post bop styles from the early 1960s and on. His unmistakable and influential tone contributed to new perspectives for modern jazz and bebop.
Following a long setback of health problems and a serious lip injury in 1992 where he ruptured his upper lip and subsequently developed an infection, Hubbard was again playing and recording occasionally, even if not at the high level that he set for himself during his earlier career. His best records ranked with the finest in his field.
Freddie Hubbard with Bill Evans-Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams Fantasy in D Red Clay
John Lenwood (Jackie) McLean (May 17, 1931 March 31, 2006) was an American jazz alto saxophonist, composer, bandleader, educator, and is a member of the DownBeat Hall of Fame, born in New York City. Learned from the great Bebop originators Played with Miles Davis when he was 19 Had problems with Heroin in early career Known as hard bop player, but also ventured into more free playing later in career Started the Jackie McLean Institute of Jazz at the University of Hartford
Right Now! Kahlil the Prophet, from Destination Out
Julian Edwin "Cannonball" Adderley (September 15, 1928 August 8, 1975) was a jazz alto saxophonist of the hard-bop era of the 1950s and 1960s. Adderley is remembered for his 1966 single "Mercy Mercy Mercy", a crossover hit on the pop charts, and for his work with trumpeter Miles Davis, including on the epochal album Kind of Blue (1959). He was the brother of jazz cornetist Nat Adderley, a longtime member of his band.
Mercy Mercy Mercy Work Song I Can't Get Started
Dexter Gordon (February 27, 1923 April 25, 1990) was an American jazz tenor saxophonist and an Academy Award-nominated actor (Round Midnight, Warner Bros, 1986). He is regarded as one of the first and most important musicians to adapt the bebop musical language of people like Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Bud Powell to the tenor saxophone. His studio and live performance career were both extensive and multifaceted, spanning over 50 years in recorded jazz history.
Cheesecake It's You Or No One
One of the Blue Note label's definitive hard bop artists, tenor saxophonist Hank Mobley remains somewhat underappreciated for his straightforward, swinging style. Any characterization of Mobley invariably begins with critic Leonard Feather's assertion that he was the "middleweight champion of the tenor saxophone," meaning that his tone wasn't as aggressive and thick as John Coltrane or Sonny Rollins, but neither was it as soft and cool as Stan Getz or Lester Young.
Ken Burns excerpt Sonny Rollins
Born Sept 7 1930 Grew Up in Harlem Played alto to be like Louis Jordan, but then switched to tenor to emulate Coleman Hawkins Followed Charlie Parker and Monk around Recorded with Miles when he was 19 Moved to Chicago for a while, then returned to join Clifford Brown and Max Roach in 1955 Many classic recordings from the 50s include Way Out West, and The Freedom Suite
Withdrew from live performance between 1959 and 1961, would practice on the Williamsburg Bridge Made another sabbatical in late 60 s Received many accolades recently, including the Kennedy Center Honors
St. Thomas The Bridge-with Jim Hall, Bob Crenshaw and Ben Riley Strode Rode from 2009 Sonny Talks About the Rhythm Section What makes Sonny Rollins Happy?
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