© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

2

Data Networks
Sharing data through the use of floppy disks is not an efficient or cost-effective manner in which to operate businesses. Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the following three problems: • How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources • How to communicate efficiently • How to set up and manage a network Businesses realized that networking technology could increase productivity while saving money.
3

Networking Devices
Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. These devices are broken up into two classifications. • end-user devices • network devices End-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, and other devices that provide services directly to the user. Network devices include all the devices that connect the enduser devices together to allow them to communicate.
4

Network Interface Card
A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter.

5

Networking Device Icons

6

Repeater
A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal. Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does not perform intelligent routing.

7

Hub
Hubs concentrate connections. In other words, they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. This is done passively, without any other effect on the data transmission. Active hubs not only concentrate hosts, but they also regenerate signals.

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Bridge
Bridges convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management. Bridges, as the name implies, provide connections between LANs. Not only do bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a check on the data to determine whether it should cross the bridge or not. This makes each part of the network more efficient.

9

Workgroup Switch
Workgroup switches add more intelligence to data transfer management. Switches can determine whether data should remain on a LAN or not, and they can transfer the data to the connection that needs that data.
10

Router
Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routers can regenerate signals, concentrate multiple connections, convert data transmission formats, and manage data transfers.They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect LANs that are separated by great distances.

11

“The Cloud”
The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where the connection to the internet is. It also represents all of the devices on the internet.

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Network Topologies
Network topology defines the structure of the network. One part of the topology definition is the physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media. The other part is the logical topology,which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data.

13

Physical Topologies

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Bus Topology
A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both ends. All the hosts connect directly to this backbone.

15

Ring Topology
A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. This creates a physical ring of cable.

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Star Topology
A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration.

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Extended Star Topology
An extended star topology links individual stars together by connecting the hubs and/or switches.This topology can extend the scope and coverage of the network.

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Hierarchical Topology
A hierarchical topology is similar to an extended star.

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Mesh Topology
A mesh topology is implemented to provide as much protection as possible from interruption of service. Each host has its own connections to all other hosts. Although the Internet has multiple paths to any one location, it does not adopt the full mesh topology.

20

LANs, MANs, & WANs
One early solution was the creation of local-area network (LAN) standards which provided an open set of guidelines for creating network hardware and software, making equipment from different companies compatible. What was needed was a way for information to move efficiently and quickly, not only within a company, but also from one business to another. The solution was the creation of metropolitan-area networks (MANs) and wide-area networks (WANs).
21

Examples of Data Networks
Central-Prozessing-Unit

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LANs

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Wireless LAN Organizations and Standards
In cabled networks, IEEE is the prime issuer of standards for wireless networks. The standards have been created within the framework of the regulations created by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). A key technology contained within the 802.11 standard is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).

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Cellular Topology for Wireless

25

WANs

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SANs
A SAN is a dedicated, highperformance network used to move data between servers and storage resources. Because it is a separate, dedicated network, it avoids any traffic conflict between clients and servers.
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Virtual Private Network
A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet. Using VPN, a telecommuter can access the network of the company headquarters through the Internet by building a secure tunnel between the telecommuter’s PC and a VPN router in the headquarters.

28

Bandwidth

29

Measuring Bandwidth

30

31

Why do we need the OSI Model?
To address the problem of networks increasing in size and in number, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched many network schemes and recognized that there was a need to create a network model that would help network builders implement networks that could communicate and work together and therefore, released the OSI reference model in 1984.

32

Don’t Get Confused.
ISO - International Organization for Standardization OSI - Open System Interconnection IOS - Internetwork Operating System The ISO created the OSI to make the IOS more efficient. The “ISO” acronym is correct as shown. To avoid confusion, some people say “International Standard Organization.”
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The OSI Reference Model
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical
34

The OSI Model will be used throughout your entire networking career!

Memorize it!

Layer 7 - The Application Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical
35

This layer deal with networking applications. Examples: • Email • Web browsers PDU - User Data

Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical
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This layer is responsible for presenting the data in the required format which may include: • Encryption • Compression PDU - Formatted Data

Layer 5 - The Session Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. Example: • Client Software ( Used for logging in) PDU - Formatted Data
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Layer 4 - The Transport Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer breaks up the data from the sending host and then reassembles it in the receiver. It also is used to insure reliable data transport across the network. PDU - Segments
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Layer 3 - The Network Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Sometimes referred to as the “Cisco Layer”. Makes “Best Path Determination” decisions based on logical addresses (usually IP addresses). PDU - Packets

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Layer 2 - The Data Link Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. Makes decisions based on physical addresses (usually MAC addresses). PDU - Frames

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Layer 1 - The Physical Layer
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical This is the physical media through which the data, represented as electronic signals, is sent from the source host to the destination host. Examples: • CAT5 (what we have) • Coaxial (like cable TV) • Fiber optic PDU - Bits
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OSI Model Analogy Application Layer - Source Host

After riding your new bicycle a few times in NewYork, you decide that you want to give it to a friend who lives in Munich,Germany. 42

OSI Model Analogy Presentation Layer - Source Host

Make sure you have the proper directions to disassemble and reassemble the bicycle.
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OSI Model Analogy Session Layer - Source Host

Call your friend and make sure you have his correct address.
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OSI Model Analogy Transport Layer - Source Host

Disassemble the bicycle and put different pieces in different boxes. The boxes are labeled “1 of 3”, “2 of 3”, and “3 of 3”. 45

OSI Model Analogy Network Layer - Source Host

Put your friend's complete mailing address (and yours) on each box.Since the packages are too big for your mailbox (and since you don’t have enough stamps) you determine that you need to 46 go to the post office.

OSI Model Analogy Data Link Layer – Source Host

NewYork post office takes possession of the boxes.
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OSI Model Analogy Physical Layer - Media

The boxes are flown from USA to Germany.
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OSI Model Analogy Data Link Layer - Destination

Munich post office receives your boxes.
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OSI Model Analogy Network Layer - Destination

Upon examining the destination address, Munich post office determines that your boxes should be delivered to your written home address. 50

OSI Model Analogy Transport Layer - Destination

Your friend calls you and tells you he got all 3 boxes and he is having another friend named BOB reassemble the bicycle.

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OSI Model Analogy Session Layer - Destination

Your friend hangs up because he is done talking to you.
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OSI Model Analogy Presentation Layer - Destination

BOB is finished and “presents” the bicycle to your friend. Another way to say it is that your friend is finally getting him “present”.

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OSI Model Analogy Application Layer - Destination

Your friend enjoys riding his new bicycle in Munich.
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Host Layers
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical
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These layers only exist in the source and destination host computers.

Media Layers
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical These layers manage the information out in the LAN or WAN between the source and destination hosts.
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Data Flow Through a Network

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58

LAN Physical Layer
Various symbols are used to represent media types. The function of media is to carry a flow of information through a LAN.Networking media are considered Layer 1, or physical layer, components of LANs. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantage or disadvantage comparisons concern: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation • Susceptibility to interference Coaxial cable, optical fiber, and even free space can carry network signals. However, the principal medium that will be studied is Category 5 unshielded twistedpair cable (Cat 5 UTP)

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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

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http://www.2ics.be/technical/technic
EIA/TIA specifies an RJ-45 connector for UTP cable. The RJ-45 transparent end connector shows eight colored wires. Four of the wires carry the voltage and are considered “tip” (T1 through T4). The other four wires are grounded and are called “ring” (R1 through R4). The wires in the first pair in a cable or a connector are designated as T1 & R1

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Connection Media
The registered jack (RJ-45) connector and jack are the most common. In some cases the type of connector on a network interface card (NIC) does not match the media that it needs to connect to. The attachment unit interface (AUI) connector allows different media to connect when used with the appropriate transceiver. A transceiver is an adapter that converts one type of connection to another.
62

Ethernet Standards
The Ethernet standard specifies that each of the pins on an RJ-45 connector have a particular purpose. A NIC transmits signals on pins 1 & 2, and it receives signals on pins 3 & 6.

63

Remember…
A straight-thru cable has T568B on both ends. A crossover (or cross-connect) cable has T568B on one end and T568A on the other. A console cable had T568B on one end and reverse T568B on the other, which is why it is also called a rollover cable.

64

Straight-Thru or Crossover
Use straight-through cables for the following cabling: • Switch to router • Switch to PC or server • Hub to PC or server Use crossover cables for the following cabling: • Switch to switch • Switch to hub • Hub to hub • Router to router • PC to PC • Router to PC 65

Sources of Noise on Copper Media
Noise is any electrical energy on the transmission cable that makes it difficult for a receiver to interpret the data sent from the transmitter. TIA/EIA-568-B certification of a cable now requires testing for a variety of types of noise.Twisted-pair cable is designed to take advantage of the effects of crosstalk in order to minimize noise. In twisted-pair cable, a pair of wires is used to transmit one signal.The wire pair is twisted so that each wire experiences similar crosstalk. Because a noise signal on one wire will appear identically on the other wire, this noise be easily detected and filtered at receiver.Twisting one pair of wires in a cable also helps to reduce crosstalk of data or noise signals from adjacent wires.

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Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

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Coaxial Cable

68

Fiber Optic Cable

69

Fiber Optic Connectors
Connectors are attached to the fiber ends so that the fibers can be connected to the ports on the transmitter and receiver. The type of connector most commonly used with multimode fiber is the Subscriber Connector (SC connector).On single-mode fiber, the Straight Tip (ST) connector is frequently used

70

Fiber Optic Patch Panels
Fiber patch panels similar to the patch panels used with copper cable.

71

Cable Specifications
10BASE-T The T stands for twisted pair. 10BASE5 The 5 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 500 meters 10BASE5 is often referred to as Thicknet. 10BASE2 The 2 represents the fact that a signal can travel for approximately 200 meters 10BASE2 is often referred to as Thinnet. All 3 of these specifications refer to the speed of transmission at 10 Mbps and a type of transmission that is baseband, or digitally interpreted. Thinnet and Thicknet are actually a type of networks, while 10BASE2 & 10BASE5 are the types of cabling used in these networks. 72

Ethernet Media Connector Requirements

73

LAN Physical Layer Implementation

74

Ethernet in the Campus

75

WAN Physical Layer

76

WAN Serial Connection Options

77

Serial Implementation of DTE & DCE
When connecting directly to a service provider, or to a device such as a CSU/DSU that will perform signal clocking, the router is a DTE and needs a DTE serial cable. This is typically the case for routers.

78

Back-to-Back Serial Connection
When performing a back-to-back router scenario in a test environment, one of the routers will be a DTE and the other will be a DCE.
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Repeater
repeater is a network A device used to regenerate a signal. Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss due to attenuation.Repeater is a Physical Layer device

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The 4 Repeater Rule
The Four Repeater Rule for 10-Mbps Ethernet should be used as a standard when extending LAN segments.

This rule states that no more than four repeaters can be used between hosts on a LAN.
This rule is used to limit latency added to frame travel by each repeater.

81

Hub
Hubs concentrate connections.In other words, they take a group of hosts and allow the network to see them as a single unit. Hub is a physical layer device.

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Network Interface Card
The function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the network medium. A NIC is a printed circuit board that fits into the expansion slot on the motherboard or peripheral device of a computer. The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter. NICs are considered Data Link Layer devices because each NIC carries a unique code called a MAC address.

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MAC Address
MAC address is 48 bits in length and expressed as twelve hexadecimal digits.MAC addresses are sometimes referred to as burned-in addresses (BIA) because they are burned into read-only memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the NIC initializes.

84

Bridge
Bridges are Data Link layer devices.Connected host addresses are learned and stored on a MAC address table.Each bridge port has a unique MAC address

85

Bridges

86

Bridging Graphic

87

Switch
Switches are Data Link layer devices. Each Switch port has a unique MAC address. Connected host MAC addresses are learned and stored on a MAC address table.
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Switching Modes
cut-through A switch starts to transfer the frame as soon as the destination MAC address is received. No error checking is available. Must use synchronous switching. store-and-forward At the other extreme, the switch can receive the entire frame before sending it out the destination port. This gives the switch software an opportunity to verify the Frame Check Sum (FCS) to ensure that the frame was reliably received before sending it to the destination. Must be used with asynchronous switching. fragment-free A compromise between the cut-through and store-and-forward modes. Fragment-free reads the first 64 bytes, which includes the frame header, and switching begins before the entire data field and checksum are read.
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Full Duplex
Another capability emerges when only two nodes are connected. In a network that uses twisted-pair cabling, one pair is used to carry the transmitted signal from one node to the other node. A separate pair is used for the return or received signal. It is possible for signals to pass through both pairs simultaneously. The capability of communication in both directions at once is known as full duplex.

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Switches – MAC Tables

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Switches – Parallel Communication

92

Microsegmentation
A switch is simply a bridge with many ports. When only one node is connected to a switch port, the collision domain on the shared media contains only two nodes. The two nodes in this small segment, or collision domain, consist of the switch port and the host connected to it. These small physical segments are called micro segments.

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Peer-to-Peer Network
In a peer-to-peer network, networked computers act as equal partners, or peers. As peers, each computer can take on the client function or the server function. At one time, computer A may make a request for a file from computer B, which responds by serving the file to computer A. Computer A functions as client, while B functions as the server. At a later time, computers A and B can reverse roles. In a peer-to-peer network, individual users control their own resources. Peer-topeer networks are relatively easy to install and operate. As networks grow, peer-topeer relationships become increasingly difficult to coordinate.

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Client/Server Network
In a client/server arrangement, network services are located on a dedicated computer called a server. The server responds to the requests of clients. The server is a central computer that is continuously available to respond to requests from clients for file, print, application, and other services. Most network operating systems adopt the form of a client/server relationship.

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Why Another Model?
Although the OSI reference model is universally recognized, the historical and technical open standard of the Internet is Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The TCP/IP reference model and the TCP/IP protocol stack make data communication possible between any two computers, anywhere in the world, at nearly the speed of light. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP reference model because it wanted a network that could survive any conditions, even a nuclear war. 97

Don’t Confuse the Models

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Transport Internet Network Access Application

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2 Models Side-By-Side
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Transport Internet Network Access
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Application

The Application Layer
The application layer of the TCP/IP model handles highlevel protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control.

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The Transport Layer

The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host. It constitutes a logical connection between these endpoints of the network. Transport protocols segment and reassemble upper-layer applications into the same data stream between endpoints. The transport layer data stream provides end-to-end 101 transport services.

The Internet Layer
The purpose of the Internet layer is to select the best path through the network for packets to travel. The main protocol that functions at this layer is the Internet Protocol (IP). Best path determination and packet switching occur at this layer.

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The Network Access Layer
The network access layer is also called the host-tonetwork layer. It the layer that is concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make a physical link to the network media. It includes LAN and WAN details, and all the details contained in the OSI physical and data-link layers. NOTE: ARP & RARP work at both the Internet and Network Access Layers.

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Comparing TCP/IP & OSI Models
NOTE: TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets as the transport layer in the OSI model does.

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Introduction to the Transport Layer
The primary duties of the transport layer, Layer 4 of the OSI model, are to transport and regulate the flow of information from the source to the destination, reliably and accurately. End-to-end control and reliability are provided by sliding windows, sequencing numbers, and acknowledgments.

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More on The Transport Layer
The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host. It establishes a logical connection between the endpoints of the network. • Transport services include the following basic services: • Segmentation of upper-layer application data • Establishment of end-to-end operations • Transport of segments from one end host to another end host • Flow control provided by sliding windows • Reliability provided by sequence numbers and acknowledgments 106

Flow Control
As the transport layer sends data segments, it tries to ensure that data is not lost. A receiving host that is unable to process data as quickly as it arrives could be a cause of data loss. Flow control avoids the problem of a transmitting host overflowing the buffers in the receiving host.

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3-Way Handshake
TCP requires connection establishment before data transfer begins. For a connection to be established or initialized, the two hosts must synchronize their Initial Sequence Numbers (ISNs).

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Basic Windowing
Data packets must be delivered to the recipient in the same order in which they were transmitted to have a reliable, connection-oriented data transfer. The protocol fails if any data packets are lost, damaged, duplicated, or received in a different order. An easy solution is to have a recipient acknowledge the receipt of each packet before the next packet is sent.

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Sliding Window

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Sliding Window with Different Window Sizes

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TCP Sequence & Acknowledgement

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TCP
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented Layer 4 protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack. In a connection-oriented environment, a connection is established between both ends before the transfer of information can begin. TCP is responsible for breaking messages into segments, reassembling them at the destination station, resending anything that is not received, and reassembling messages from the segments.TCP supplies a virtual circuit between end-user applications. The protocols that use TCP include: • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • Telnet

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TCP Segment Format

114

UDP
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the connectionless transport protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams, without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery. Error processing and retransmission must be handled by higher layer protocols. UDP uses no windowing or acknowledgments so reliability, if needed, is provided by application layer protocols. UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put sequences of segments together. The protocols that use UDP include: • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) • DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) • DNS (Domain Name System)

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UDP Segment Format

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Well Known Port Numbers
The following port numbers should be memorized:
NOTE: The curriculum forgot to mention one of the most important port numbers. Port 80 is used for HTTP or WWW protocols. (Essentially access to the internet.)

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URL

118

SNMP – Managed Network

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120

Base 2 Number System
101102 = (1 x 24 = 16) + (0 x 23 = 0) + (1 x 22 = 4) + (1 x 21 = 2) + (0 x 20 = 0) = 22

121

Converting Decimal to Binary
Convert 20110 to binary:
201 / 2 = 100 remainder 1 100 / 2 = 50 remainder 0 50 / 2 = 25 remainder 0 25 / 2 = 12 remainder 1 12 / 2 = 6 remainder 0 6 / 2 = 3 remainder 0 3 / 2 = 1 remainder 1 1 / 2 = 0 remainder 1 When the quotient is 0, take all the remainders in reverse order for your answer: 20110 = 110010012
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123

Network and Host Addressing
Using the IP address of the destination network, a router can deliver a packet to the correct network. When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination network, the router uses the IP address to locate the particular computer connected to that network. Accordingly, every IP address has two parts.
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Network Layer Communication Path
A router forwards packets from the originating network to the destination network using the IP protocol. The packets must include an identifier for both the source and destination networks.

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Internet Addresses
IP Addressing is a hierarchical structure.An IP address combines two identifiers into one number. This number must be a unique number, because duplicate addresses would make routing impossible.The first part identifies the system's network address.The second part, called the host part, identifies which particular machine it is on the network.

126

IP Address Classes
IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large, medium, and small networks.

Cla ss A addresses are assigned to larger networks. Cla ss B addresses are used for medium-sized networks, & Cla ss C for small networks.

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Identifying Address Classes

128

Address Class Prefixes
To accommodate different size networks and aid in classifying these networks, IP addresses are divided into groups called classes.This is classful addressing.

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Network and Host Division
Each complete 32-bit IP address is broken down into a network part and a host part. A bit or bit sequence at the start of each address determines the class of the address. There are 5 IP address classes.

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Class A Addresses
The Class A address was designed to support extremely large networks, with more than 16 million host addresses available. Class A IP addresses use only the first octet to indicate the network address. The remaining three octets provide for host addresses.

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Class B Addresses
The Class B address was designed to support the needs of moderate to large-sized networks.A Class B IP address uses the first two of the four octets to indicate the network address. The other two octets specify host addresses.

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Class C Addresses
The Class C address space is the most commonly used of the original address classes.This address space was intended to support small networks with a maximum of 254 hosts.

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Class D Addresses
The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in an IP address. A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets with that destination address to predefined groups of IP addresses. Therefore, a single station can simultaneously transmit a single stream of data to multiple recipients.

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Class E Addresses
A Class E address has been defined. However, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) reserves these addresses for its own research. Therefore, no Class E addresses have been released for use in the Internet.

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IP Address Ranges
The graphic below shows the IP address range of the first octet both in decimal and binary for each IP address class.

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IPv4
As early as 1992, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) identified two specific concerns: Exhaustion of the remaining, unassigned IPv4 network addresses and the increase in the size of Internet routing tables. Over the past two decades, numerous extensions to IPv4 have been developed. Two of the more important of these are subnet masks and classless interdomain routing (CIDR).

137

Finding the Network Address with ANDing
By ANDing the Host address of 192.168.10.2 with 255.255.255.0 (its network mask) we obtain the network address of 192.168.10.0

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Network Address

139

Broadcast Address

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Network/Broadcast Addresses at the Binary Level
An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address, which identifies the network. An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is reserved for the broadcast address, which is used to send data to all hosts on the network. Here are some examples: Class A B C Network Address 100.0.0.0 150.75.0.0 200.100.50.0 Broadcast Address 100.255.255.255 150.75.255.255 200.100.50.255
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Public IP Addresses
Unique addresses are required for each device on a network. Originally, an organization known as the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) handled this procedure. InterNIC no longer exists and has been succeeded by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address because public IP addresses are global and standardized. All machines connected to the Internet agree to conform to the system. Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense.
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Private IP Addresses
Private IP addresses are another solution to the problem of the impending exhaustion of public IP addresses.As mentioned, public networks require hosts to have unique IP addresses. However, private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use any host addresses, as long as each host within the private network is unique.

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Mixing Public and Private IP Addresses
Private IP addresses can be intermixed, as shown in the graphic, with public IP addresses.This will conserve the number of addresses used for internal connections. Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses. This translation process is referred to as Network Address Translation (NAT).

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Introduction to Subnetting
Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to divide the network and break a large network up into smaller, more efficient and manageable segments, or subnets. With subnetting, the network is not limited to the default Class A, B, or C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design. Subnet addresses include the network portion, plus a subnet field and a host field.The ability to decide how to divide the original host portion into the new subnet and host fields provides addressing flexibility for the network administrator.

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The 32-Bit Binary IP Address

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Numbers That Show Up In Subnet Masks (Memorize Them!)

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Addressing with Subnetworks

148

Obtaining an Internet Address

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Static Assignment of an IP Address
Static assignment works best on small networks. The administrator manually assigns and tracks IP addresses for each computer, printer, or server on the intranet. Network printers, application servers, and routers should be assigned static IP addresses.

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ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
Host A
SIEMENS NIXDO RF

ARP Request - Broadcast to all hosts „What is the hardware address for IP address 128.0.10.4?“

ARP Reply
SIE NS ME NIXDOR F SIEM ENS NIXDORF

Host B IP Address: 128.0.10.4 HW Address: 080020021545

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Fig. 32 How does ARP work? (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 47)

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Fig. 33 The ARP command (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 47)

1 Network = 1 Broadcast Domain

A

B

host B would reply

Broadcast: ARP request

2 Networks = 2 Broadcast Domains

A

Router

B

no one would reply

Broadcast: ARP request

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Fig. 34 Proxy-ARP concept (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 49)

A

B A B

Router R I take care, to forward IP packets to B

Broadcast Message to all: If your IP address matches “B” then please tell me your Ethernet address

Yes, I know the destination network, let me give you my Ethernet address

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RARP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) associates a known MAC addresses with an IP addresses. A network device, such as a diskless workstation, might know its MAC address but not its IP address. RARP allows the device to make a request to learn its IP address. Devices using RARP require that a RARP server be present on the network to answer RARP requests.

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BootP
The bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client-server environment and only requires a single packet exchange to obtain IP information. However, unlike RARP, BOOTP packets can include the IP address, as well as the address of a router, the address of a server, and vendor-specific information. One problem with BOOTP, however, is that it was not designed to provide dynamic address assignment. With BOOTP, a network administrator creates a configuration file that specifies the parameters for each device.The administrator must add hosts and maintain the BOOTP database. Even though the addresses are dynamically assigned, there is still a one to one relationship between the number of IP addresses and the number of hosts. This means that for every host on the network there must be a BOOTP profile with an IP address assignment in it. No two profiles can have the same IP address.
156

DHCP
Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) is the successor to BOOTP. Unlike BOOTP, DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically without the network administrator having to set up an individual profile for each device. All that is required when using DHCP is a defined range of IP addresses on a DHCP server.As hosts come online, they contact the DHCP server and request an address. The DHCP server chooses an address and leases it to that host. With DHCP, the entire network configuration of a computer can be obtained in one message. This includes all of the data supplied by the BOOTP message, plus a leased IP address and a subnet mask. The major advantage that DHCP has over BOOTP is that it allows users to be mobile.
157

158

Introduction to Routers
A router is a special type of computer. It has the same basic components as a standard desktop PC. However, routers are designed to perform some very specific functions. Just as computers need operating systems to run software applications, routers need the Internetwork Operating System software (IOS) to run configuration files. These configuration files contain the instructions and parameters that control the flow of traffic in and out of the routers. The many parts of a router are shown below:

159

RAM
Random Access Memory, also called dynamic RAM (DRAM) RAM has the following characteristics and functions: • • • • • • • Stores routing tables Holds ARP cache Holds fast-switching cache Performs packet buffering (shared RAM) Maintains packet-hold queues Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of the router while the router is powered on Loses content when router is powered down or restarted
160

NVRAM
Non-Volatile RAM NVRAM has the following characteristics and functions: • • Provides storage for the startup configuration file Retains content when router is powered down or restarted

161

Flash
Flash memory has the following characteristics and functions: • Holds the operating system image (IOS) • Allows software to be updated without removing and replacing chips on the processor • Retains content when router is powered down or restarted • Can store multiple versions of IOS software Is a type of electronically erasable, programmable ROM (EEPROM)

162

ROM
Read-Only Memory ROM has the following characteristics and functions: • Maintains instructions for power-on self test (POST) diagnostics • Stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software • Requires replacing pluggable chips on the motherboard for software upgrades
163

Interfaces
Interfaces have the following characteristics and functions: • • Connect router to network for frame entry and exit Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module

Types of interfaces: • • • • • • • • Ethernet Fast Ethernet Serial Token ring ISDN BRI Loopback Console Aux

164

Internal Components of a 2600 Router

165

External Components of a 2600 Router

166

External Connections

167

Fixed Interfaces
When cabling routers for serial connectivity, the routers will either have fixed or modular ports. The type of port being used will affect the syntax used later to configure each interface. Interfaces on routers with fixed serial ports are labeled for port type and port number.

168

Modular Serial Port Interfaces
Interfaces on routers with modular serial ports are labeled for port type, slot, and port number.The slot is the location of the module.To configure a port on a modular card, it is necessary to specify the interface using the syntax “port type slot number/port number.” Use the label “serial 0/1,” when the interface is serial, the slot number where the module is installed is slot 0, and the port that is being referenced is port 1.

169

Routers & DSL Connections
The Cisco 827 ADSL router has one asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) interface. To connect a router for DSL service, use a phone cable with RJ-11 connectors. DSL works over standard telephone lines using pins 3 and 4 on a standard RJ-11 connector.

170

Computer/Terminal Console Connection

171

Modem Connection to Console/Aux Port

172

HyperTerminal Session Properties

173

Establishing a HyperTerminal Session
Take the following steps to connect a terminal to the console port on the router: First, connect the terminal using the RJ-45 to RJ-45 rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter. Then, configure the terminal or PC terminal emulation software for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.

174

Cisco IOS
Cisco technology is built around the Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS), which is the software that controls the routing and switching functions of internetworking devices. A solid understanding of the IOS is essential for a network administrator.

175

The Purpose of Cisco IOS
As with a computer, a router or switch cannot function without an operating system. Cisco calls its operating system the Cisco Internetwork Operating System or Cisco IOS. It is the embedded software architecture in all of the Cisco routers and is also the operating system of the Catalyst switches. Without an operating system, the hardware does not have any capabilities. The Cisco IOS provides the following network services: • Basic routing and switching functions • Reliable and secure access to networked resources 176 • Network scalability

Router Command Line Interface

177

Setup Mode
Setup is not intended as the mode for entering complex protocol features in the router. The purpose of the setup mode is to permit the administrator to install a minimal configuration for a router, unable to locate a configuration from another source. In the setup mode, default answers appear in square brackets [ ] following the question. Press the Enter key to use these defaults. During the setup process, Ctrl-C can be pressed at any time to terminate the process. When setup is terminated using Ctrl-C, all interfaces will be administratively shutdown. When the configuration process is completed in setup mode, the following options will be displayed: [0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config. [1] Return back to the setup without saving this config. [2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit. 178 Enter your selection [2]:

Operation of Cisco IOS Software
The Cisco IOS devices have three distinct operating environments or modes: • ROM monitor • Boot ROM • Cisco IOS The startup process of the router normally loads into RAM and executes one of these operating environments. The configuration register setting can be used by the system administrator to control the default start up mode for the router. To see the IOS image and version that is running, use the show version command, which also indicates the configuration register setting.

179

IOS File System Overview

180

Initial Startup of Cisco Routers
A router initializes by loading the bootstrap, the operating system, and a configuration file. If the router cannot find a configuration file, it enters setup mode. Upon completion of the setup mode a backup copy of the configuration file may be saved to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). The goal of the startup routines for Cisco IOS software is to start the router operations. To do this, the startup routines must accomplish the following: • Make sure that the router hardware is tested and functional. • Find and load the Cisco IOS software. • Find and apply the startup configuration file or enter the setup mode. When a Cisco router powers up, it performs a power-on self test (POST). During this self test, the router executes diagnostics from ROM on all 181 hardware modules.

After the Post…
After the POST, the following events occur as the router initializes: Step 1 The generic bootstrap loader in ROM executes. A bootstrap is a simple set of instructions that tests hardware and initializes the IOS for operation. Step 2 The IOS can be found in several places. The boot field of the configuration register determines the location to be used in loading the IOS. If the boot field indicates a flash or network load, boot system commands in the configuration file indicate the exact name and location of the image. Step 3 The operating system image is loaded. Step 4 The configuration file saved in NVRAM is loaded into main memory and executed one line at a time. The configuration commands start routing processes, supply addresses for interfaces, and define other operating characteristics of the router. Step 5 If no valid configuration file exists in NVRAM, the operating system searches for an 182 available TFTP server. If no TFTP server is found, the setup dialog is initiated.

Step in Router Initialization

183

Router LED Indicators
Cisco routers use LED indicators to provide status information. Depending upon the Cisco router model, the LED indicators will vary. An interface LED indicates the activity of the corresponding interface. If an LED is off when the interface is active and the interface is correctly connected, a problem may be indicated. If an interface is extremely busy, its LED will always be on. The green OK LED to the right of the AUX port will be on after the system initializes correctly.

184

Enhanced Cisco IOS Commands

185

The show version Command
The show version command displays information about the Cisco IOS software version that is currently running on the router. This includes the configuration register and the boot field settings. The following information is available from the show version command: IOS version and descriptive information • Bootstrap ROM version • Boot ROM version • Router up time • Last restart method • System image file and location • Router platform • Configuration register setting Use the show version command to identify router IOS image and boot source. To find out the amount of flash memory, issue the show flash command.

186

187

Router User Interface Modes
The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure. This structure requires entry into different modes to accomplish particular tasks. Each configuration mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt and allows only commands that are appropriate for that mode. As a security feature the Cisco IOS software separates sessions into two access levels, user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode is also known as enable mode.

188

Overview of Router Modes

189

Router Modes

190

User Mode Commands

191

Privileged Mode Commands
NOTE: There are many more commands available in privileged mode.

192

Specific Configuration Modes

193

CLI Command Modes
All command-line interface (CLI) configuration changes to a Cisco router are made from the global configuration mode. Other more specific modes are entered depending upon the configuration change that is required. Global configuration mode commands are used in a router to apply configuration statements that affect the system as a whole. The following command moves the router into global configuration mode Router#configure terminal Router(config)# (or config t)

When specific configuration modes are entered, the router prompt changes to indicate the current configuration mode. Typing exit from one of these specific configuration modes will return the router to global configuration mode. Pressing Ctrl-Z returns the router to all 194 the way back privileged EXEC mode.

Configuring a Router’s Name
A router should be given a unique name as one of the first configuration tasks. This task is accomplished in global configuration mode using the following commands: Router(config)#hostname Tokyo Tokyo(config)# As soon as the Enter key is pressed, the prompt changes from the default host name (Router) to the newly configured host name (which is Tokyo in the 195 example above).

Setting the Clock with Help

196

Message Of The Day (MOTD)
A message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner can be displayed on all connected terminals. Enter global configuration mode by using the command config t Enter the command banner motd # The message of the day goes here #. Save changes by issuing the command copy run start

197

Configuring a Console Password
Passwords restrict access to routers. Passwords should always be configured for virtual terminal lines and the console line. Passwords are also used to control access to privileged EXEC mode so that only authorized users may make changes to the configuration file. The following commands are used to set an optional but recommended password on the console line: Router(config)#line console 0 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login

198

Configuring a Modem Password
If configuring a router via a modem you are most likely connected to the aux port. The method for configuring the aux port is very similar to configuring the console port. Router(config)#line aux 0 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login

199

Configuring Interfaces
An interface needs an IP Address and a Subnet Mask to be configured. All interfaces are “shutdown” by default. The DCE end of a serial interface needs a clock rate. Router#config t Router(config)#interface serial 0/1 Router(config-if)#ip address 200.100.50.75 255.255.255.240 Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000 (required for serial DCE only) Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#int f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 150.100.50.25 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#exit Router# On older routers, Serial 0/1 would be just Serial 1 and f0/0 would be e0. s = serial e = Ethernet f = fast Ethernet
200

Configuring a Telnet Password
A password must be set on one or more of the virtual terminal (VTY) lines for users to gain remote access to the router using Telnet. Typically Cisco routers support five VTY lines numbered 0 through 4. The following commands are used to set the same password on all of the VTY lines: Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password <password> Router(config-line)#login
201

Examining the show Commands
There are many show commands that can be used to examine the contents of files in the router and for troubleshooting. In both privileged EXEC and user EXEC modes, the command show ? provides a list of available show commands. The list is considerably longer in privileged EXEC mode than it is in user EXEC mode. show show show show show show show show show show show show show interfaces – Displays all the statistics for all the interfaces on the router. int s0/1 – Displays statistics for interface Serial 0/1 controllers serial – Displays information-specific to the interface hardware clock – Shows the time set in the router hosts – Displays a cached list of host names and addresses users – Displays all users who are connected to the router history – Displays a history of commands that have been entered flash – Displays info about flash memory and what IOS files are stored there version – Displays info about the router and the IOS that is running in RAM ARP – Displays the ARP table of the router start – Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM run – Displays the configuration currently running in RAM protocol – Displays the global and interface specific status of any configured Layer 3 protocols
202

203

Ethernet Overview
Ethernet is now the dominant LAN technology in the world. Ethernet is not one technology but a family of LAN technologies. All LANs must deal with the basic issue of how individual stations (nodes) are named, and Ethernet is no exception. Ethernet specifications support different media, bandwidths, and other Layer 1 and 2 variations. However, the basic frame format and addressing scheme is the same for all varieties of Ethernet. 204

Ethernet and the OSI Model
Ethernet operates in two areas of the OSI model, the lower half of the data link layer, known as the MAC sublayer and the physical layer
205

Ethernet Technologies Mapped to the OSI Model

206

Layer 2 Framing
Framing is the Layer 2 encapsulation process. A frame is the Layer 2 protocol data unit. The frame format diagram shows different groupings of bits (fields) that perform other functions.

207

Ethernet and IEEE Frame Formats are Very Similar

208

3 Common Layer 2 Technologies
Ethernet Uses CSMA/CD logical bus topology (information flow is on a linear bus) physical star or extended star (wired as a star) Token Ring logical ring topology (information flow is controlled in a ring) and a physical star topology (in other words, it is wired as a star) FDDI logical ring topology (information flow is controlled in a ring) and physical dualring topology(wired as a dual-ring)

209

Collision Domains
To move data between one Ethernet station and another, the data often passes through a repeater. All other stations in the same collision domain see traffic that passes through a repeater. A collision domain is then a shared resource. Problems originating in one part of the collision domain will usually impact the entire collision domain.
210

CSMA/CD Graphic

211

Backoff
After a collision occurs and all stations allow the cable to become idle (each waits the full interframe spacing), then the stations that collided must wait an additional and potentially progressively longer period of time before attempting to retransmit the collided frame. The waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

212

213

Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

214

Prefix Length and Network Mask
Range of Addresses: 192.168.1.64 through 192.168.1.79
• Have the first 28 bits in common, which is represented by a /28 prefix length • 28 bits in common can also be represented in dotted decimal as 255.255.255.240 Binary ones in the network mask represent network bits in the accompanying IP address; binary zeros represent host bits 11000000.10101000.00000001.0100xxxx IP Address 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 Network Mask
Fourth Octet
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 01000000 01000001 01000010 01000011 01000100 01000101 01000110 01000111 01001000 01001001 01001010 01001011 01001100 01001101 01001110 01001111
215

In the IP network number that accompanies the network mask, when the host bits of the IP network number are:
• All binary zeros – that address is the bottom of the address range • All binary ones – that address is the top of the address range

Implementing VLSM

216

Range Of Addresses for VLSM

217

Breakdown Address Space for Largest Subnet

218

Breakdown Address Space for Ethernets at Remote Sites

219

Address Space for Serial Subnets

220

Calculating VLSM: Binary

221

Route Summarization and Classless Interdomain Routing

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

222

What Is Route Summarization?

223

Summarizing Within an Octet

224

Summarizing Addresses in a VLSM-Designed Network

225

Classless Interdomain Routing
– CIDR is a mechanism developed to alleviate exhaustion of addresses and reduce routing table size. – Block addresses can be summarized into single entries without regard to the classful boundary of the network number. – Summarized blocks are installed in routing tables.

226

What Is CIDR?

• Addresses are the same as in the route summarization figure, except that Class B network 172 has been replaced by Class C network 192. 227

CIDR Example

228

229

Anatomy of an IP Packet
IP packets consist of the data from upper layers plus an IP header. The IP header consists of the following:

230

Administrative Distance
The administrative distance is an optional parameter that gives a measure of the reliability of the route. The range of an AD is 0-255 where smaller numbers are more desireable. The default administrative distance when using next-hop address is 1, while the default administrative distance when using the outgoing interface is 0. You can statically assign an AD as follows:

Router(config)#ip route 172.16.3.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.4.1 130
Sometimes static routes are used for backup purposes. A static route can be configured on a router that will only be used when the dynamically learned route has failed. To use a static route in this manner, simply set the administrative distance higher than that of the dynamic routing protocol being used. 231

Configuring Default Routes
Default routes are used to route packets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in the routing table. A default route is actually a special static route that uses this format: ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [next-hop-address | outgoing interface] This is sometimes referred to as a “Quad-Zero” route. Example using next hop address: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.4.1 Example using the exit interface: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0 232

Verifying Static Route Configuration
After static routes are configured it is important to verify that they are present in the routing table and that routing is working as expected. The command show running-config is used to view the active configuration in RAM to verify that the static route was entered correctly. The show ip route command is used to make sure that the static route is present in the routing table. 233

234

Path Determination Graphic

235

Routing Protocol
Router

Switch

Router Router Switch Router

Router

What is an optimal route ?

236

Routing Protocols
Routing protocols includes the following: processes for sharing route information allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain the routing tables Examples of routing protocols that support the IP routed protocol are: RIP, IGRP, OSPF, BGP, and EIGRP.
237

Routed Protocols
Protocols used at the network layer that transfer data from one host to another across a router are called routed or routable protocols. The Internet Protocol (IP) and Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are examples of routed protocols. Routers use routing protocols to exchange routing tables and share routing information. In other words, routing protocols enable routers to route routed protocols.

238

239

Autonomous System

An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of IP networks, which has a single and clearly defined external routing policy.

EGP
Exterior Gateway Protocols are used for routing between Autonomous Systems

AS 1000

AS 3000

IGP AS 2000
Interior Gateway Protocols are used for routing decisions within an Autonomous System.

240
Fig. 48 IGP and EGP (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 67)

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)

AS 1000 EGP EGP IGP EGP

AS 3000

AS 2000

241
Fig. 49 The use of IGP and EGP protocols (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 67)

IGP and EGP
An autonomous system is a network or set of networks under common administrative control, such as the cisco.com domain.

242

Categories of Routing Protocols
Most routing algorithms can be classified into one of two categories:

• •

distance vector link-state

The distance vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance to any link in the internetwork. The link-state approach, also called shortest path first, recreates the exact topology of the entire internetwork.
243

Distance Vector Routing Concepts

244

Distance Vector Routing (DVR)
Destination 192.16.1.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.7.0 Distance 1 1 2 Routing table contains the addresses of destinations and the distance of the way to this destination.

2 Hops 1 Hop
Router A Router B

1 Hop
Router C Router D

192.16.1.0

Flow of routing information 192.16.5.0

192.16.7.0

245

Routing Tables Graphic

246

Distance Vector Topology Changes

247

Router Metric Components

248

Distance Vector Routing (DVR)
192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0
Router A Router B Router C

192.16.6.0
Router D

192.16.1.0

192.16.4.0

192.16.7.0

192.16.5.0

192.16.1.0 192.16.2.0

0 0

L L

192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

L L L L L L A C C

192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.7.0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

L L L L L L B B D

192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0

0 0

L L

192.16.1.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0

0 0 1 1

L L B B

192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.1.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0

192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.4.0

0 0 1 1

L L C C

L

Locally connected

249

Distance Vector Routing (DVR)
192.16.1.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 L L B B B B 192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.1.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L A C C C 192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.7.0 192.16.1.0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 L L L B B D B 192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0 0 0 1 1 2 2 L L C C C C

192.16.1.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0

0 0 1 1 2 2 3

L L B B B B B

192.16.2.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.1.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0

0 0 0 1 1 1 2

L L L A C C C

192.16.4.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.6.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.7.0 192.16.1.0

0 0 0 1 1 1 2

L L L B B D B

192.16.6.0 192.16.7.0 192.16.5.0 192.16.4.0 192.16.3.0 192.16.2.0 192.16.1.0

0 0 1 1 2 2 3

L L C C C C C

250
Fig. 53 Distribution of routing information with distance vector routing protocol (cont.) (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 71)

RIPv1
Distance Vector Routing Protocol, classful Distribution of Routing Tables via broadcast to adjacent routers Only one kind of metric: Number of Hops Connections with different bandwidth can not be weighted Routing loops can occur -> bad convergence in case of a failure Count to infinity problem (infinity = 16) Maximum network size is limited by the number of hops
Fig. 59 Properties of RIPv1 (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 81)

251

RIP Characteristics

252

RIP-1 permits only a Single Subnet Mask
Port 1 130.24.13.1/24 130.24.13.0/24

RIP-1: 130.24.36.0 130.24.25.0/24
Router A

RIP-1: 130.24.36.0

RIP-1: 130.24.0.0 Port 2 200.14.13.2/24 200.14.13.0/24

130.24.36.0/24

253
Fig. 60 RIP-1 permits only a single subnet mask (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer, 83)

Router Configuration
The router command starts a routing process. The network command is required because it enables the routing process to determine which interfaces participate in the sending and receiving of routing updates. An example of a routing configuration is:

GAD(config)#router rip GAD(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
The network numbers are based on the network class addresses, not subnet addresses or individual host addresses.
254

Configuring RIP Example

255

Verifying RIP Configuration

256

The debug ip rip Command
Most of the RIP configuration errors involve an incorrect network statement, discontiguous subnets, or split horizons. One highly effective command for finding RIP update issues is the debug ip rip command. The debug ip rip command displays RIP routing updates as they are sent and received.

257

Routing loops can occur when inconsistent routing tables are not updated due to slow convergence in a changing network.

Problem: Routing Loops

258

Problem: Counting to Infinity

259

Solution: Define a Maximum

260

Solution: Split Horizon

261

Route Poisoning
Route poisoning is used by various distance vector protocols in order to overcome large routing loops and offer explicit information when a subnet or network is not accessible. This is usually accomplished by setting the hop count to one more than the maximum.

262

Triggered Updates
New routing tables are sent to neighboring routers on a regular basis. For example, RIP updates occur every 30 seconds. However a triggered update is sent immediately in response to some change in the routing table. The router that detects a topology change immediately sends an update message to adjacent routers that, in turn, generate triggered updates notifying their adjacent neighbors of the change. When a route fails, an update is sent immediately rather than waiting on the update timer to expire. Triggered updates, used in conjunction with route poisoning, ensure that all routers know of failed routes before any holddown timers can expire.
263

Triggered Updates Graphic

264

Solution: Holddown Timers

265

IGRP
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Cisco. Some of the IGRP key design characteristics emphasize the following: • • • It is a distance vector routing protocol. Routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds. Bandwidth, load, delay and reliability are used to create a composite metric.
266

IGRP Stability Features
IGRP has a number of features that are designed to enhance its stability, such as: • Holddowns • Split horizons • Poison reverse updates Holddowns Holddowns are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may not be up. Split horizons Split horizons are derived from the premise that it is usually not useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. Poison reverse updates Split horizons prevent routing loops between adjacent routers, but poison reverse updates are necessary to defeat larger routing loops. Today, IGRP is showing its age, it lacks support for variable length subnet masks (VLSM). Rather than develop an IGRP version 2 to correct this problem, Cisco has 267 built upon IGRP's legacy of success with Enhanced IGRP.

Configuring IGRP

268

Routing Metrics Graphics

269

Link State Concepts

270

Link State Topology Changes

271

Link State Routing (LSR)
LSP: „My links to R2 and R4 are up“

SPF Routing Table

LSP: „My links to R1 and R3 are up. My link to R2 is down.“ Router 4

Router 1

Router 2 LSP: „My links to R1 and R3 are up, my link to R4 is down.“

Router 3 LSP: „My links to R2 and R4 are up.“

LSP....link state packet SPF... shortest path first

272

Link State Concerns

273

Link State Routing (LSR) 1 Router A Router C 4

2 4 Router B

2 1 Router D Link State Database

Router E

B-2 C-1

A-2 D-4

A-1 D-2 E-4 Router C

C-2 B-4 E-1 Router D

C-4 D-1

Router A

Router B

Router E

A

B

C D E D E A B

D

B

C D E

A C

E

C A

B 274

Link State Routing Features
Link-state algorithms are also known as Dijkstras algorithm or as SPF (shortest path first) algorithms. Link-state routing algorithms maintain a complex database of topology information. The distance vector algorithm are also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms. They have nonspecific information about distant networks and no knowledge of distant routers. A link-state routing algorithm maintains full knowledge of distant routers and how they interconnect. Link-state routing uses: • Link-state advertisements (LSAs) A link-state advertisement (LSA) is a small packet of routing information that is sent between routers. Topological database A topological database is a collection of information gathered from LSAs. SPF algorithm The shortest path first (SPF) algorithm is a calculation performed on the database resulting in the SPF tree. Routing tables – A list of the known paths and interfaces.
275

• •

Link State Routing

276

Comparing Routing Methods

277

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Protocol

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

278

OSPF is a Link-State Routing Protocols
– Link-state (LS) routers recognize much more information
about the network than their distance-vector counterparts,Consequently LS routers tend to make more accurate decisions.

– Link-state routers keep track of the following:
• Their neighbours • All routers within the same area • Best paths toward a destination

279

Link-State Data Structures
– Neighbor table:

• Also known as the adjacency database (list of recognized neighbors)

– Topology table:

• Typically referred to as LSDB (routers and links in the area or network) • All routers within an area have an identical LSDB

– Routing table:

• Commonly named a forwarding database (list of best paths to destinations)
280

OSPF vs. RIP
RIP is limited to 15 hops, it converges slowly, and it sometimes chooses slow routes because it ignores critical factors such as bandwidth in route determination. OSPF overcomes these limitations and proves to be a robust and scalable routing protocol suitable for the networks of today.

281

OSPF Terminology
The next several slides explain various OSPF terms -one per slide.

282

OSPF Term: Link

283

OSPF Term: Link State

284

OSPF Term: Area

285

OSPF Term: Link Cost

286

OSPF Term: Forwarding Database

287

OSPF Term: Adjacencies Database

288

OSPF Terms: DR & BDR

289

Link-State Data Structure: Network Hierarchy
•Link-state routing requires a hierachical network structure that is enforced by OSPF. •This two-level hierarchy consists of the following:
• Transit area (backbone or area 0) • Regular areas (nonbackbone areas)

290

OSPF Areas

291

Area Terminology

292

LS Data Structures: Adjacency Database
– Routers discover neighbors by exchanging hello packets. – Routers declare neighbors to be up after checking certain parameters or options in the hello packet. – Point-to-point WAN links:
• Both neighbors become fully adjacent.

– LAN links:
• Neighbors form an adjacency with the DR and BDR. • Maintain two-way state with the other routers (DROTHERs).

– Routing updates and topology information are only passed between adjacent routers.
293

OSPF Adjacencies

Routers build logical adjacencies between each other using the Hello Protocol. Once an adjacency is formed: • LS database packets are exchanged to synchronize
each other’s LS databases. using these adjacencies.

• LSAs are flooded reliably throughout the area or network
294

Open Shortest Path First Calculation
•Routers find the best paths to destinations by applying Dijkstra’s SPF algorithm to the link-state database as follows:
– Every router in an area has the identical link-state database. – Each router in the area places itself into the root of the tree that is built. – The best path is calculated with respect to the lowest total cost of links to a specific destination. – Best routes are put into the forwarding database.
295

OSPF Packet Types

296

OSPF Packet Header Format

297

Neighborship

298

Establishing Bidirectional Communication

299

Establishing Bidirectional Communication (Cont.)

300

Establishing Bidirectional Communication (Cont.)

301

Establishing Bidirectional Communication

302

Discovering the Network Routes

303

Discovering the Network Routes

304

Adding the Link-State Entries

305

Adding the Link-State Entries (Cont.)

306

Adding the Link-State Entries

307

Maintaining Routing Information

• Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.0.0.6
308

Maintaining Routing Information (Cont.)

• Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.0.0.6 • DR notifies others on 224.0.0.5
309

Maintaining Routing Information (Cont.)

• Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.0.0.6 • DR notifies others on 224.0.0.5
310

Maintaining Routing Information

• Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on 224.0.0.6 • DR notifies others on 224.0.0.5
311

Configuring Basic OSPF: Single Area
Router(config)#

router ospf process-id 

• Turns on one or more OSPF routing processes in the IOS software.
Router(config-router)#

network address inverse-mask area [area-id]

• Router OSPF subordinate command that defines the interfaces (by network number) that OSPF will run on. Each network number must be defined to a specific area.
312

Configuring OSPF on Internal Routers of a Single Area

313

Verifying OSPF Operation
Router#

show ip protocols

• Verifies the configured IP routing protocol processes, parameters and statistics
Router#

show ip route ospf

• Displays all OSPF routes learned by the router
Router#

show ip ospf interface

• Displays the OSPF router ID, area ID and adjacency information

314

Verifying OSPF Operation (Cont.)
Router#

show ip ospf

• Displays the OSPF router ID, timers, and statistics
Router#

show ip ospf neighbor [detail]

• Displays information about the OSPF neighbors, including Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router (BDR) information on broadcast networks
315

The show ip route ospf Command
RouterA# show ip route ospf Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area, E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP, i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 2 subnets O 10.2.1.0 [110/10] via 10.64.0.2, 00:00:50, Ethernet0

316

The show ip ospf interface Command
RouterA# show ip ospf interface e0 Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 10.64.0.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 10.64.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROTHER, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 10.64.0.2, Interface address 10.64.0.2 Backup Designated router (ID) 10.64.0.1, Interface address 10.64.0.1 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:04 Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 10.64.0.2 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

317

The show ip ospf neighbor Command
RouterB# show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID 10.64.1.1 10.2.1.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/Dead Time 00:00:31 00:00:38 Address 10.64.1.1 10.2.1.1 Interface Ethernet0 Serial0

318

show ip protocol

show ip route

319

show ip ospf neighbor detail

show ip ospf database

320

OSPF Network Types - 1

321

Point-to-Point Links

• Usually a serial interface running either PPP or HDLC • May also be a point-to-point subinterface running Frame Relay or ATM • No DR or BDR election required • OSPF autodetects this interface type • OSPF packets are sent using multicast 224.0.0.5
322

Multi-access Broadcast Network

• Generally LAN technologies like Ethernet and Token Ring • DR and BDR selection required • All neighbor routers form full adjacencies with the DR and BDR only • Packets to the DR use 224.0.0.6 • Packets from DR to all other routers use 224.0.0.5
323

Electing the DR and BDR

• Hello packets are exchanged via IP multicast. • The router with the highest OSPF priority is selected as the DR. • Use the OSPF router ID as the tie breaker. • The DR election is nonpreemptive.
324

Setting Priority for DR Election
Router(config-if)# ip ospf priority number

• This interface configuration command assigns the OSPF priority to an interface. • Different interfaces on a router may be assigned different values. • The default priority is 1. The range is from 0 to 255. • 0 means the router is a DROTHER; it can’t be the DR or BDR.
325

OSPF Network Types - 2

326

Creation of Adjacencies
RouterA# debug ip ospf adj Point-to-point interfaces coming up: No election %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial1, changed state to up OSPF: Interface Serial1 going Up OSPF: Rcv hello from 192.168.0.11 area 0 from Serial1 10.1.1.2 OSPF: End of hello processing OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 192.168.0.10 OSPF: Rcv DBD from 192.168.0.11 on Serial1 seq 0x20C4 opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 state INIT OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 192.168.0.11 on Serial1, state 2WAY OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.0.11 on Serial1 seq 0x167F opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the SLAVE OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.0.11 on Serial1 seq 0x20C4 opt 0x2 flag 0x2 len 72

327

Creation of Adjacencies (Cont.)
RouterA# debug ip ospf adj Ethernet interface coming up: Election OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 192.168.0.10 on Ethernet0, state 2WAY OSPF: end of Wait on interface Ethernet0 OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 OSPF: Elect BDR 192.168.0.12 OSPF: Elect DR 192.168.0.12 DR: 192.168.0.12 (Id) BDR: 192.168.0.12 (Id) OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.0.12 on Ethernet0 seq 0x546 opt 0x2 flag 0x7 len 32 <…> OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 OSPF: Elect BDR 192.168.0.11 OSPF: Elect DR 192.168.0.12 DR: 192.168.0.12 (Id) BDR: 192.168.0.11 (Id)

328

329

Overview
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Ciscoproprietary routing protocol based on Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Unlike IGRP, which is a classful routing protocol, EIGRP supports CIDR and VLSM. Compared to IGRP, EIGRP boasts faster convergence times, improved scalability, and superior handling of routing loops. Furthermore, EIGRP can replace Novell Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and AppleTalk Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP), serving both IPX and AppleTalk networks with powerful efficiency. EIGRP is often described as a hybrid routing protocol, offering the best of distance vector and link-state algorithms.
330

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP
IGRP and EIGRP are compatible with each other. EIGRP offers multiprotocol support, but IGRP does not. EIGRP and IGRP use different metric calculations. EIGRP scales the metric of IGRP by a factor of 256. IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255. EIGRP has a maximum hop count limit of 224. Enabling dissimilar routing protocols such as OSPF and RIP to share information requires advanced configuration. Redistribution, the sharing of routes, is automatic between IGRP and EIGRP as long as both processes use the same 331 autonomous system (AS) number.

EIGRP & IGRP Metric Calculation

332

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP

333

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP

334

EIGRP Concepts & Terminology
EIGRP routers keep route and topology information readily available in RAM, so they can react quickly to changes. Like OSPF, EIGRP saves this information in several tables and databases. EIGRP saves routes that are learned in specific ways. Routes are given a particular status and can be tagged to provide additional useful information. EIGRP maintains three tables: • Neighbor table • Topology table • Routing table

335

Neighbor Table
The neighbor table is the most important table in EIGRP. Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. This table is comparable to the adjacency database used by OSPF. There is a neighbor table for each protocol that EIGRP supports. When a neighbor sends a hello packet, it advertises a hold time. The hold time is the amount of time a router treats a neighbor as reachable and operational. In other words, if a hello packet is not heard within the hold time, then the hold time expires. When the hold time expires, the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL), which is the EIGRP distance vector algorithm, is informed of the topology change and must recalculate the new topology.
336

Topology Table
The topology table is made up of all the EIGRP routing tables in the autonomous system. DUAL takes the information supplied in the neighbor table and the topology table and calculates the lowest cost routes to each destination. By tracking this information, EIGRP routers can identify and switch to alternate routes quickly. The information that the router learns from the DUAL is used to determine the successor route, which is the term used to identify the primary or best route. A copy is also placed in the topology table. Every EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each configured network protocol. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table.
337

Routing Table
The EIGRP routing table holds the best routes to a destination. This information is retrieved from the topology table. Each EIGRP router maintains a routing table for each network protocol. A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination.DUAL identifies this route from the information contained in the neighbor and topology tables and places it in the routing table. There can be up to four successor routes for any particular route. These can be of equal or unequal cost and are identified as the best loop-free paths to a given destination. A copy of the successor routes is also placed in the topology table. A feasible successor (FS) is a backup route.These routes are identified at the same time the successors are identified, but they are only kept in the topology table. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be 338 retained in the topology table although it is not mandatory.

EIGRP Data Structure
Like OSPF, EIGRP relies on different types of packets to maintain its various tables and establish complex relationships with neighbor routers. The five EIGRP packet types are: • Hello • Acknowledgment • Update • Query • Reply EIGRP relies on hello packets to discover, verify, and rediscover neighbor routers. Rediscovery occurs if EIGRP routers do not receive hellos from each other for a hold time interval but then re-establish communication. EIGRP routers send hellos at a fixed but configurable interval, called the hello interval. The default hello interval depends on the bandwidth of the interface. On IP networks, EIGRP routers send hellos to the multicast IP address 224.0.0.10.
339

Default Hello Intervals and Hold Times for EIGRP

340

EIGRP Algorithm
The sophisticated DUAL algorithm results in the exceptionally fast convergence of EIGRP. Each router constructs a topology table that contains information about how to route to a destination network. Each topology table identifies the following: • The routing protocol or EIGRP • The lowest cost of the route, which is called Feasible Distance • The cost of the route as advertised by the neighboring router, which is called Reported Distance The Topology heading identifies the preferred primary route, called the successor route (Successor), and, where identified, the backup route, called the feasible successor (FS). Note that it is not necessary to have an identified feasible successor.
341

FS Route Selection Rules

342

DUAL Example

343

Configuring EIGRP

344

Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
To verify the EIGRP configuration a number of show and debug commands are available. These commands are shown on the next few slides.

345

show ip eigrp topology

show ip eigrp topology [active | pending | successors]
346

show ip eigrp topology all-links

show ip eigrp traffic

347

Administrative Distances

348

Classful and Classless Routing Protocols

349

350

What are ACLs?
ACLs are lists of conditions that are applied to traffic traveling across a router's interface. These lists tell the router what types of packets to accept or deny. Acceptance and denial can be based on specified conditions. ACLs can be created for all routed network protocols, such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). ACLs can be configured at the router to control access to a network or subnet. Some ACL decision points are source and destination addresses, protocols, and upper-layer port numbers. ACLs must be defined on a per-protocol, per direction, or per port 351 basis.

Reasons to Create ACLs
The following are some of the primary reasons to create ACLs: • • • • Limit network traffic and increase network performance. Provide traffic flow control. Provide a basic level of security for network access. Decide which types of traffic are forwarded or blocked at the router interfaces. For example: Permit e-mail traffic to be routed, but block all telnet traffic. Allow an administrator to control what areas a client can access on a network. If ACLs are not configured on the router, all packets passing 352 through the router will be allowed onto all parts of the network.

ACLs Filter Traffic Graphic

353

How ACLs Filter Traffic

354

One List per Port, per Destination, per Protocol...

355

How ACLs work.

356

Creating ACLs
ACLs are created in the global configuration mode. There are many different types of ACLs including standard, extended, IPX, AppleTalk, and others. When configuring ACLs on a router, each ACL must be uniquely identified by assigning a number to it. This number identifies the type of access list created and must fall within the specific range of numbers that is valid for that type of list. Since IP is by far the most popular routed protocol, addition ACL numbers have been added to newer router IOSs. Standard IP: 1300-1999 Extended IP: 2000-2699 357

The access-list command

358

The ip access-group command

{ in | out }

359

ACL Example

360

Basic Rules for ACLs
These basic rules should be followed when creating and applying access lists: • • • • One access list per protocol per direction. Standard IP access lists should be applied closest to the destination. Extended IP access lists should be applied closest to the source. Use the inbound or outbound interface reference as if looking at the port from inside the router. • Statements are processed sequentially from the top of list to the bottom until a match is found, if no match is found then the packet is denied. • There is an implicit deny at the end of all access lists. This will not appear in the configuration listing. • Access list entries should filter in the order from specific to general. Specific hosts should be denied first, and groups or general filters should come last. • Never work with an access list that is actively applied. • New lines are always added to the end of the access list. • A no access-list x command will remove the whole list. It is not possible to selectively add and remove lines with numbered ACLs. • Outbound filters do not affect traffic originating from the local router.
361

Wildcard Mask Examples
5 Examples follow that demonstrate how a wildcard mask can be used to permit or deny certain IP addresses, or IP address ranges. While subnet masks start with binary 1s and end with binary 0s, wildcard masks are the reverse meaning they typically start with binary 0s and end with binary 1s. In the examples that follow Cisco has chosen to represent the binary 1s in the wilcard masks with Xs to focus on the specific bits being shown in each example. You will see that while subnet masks were ANDed with ip addresses, wildcard masks are ORed with IP addresses. .
362

Wildcard Mask Example #1

363

Wildcard Mask Example #2

364

Wildcard Mask Example #3

365

Wildcard Mask Example #4 - Even IPs

366

Wildcard Mask Example #5 - Odd IP#s

367

The any and host Keywords

368

Verifying ACLs
There are many show commands that will verify the content and placement of ACLs on the router. The show ip interface command displays IP interface information and indicates whether any ACLs are set. The show access-lists command displays the contents of all ACLs on the router. show access-list 1 shows just access-list 1. The show running-config command will also reveal the access lists on a router and the interface assignment information.

369

Standard ACLs
Standard ACLs check the source address of IP packets that are routed. The comparison will result in either permit or deny access for an entire protocol suite, based on the network, subnet, and host addresses. The standard version of the access-list global configuration command is used to define a standard ACL with a number in the range of 1 to 99 (also from 1300 to 1999 in recent IOS). If there is no wildcard mask. the default mask is used, which is 0.0.0.0. (This only works with Standard ACLs and is the same thing as using host.) The full syntax of the standard ACL command is:

Router(config)#access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} source [source-wildcard ] [log]
The no form of this command is used to remove a standard ACL. This is the syntax: 370 Router(config)#no access-list access-list-number

Extended ACLs
Extended ACLs are used more often than standard ACLs because they provide a greater range of control. Extended ACLs check the source and destination packet addresses as well as being able to check for protocols and port numbers. The syntax for the extended ACL statement can get very long and often will wrap in the terminal window. The wildcards also have the option of using the host or any keywords in the command. At the end of the extended ACL statement, additional precision is gained from a field that specifies the optional Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number. Logical operations may be specified such as, equal (eq), not equal (neq), greater than (gt), and less than (lt), that the extended ACL will perform on specific protocols. Extended ACLs use an access-list-number in the range 100 to 199 (also from 2000 to 2699 in recent IOS). 371

Extended ACL Syntax

372

Extended ACL Example
This extended ACL will allow people in network 200.100.50.0 to surfing the internet, but not allow any other protocols like email, ftp, etc. access-list 101 permit tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any eq 80 or access-list 101 permit tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any eq www or access-list 101 permit tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any eq http NOTE: Just like all Standard ACLs end with an implicit "deny any", all Extended ACLs end with an implicit "deny ip any any" which means deny the entire internet from anywhere to 373 anywhere.

ip access-group
The ip access-group command links an existing standard or extended ACL to an interface. Remember that only one ACL per interface, per direction, per protocol is allowed. The format of the command is:

Router(config-if)#ip access-group access-list-number {in | out}

374

Named ACLs
IP named ACLs were introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2, allowing standard and extended ACLs to be given names instead of numbers. The advantages that a named access list provides are: • Intuitively identify an ACL using an alphanumeric name. • Eliminate the limit of 798 simple and 799 extended ACLs • Named ACLs provide the ability to modify ACLs without deleting them completely and then reconfiguring them. Named ACLs are not compatible with Cisco IOS releases prior to Release 11.2. The same name may not be used for multiple ACLs.

375

Named ACL Example

376

Placing ACLs
The general rule is to put the extended ACLs as close as possible to the source of the traffic denied. Standard ACLs do not specify destination addresses, so they should be placed as close to the destination as possible. For example, in the graphic a standard ACL should be placed on Fa0/0 of Router D to prevent traffic from Router A.

377

378

Permitting a Single Host
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.23 0.0.0.0 or Router(config)# access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.23 or Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.23 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out
379

Denying a Single Host
Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 200.100.50.23 0.0.0.0 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 or Router(config)# access-list 1 deny host 200.100.50.23 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out
380

Permitting a Single Network
Class C Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 or Class B Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 or Class A Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 13.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.) Router(config)# int e0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in or Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out

381

Denying a Single Network
Class C Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any or Class B Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any or Class A Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 13.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.)
382

Permitting a Class C Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 200.100.50.0/28 Desired Subnet: 3rd Process: 32-28=4 2^4 = 16 1st Usable Subnet address range it 200.100.50.16-31 2nd Usable Subnet address range it 200.100.50.32-47 3rd Usable Subnet address range it 200.100.50.48-63 Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.240 Inverse Mask is 0.0.0.15 or subtract 200.100.50.48 from 200.100.50.63 to get 0.0.0.15 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.48 0.0.0.15
383 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

Denying a Class C Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 192.68.72.0/27 Undesired Subnet: 2nd Process: 32-27=5 2^5=32 1st Usable Subnet address range it 192.68.72.32-63 2nd Usable Subnet address range it 192.68.72.64-95 Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.224 Inverse Mask is 0.0.0.31 or subtract 192.68.72.64 from 192.68.72.95 to get 0.0.0.31 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 192.68.72.64 0.0.0.31 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
384 (The implicit “deny any” is still present, but totally irrelevant.)

Permitting a Class B Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 150.75.0.0/24 Desired Subnet: 129th Process: Since exactly 8 bits are borrowed the 3rd octet will denote the subnet number. 129th Usable Subnet address range it 150.75.129.0-255

Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.0 Inverse Mask is 0.0.0.255 or subtract 150.75.129.0 from 150.75.129.255 to get 0.0.0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 150.75.129.0 0.0.0.255
385 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

Denying a Class B Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 160.88.0.0/22 Undesired Subnet: 50th Process: 32-22=10 (more than 1 octet) 10-8=2 2^2=4 1st Usable Subnet address range it 160.88.4.0-160.88.7.255 2nd Usable Subnet address range it 160.88.8.0-160.88.11.255 50 * 4 = 200 50th subnet is 160.88.200.0-160.88.203.255

Subnet Mask is 255.255.252.0 Inverse Mask is 0.0.3.255 or subtract 160.88.200.0 from 160.88.203.255 to get 0.0.3.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 160.88.200.0 0.0.3.255 386 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any

Permitting a Class A Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 111.0.0.0/12 Desired Subnet: 13th Process: 32-12=20 20-16=4 2^4=16 1st Usable Subnet address range is 111.16.0.0-111.31.255.255 13*16=208 13th Usable Subnet address range is 111.208.0.0-111.223.255.255 Subnet Mask is 255.240.0.0 Inverse Mask is 0.15.255.255 or subtract 111.208.0.0 from 111.223.255.255 to get 0.15.255.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 111.208.0.0 0.15.255.255 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)
387

Denying a Class A Subnet
Network Address/Subnet Mask: 40.0.0.0/24 Undesired Subnet: 500th Process: Since exactly 16 bits were borrowed the 2nd and 3rd octet will denote the subnet. 1st Usable Subnet address range is 40.0.1.0-40.0.1.255 255th Usable Subnet address range is 40.0.255.0-40.0.255.255 256th Usable Subnet address range is 40.1.0.0-40.1.0.255 300th Usable Subnet address range is 40.1.44.0-40.1.44.255 500th Usable Subnet address range is 40.1.244.0-40.1.244.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 40.1.244.0 0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
388

389

Permit 200.100.50.24-100 Plan A
access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.24 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.25 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.26 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.27 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.28 : : : : : : : : access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.96 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.97 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.98 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.99 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.100 This would get very tedious!

390

Permit 200.100.50.24-100 Plan B
access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.24 0.0.0.7 (24-31) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.32 0.0.0.31 (32-63) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.64 0.0.0.31 (64-95) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.96 0.0.0.3 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.100 (96-99) (100)

(The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)
391

Permit 200.100.50.16-127 Plan A
access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.16 0.0.0.15 (16-31) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.32 0.0.0.31 (32-63) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.64 0.0.0.63 (64-127)
(The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

392

Permit 200.100.50.16-127 Plan B
access-list 1 deny 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.15 (0-15) access-list 1 permit 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.127 (0-127)
First we make sure that addresses 0-15 are denied. Then we can permit any address in the range 0-127. Since only the first matching statement in an ACL is applied an address in the range of 0-15 will be denied by the first statement before it has a chance to be permitted by the second. (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.) 393

Permit 200.100.50.1,5,13,29,42,77
access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.1 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.5 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.13 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.29 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.42 access-list 1 permit host 200.100.50.77
Sometimes a group of addresses has no pattern and the best way to deal with them is individually.
394 (The implicit “deny any” ensures that everyone else is denied.)

395

Permit Source Network
access-list 101 permit ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 or access-list 101 permit ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any Implicit deny ip any any

396

Deny Source Network
access-list 101 deny ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 access-list 101 permit ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 or access-list 101 deny ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any access-list 101 permit ip any any Implicit deny ip any any is present but irrelevant.
397

Permit Destination Network
access-list 101 permit ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 or access-list 101 permit ip any 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 Implicit deny ip any any

398

Deny Destination Network
access-list 101 deny ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 access-list 101 permit ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 or access-list 101 deny ip any 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 access-list 101 permit ip any any Implicit deny ip any any is present but irrelevant.
399

Permit one Source Network to another Destination Network
Assume the only traffic you want is traffic from network 200.100.50.0 to network 150.75.0.0

access-list 101 permit ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 Implicit deny ip any any
To allow 2 way traffic between the networks add this statement:

access-list 101 permit ip 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 400 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255

Deny one Source Network to another Destination Network
Assume you want to allow all traffic EXCEPT from network 200.100.50.0 to network 150.75.0.0

access-list 101 deny ip 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 access-list 101 permit ip any any
To deny 2 way traffic between the networks add this statement:

access-list 101 deny ip 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 401 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255

Deny FTP
Assume you do not want anyone FTPing on the network.

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 21 access-list 101 permit ip any any
or

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq ftp access-list 101 permit ip any any
402

Deny Telnet
Assume you do not want anyone telnetting on the network.

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 23 access-list 101 permit ip any any
or

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq telnet access-list 101 permit ip any any
403

Deny Web Surfing
Assume you do not want anyone surfing the internet.

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 80 access-list 101 permit ip any any
or

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq www access-list 101 permit ip any any You can also use http instead of www.
404

Complicated Example #1
Suppose you have the following conditions: • No one from Network 200.100.50.0 is allowed to FTP anywhere • Only hosts from network 150.75.0.0 may telnet to network 50.0.0.0 • Subnetwork 100.100.100.0/24 is not allowed to surf the internet

access-list 101 deny tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 any eq 21 access-list 101 permit tcp 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 50.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 eq 23 access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 23 access-list 101 deny tcp 100.100.100.0 0.0.0.255 any eq 80 access-list 101 permit ip any any
405

Complicated Example #2
Suppose you are the admin of network 200.100.50.0. You want to permit Email only between your network and network 150.75.0.0. You wish to place no restriction on other protocols like web surfing, ftp, telnet, etc. • Email server send/receive Protocol: SMTP, port 25 • User Check Email Protocol: POP3, port 110 This example assumes the your Email server is at addresses 200.100.50.25

access-list 101 permit tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 eq 25 access-list 101 permit tcp 150.75.0.0 0.0.255.255 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 eq 25 access-list 101 permit tcp 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 200.100.50.0 0.0.0.255 eq 110 access-list 101 deny tcp any any smtp access-list 101 deny tcp any any pop3 406 access-list 101 permit ip any any

NAT
Network Address Translator

407
Fig. 3 NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 7)

New addressing concepts
Problems with IPv4
Shortage of IPv4 addresses Allocation of the last IPv4 addresses is forecasted for the year 2005 Address classes were replaced by usage of CIDR, but this is not sufficient

Short term solution
NAT: Network Address Translator

Long term solution
IPv6 = IPng (IP next generation) Provides an extended address range 408
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

NAT: Network Address Translator
NAT
Translates between local addresses and public ones Many private hosts share few global addresses

Private Network
Uses private address range (local addresses) Local addresses may not be used externally

Public Network
Uses public addresses Public addresses are globally unique 409
Fig. 4 How does NAT work? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 9)

realm with private addresses
translate reserve pool map

realm with public addresses

To be translated NAT

exclude

exclude

NAT Router

410
Fig. 5 Translation mechanism (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 9)

free NAT Pool

A timeout value (default 15 min) instructs NAT how long to keep an association in an idle state before returning the external IP address to the free NAT pool.
411
Fig. 8 How does NAT know when to return the public IP address to the pool? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 15)

NAT Addressing Terms
• Inside Local
– The term “inside” refers to an address used for a host inside an enterprise. It is the actual IP address assigned to a host in the private enterprise network.

• Inside Global
– NAT uses an inside global address to represent the inside host as the packet is sent through the outside network, typically the Internet. – A NAT router changes the source IP address of a packet sent by an inside host from an inside local address to an inside global address as the packet goes from the inside to the outside network. 412

NAT Addressing Terms
• Outside Global
– The term “outside” refers to an address used for a host outside an enterprise, the Internet. – An outside global is the actual IP address assigned to a host that resides in the outside network, typically the Internet.

• Outside Local
– NAT uses an outside local address to represent the outside host as the packet is sent through the private enterprise network. – A NAT router changes a packet’s destination IP address, sent from an outside global address to an inside host, as the packet goes from the outside to the inside network.
413

WAN Router

Router A with NAT Router
SA = 193.50.30.4 DA = 192.50.20.5 SA = 10.47.10.10 DA = 192.50.20.5

Router

Router B

Router

Router LAN

Net B 192.50.20.0

LAN Net A 10.0.0.0 10.47.10.10

192.50.20.5

414
Fig. 7 An example for NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 13)

WAN
NAT with WAN interface: 138.76.28.4
Router SA = 138.76.28.4 DA =138.76.29.7 Router SA = 10.0.0.10 DA = 138.76.29.7 SA = 138.76.29.7 DA = 10.0.0.10 SA = 138.76.29.7 DA = 138.76.28.4 Router

138.76.29.7

Net A 10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.10

415
Fig. 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 21)

Types Of NAT
• There are different types of NAT that can be used, which are
– Static NAT – Dynamic NAT – Overloading NAT with PAT (NAPT)

416

Static NAT
• With static NAT, the NAT router simply configures a one-to-one mapping between the private address and the registered address that is used on its behalf.

417

Dynamic NAT
• Like static NAT, the NAT router creates a one-to-one mapping between an inside local and inside global address and changes the IP addresses in packets as they exit and enter the inside network. • However, the mapping of an inside local address to an inside global address happens dynamically.
418

Dynamic NAT
• Dynamic NAT sets up a pool of possible inside global addresses and defines criteria for the set of inside local IP addresses whose traffic should be translated with NAT. • The dynamic entry in the NAT table stays in there as long as traffic flows occasionally.

419

PAT
Port Address Translator

420
Fig. 9 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 17)

WAN
NAPT with WAN interface: 138.76.28.4
Router SA = 138.76.28.4, sport = 1024 DA =138.76.29.7, dpor t= 23 Router SA = 10.0.0.10, sport = 3017 DA = 138.76.29.7, dpor t= 23 SA = 138.76.29.7, spor t= 23 DA = 10.0.0.10, dport = 3017 SA = 138.76.29.7, spor t= 23 DA = 138.76.28.4, dport = 1024 Router

138.76.29.7

Net A 10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.10

421
Fig. 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 21)

PAT with e.g. a single public IP address

single public IP address private IP network (e.g. SOHO) WAN

pool of TU port numbers local IP @, registered IP @, local TU port # mapping assigned TU port #

TU....TCP/UDP

422
Fig. 10 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 19)

NAT&PAT
Network Address Translation & Port Address Transation

423
Fig. 3 NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 7)

New addressing concepts
Problems with IPv4
Shortage of IPv4 addresses Allocation of the last IPv4 addresses is forecasted for the year 2006 Address classes were replaced by usage of CIDR, but this is not sufficient

Short term solution
NAT: Network Address Translator

Long term solution
IPv6 = IPng (IP next generation) Provides an extended address range 424
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

NAT: Network Address Translator
NAT
Translates between local addresses and public ones Many private hosts share few global addresses

Private Network
Uses private address range (local addresses) Local addresses may not be used externally

Public Network
Uses public addresses Public addresses are globally unique 425
Fig. 4 How does NAT work? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 9)

private addresses
translate reserve pool map

public addresses

To be translated NAT

exclude

exclude

NAT Router

426
Fig. 5 Translation mechanism (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 9)

free NAT Pool

A timeout value (default 15 min) instructs NAT how long to keep an association in an idle state before returning the external IP address to the free NAT pool.
427
Fig. 8 How does NAT know when to return the public IP address to the pool? (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 15)

NAT Addressing Terms
• Inside Local “Private address”
– The term “inside” refers to an address used for a host inside an enterprise. It is the actual IP address assigned to a host in the private enterprise network.

• Inside Global “Public address”
– NAT uses an inside global address to represent the inside host as the packet is sent through the outside network, typically the WAN. – A NAT router changes the source IP address of a packet sent by an inside host from an inside local address to an inside global address as the packet goes from the inside to the outside network. 428
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

WAN Router

Router A with NAT Router
SA = 193.50.30.4 DA = 192.50.20.5 SA = 10.47.10.10 DA = 192.50.20.5

Router

Router B

Router

Router LAN

Net B 192.50.20.0

LAN Net A 10.0.0.0 10.47.10.10

192.50.20.5

429
Fig. 7 An example for NAT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 13)

WAN
NAT with WAN interface: 138.76.28.4
Router SA = 138.76.28.4 DA =138.76.29.7 Router SA = 10.0.0.10 DA = 138.76.29.7 SA = 138.76.29.7 DA = 10.0.0.10 SA = 138.76.29.7 DA = 138.76.28.4 Router

138.76.29.7

Net A 10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.10

430
Fig. 11 An example for NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 21)

Types Of NAT
• There are different types of NAT that can be used, which are
– Static NAT – Dynamic NAT – Overloading NAT with PAT (NAT Over PAT)

431
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

Static NAT
• With static NAT, the NAT router simply configures a one-to-one mapping between the private address and the registered address that is used on its behalf.

432
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

Static NAT Configuration
• To form NAT table
Router(config)#IP Nat inside source static [inside local source IP address] [inside global source IP address]

• Assign NAT to an Interface
Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside]

• See Example
433
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

Dynamic NAT
• Like static NAT, the NAT router creates a one-to-one mapping between an inside local and inside global address and changes the IP addresses in packets as they exit and enter the inside network. • However, the mapping of an inside local address to an inside global address happens dynamically.
434
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

Dynamic NAT
• Dynamic NAT sets up a pool of possible inside global addresses and defines criteria for the set of inside local IP addresses whose traffic should be translated with NAT. • The dynamic entry in the NAT table stays in there as long as traffic flows occasionally. • If a new packet arrives, and it needs a NAT entry, but all the pooled IP addresses are in use, the router simply discards the packet.

435

Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

Dynamic NAT Configuration
• Specify inside addresses to be translated
Router(config)#IP Nat inside source list [standard Access List number] pool [NAT Pool Name]

• Specify NAT pool
Router(config)#IP Nat pool [NAT Pool Name] [First inside global address] [Last inside global address] netmask [subnet mask]

• Assign NAT to an Interface
Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside]

• See Example
436
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

PAT
Port Address Translator

437
Fig. 9 NAPT (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 17)

WAN
NAPT with WAN interface: 138.76.28.4
Router SA = 138.76.28.4, sport = 1024 DA =138.76.29.7, dpor t= 23 Router SA = 10.0.0.10, sport = 3017 DA = 138.76.29.7, dpor t= 23 SA = 138.76.29.7, spor t= 23 DA = 10.0.0.10, dport = 3017 SA = 138.76.29.7, spor t= 23 DA = 138.76.28.4, dport = 1024 Router

138.76.29.7

Net A 10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.10

438
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

PAT with e.g. a single public IP address

single public IP address private IP network (e.g. SOHO) WAN

pool of TU port numbers local IP @, registered IP @, local TU port # mapping assigned TU port #

TU....TCP/UDP

439
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

PAT Configuration
• Specify inside addresses to be translated
Router(config)#IP Nat inside source list [standard Access List number] pool [NAT Pool Name] overload

• Specify PAT pool
Router(config)#IP Nat pool [NAT Pool Name] [First inside global address] [Last inside global address] netmask [subnet mask]

• Assign PAT to an Interface
Router(config)#Interface [Serial x/y] Router(config-if)#IP NAT [Inside]

• See Example
440
Fig. 2 Address shortage and possible solutions (TI1332EU02TI_0003 New Address Concepts, 5)

441

Ethernet Access with Hubs

442

Ethernet Access with Bridges

443

Ethernet Access with Switches

444

Today's LAN

445

Full Duplex Transmitting
Full-duplex Ethernet allows the transmission of a packet and the reception of a different packet at the same time. This simultaneous transmission and reception requires the use of two pairs of wires in the cable and a switched connection between each node. This connection is considered point-to-point and is collision free. The full-duplex Ethernet switch takes advantage of the two pairs of wires in the cable by creating a direct connection between the transmit (TX) at one end of the circuit and the receive (RX) at the other end. Ethernet usually can only use 50%-60% of the available 10 Mbps of bandwidth because of collisions and latency. Full-duplex Ethernet offers 100% of the bandwidth in both directions. This produces a potential 20 Mbps throughput.

446

Collision Domains

447

Segmentation with Bridges

448

Segmentation with Routers

449

Segmentation with Switches

450

Basic Operations of a Switch
Switching is a technology that decreases congestion in Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI LANs. Switching accomplishes this by reducing traffic and increasing bandwidth. LAN switches are often used to replace shared hubs and are designed to work with existing cable infrastructures. Switching equipment performs the following two basic operations: • Switching data frames • Maintaining switching operations

451

Switching Methods
1. S to re-and-Forward The entire frame is received before any forwarding takes place. Filters are applied before the frame is forwarded. Most reliable and also most latency especially when frames are large. 2. Cut -T hrough The frame is forwarded through the switch before the entire frame is received. At a minimum the frame destination address must be read before the frame can be forwarded. This mode decreases the latency of the transmission, but also reduces error detection. 3. Fragment -Free Fragment-free switching filters out collision fragments before forwarding begins. Collision fragments are the majority of packet errors. In a properly functioning network, collision fragments must be smaller than 64 bytes. Anything > 64 bytes is a valid packet and is usually received without error.
452

Frame Transmission Modes

453

Benefits of Switching

454

How Switches and Bridges Learn Addresses
Bridges and switches learn in the following ways: • Reading the source MAC address of each received frame or datagram • Recording the port on which the MAC address was received. In this way, the bridge or switch learns which addresses belong to the devices connected to each port.
455

CAM Content Addressable Memory
CAM is used in switch applications: • To take out and process the address information from incoming data packets

• To compare the destination address with a table of addresses stored within it The CAM stores host MAC addresses and associated port numbers. The CAM compares the received destination MAC address against the CAM table contents. If the comparison yields a match, the port is provided, and switching control 456 forwards the packet to the correct port and address.

Shared vs. Dedicates Bandwidth
If a hub is used, bandwidth is shared. If a switch is used, then bandwidth is dedicated. If a workstation or server is directly connected to a switch port, then the full bandwidth of the connection to the switch is available to the connected computer. If a hub is connected to a switch port, bandwidth is shared between all devices connected to the hub.

457

Microsegmentation of a Network

458

Microsegmentation

459

3 Methods of Communication

460

Switches & Broadcast Domains
When two switches are connected, the broadcast domain is increased. The overall result is a reduction in available bandwidth. This happens because all devices in the broadcast domain must receive and process the broadcast frame. Routers are Layer 3 devices. Routers do not propagate broadcasts. Routers are used to segment both collision and broadcast domains.

461

Broadcast Domain

462

463

Overview
To design reliable, manageable, and scalable networks, a network designer must realize that each of the major components of a network has distinct design requirements. Good network design will improve performance and also reduce the difficulties associated with network growth and evolution. The design of larger LANs includes identifying the following: • An access layer that connects end users into the LAN • A distribution layer that provides policy-based connectivity between end-user LANs • A core layer that provides the fastest connection between the distribution points Each of these LAN design layers requires switches that are best 464 suited for specific tasks.

The Access Layer
The access layer is the entry point for user workstations and servers to the network. In a campus LAN the device used at the access layer can be a switch or a hub. Access layer functions also include MAC layer filtering and microsegmentation. Layer 2 switches are used in the access layer.

465

Access Layer Switches
Access layer switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model The main purpose of an access layer switch is to allow end users into the network. An access layer switch should provide this functionality with low cost and high port density. The following Cisco switches are commonly used at the access layer: • Catalyst 1900 series • Catalyst 2820 series • Catalyst 2950 series • Catalyst 4000 series • Catalyst 5000 series

466

The Distribution Layer
The distribution layer of the network is between the access and core layers. Networks are segmented into broadcast domains by this layer. Policies can be applied and access control lists can filter packets. The distribution layer isolates network problems to the workgroups in which they occur. The distribution layer also prevents these problems from affecting the core layer. Switches in this layer operate at Layer 2 and Layer 3.

467

Distribution Layer Switches
The distribution layer switch must have high performance. The distribution layer switch is a point at which a broadcast domain is delineated. It combines VLAN traffic and is a focal point for policy decisions about traffic flow. For these reasons distribution layer switches operate at both Layer 2 and Layer 3 of the OSI model. Switches in this layer are referred to as multilayer switches. These multilayer switches combine the functions of a router and a switch in one device. The following Cisco switches are suitable for the distribution layer: • Catalyst 2926G • Catalyst 5000 family • Catalyst 6000 family

468

The Core Layer
The core layer is a high-speed switching backbone. This layer of the network design should not perform any packet manipulation. Packet manipulation, such as access list filtering, would slow down the process. Providing a core infrastructure with redundant alternate paths gives stability to the network in the event of a single device failure. The core can be designed to use Layer 2 or Layer 3 switching. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or Ethernet switches can be used.

469

Core Layer Switches
The switches in this layer can make use of a number of Layer 2 technologies. Provided that the distance between the core layer switches is not too great, the switches can use Ethernet technology. In a network design, the core layer can be a routed, or Layer 3, core. Core layer switches are designed to provide efficient Layer 3 functionality when needed. Factors such as need, cost, and performance should be considered before a choice is made. The following Cisco switches are suitable for the core layer: • Catalyst 6500 series • Catalyst 8500 series • IGX 8400 series • Lightstream 1010

470

471

Physical Startup of the Catalyst Switch
Switches are dedicated, specialized computers, which contain a CPU, RAM, and an operating system. Switches usually have several ports for the purpose of connecting hosts, as well as specialized ports for the purpose of management. A switch can be managed by connecting to the console port to view and make changes to the configuration. Switches typically have no power switch to turn them on and off. They simply connect or disconnect from a power source. Several switches from the Cisco Catalyst 2950 series are shown in graphic to the right.
472

Switch LED Indicators
The front panel of a switch has several lights to help monitor system activity and performance. These lights are called light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The switch has the following LEDs: • • • • System LED Remote Power Supply (RPS) LED Port Mode LED Port Status LEDs

The System LED shows whether the system is receiving power and functioning correctly. The RPS LED indicates whether or not the remote power supply is in use. The Mode LEDs indicate the current state of the Mode button. The Port Status LEDs have different meanings, depending on the current 473 value of the Mode LED.

Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST
Once the power cable is connected, the switch initiates a series of tests called the power-on self test (POST). POST runs automatically to verify that the switch functions correctly. The System LED indicates the success or failure of POST.

474

Connecting a Switch to a Computer

475

Examining Help in the Switch CLI
The command-line interface (CLI) for Cisco switches is very similar to the CLI for Cisco routers. The help command is issued by entering a question mark (?). When this command is entered at the system prompt, a list of commands available for the current command mode is displayed. The help command is very flexible and essentially functions the same way it does in a router CLI. This form of help is called command syntax help, because it provides applicable keywords or arguments based on a partial 476 command.

Switch Command Modes
Switches have several command modes. The default mode is User EXEC mode, which ends in a greater-than character (>). The commands available in User EXEC mode are limited to those that change terminal settings, perform basic tests, and display system information. The enable command is used to change from User EXEC mode to Privileged EXEC mode, which ends in a pound-sign character (#). The configure command allows other command modes to be 477 accessed.

Show Commands in User-Exec Mode

478

Setting Switch Hostname Setting Passwords on Lines

479

480

Overview
Redundancy in a network is extremely important because redundancy allows networks to be fault tolerant. Redundant topologies based on switches and bridges are susceptible to broadcast storms, multiple frame transmissions, and MAC address database instability. Therefore network redundancy requires careful planning and monitoring to function properly. The Spanning-Tree Protocol is used in switched networks to create a loop free logical topology from a physical topology that has loops.
481

Redundant Switched Topologies
Networks with redundant paths and devices allow for more network uptime. In the graphic, if Switch A fails, traffic can still flow from Segment 2 to Segment 1 and to the router through Switch B. If port 1 fails on Switch A then traffic can still flow through port 1 on Switch B. Switches learn the MAC addresses of devices on their ports so that data can be properly forwarded to the destination. Switches will flood frames for unknown destinations until they learn the MAC addresses of the devices. A redundant switched topology may cause broadcast storms, multiple frame copies, and MAC address table instability problems.

482

Broadcast Storms
Broadcasts and multicasts can cause problems in a switched network. Multicasts are treated as broadcasts by the switches. Broadcasts and multicasts frames are flooded out all ports, except the one on which the frame was received. The switches continue to propagate broadcast traffic over and over. This is called a broadcast storm. This will continue until one of the switches is disconnected. The network will appear to be down or extremely slow.

483

Multiple Frame Transmissions
In a redundant switched network it is possible for an end device to receive multiple frames. Assume that the MAC address of Router Y has been timed out by both switches. Also assume that Host X still has the MAC address of Router Y in its ARP cache and sends a unicast frame to Router Y. The router receives the frame because it is on the same segment as Host X. Switch A does not have the MAC address of the Router Y and will therefore flood the frame out its ports. Switch B also does not know which port Router Y is on. Switch B then floods the frame it received causing Router Y to receive multiple copies of the same frame. This is a cause of unnecessary processing in all devices.

484

MAC Database Instability
A switch can incorrectly learn that a MAC address is on one port, when it is actually on a different port. In this example the MAC address of Router Y is not in the MAC address table of either switch. Host X sends a frame directed to Router Y. Switches A & B learn the MAC address of Host X on port 0. The frame to Router Y is flooded on port 1 of both switches. Switches A and B see this information on port 1 and incorrectly learn the MAC address of Host X on port 1. When Router Y sends a frame to Host X, Switch A and Switch B will also receive the frame and will send it out port 1. This is unnecessary, but the switches have incorrectly learned that Host X is on port 1.

485

Using Bridging Loops for Redundancy

486

Logical Loop Free Topology Created with STP

487

NOTE:
Don’t confuse Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) with Shielded Twisted Pair (STP).

488

Spanning Tree Protocol - 1
Ethernet bridges and switches can implement the IEEE 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol and use the spanning-tree algorithm to construct a loop free shortest path network. Shortest path is based on cumulative link costs. Link costs are based on the speed of the link.

489

Spanning Tree Protocol - 2
The Spanning-Tree Protocol establishes a root node, called the root bridge/switch. The Spanning-Tree Protocol constructs a topology that has one path for reaching every network node. The resulting tree originates from the root bridge/switch. The Spanning-Tree Protocol requires network devices to exchange messages to detect bridging loops. Links that will cause a loop are put into a blocking state. The message that a switch sends, allowing the formation of a loop free logical topology, is called a Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU).

490

Selecting the Root Bridge
The first decision that all switches in the network make, is to identify the root bridge. The position of the root bridge in a network will affect the traffic flow. When a switch is turned on, the spanning-tree algorithm is used to identify the root bridge. BPDUs are sent out with the Bridge ID (BID). The BID consists of a bridge priority that defaults to 32768 and the switch base MAC address. When a switch first starts up, it assumes it is the root switch and sends BPDUs. These BPDUs contain the switch MAC address in both the root and sender BID. As a switch receives a BPDU with a lower root BID it replaces that in the BPDUs that are sent out. All bridges see these and decide that the bridge with the smallest BID value will be the root bridge. A network administrator may want to influence the decision by setting 491 the switch priority to a smaller value than the default.

BDPUs
BPDUs contain enough information so that all switches can do the following: • Select a single switch that will act as the root of the spanning tree • Calculate the shortest path from itself to the root switch • Designate one of the switches as the closest one to the root, for each LAN segment. This bridge is called the “designated switch”. The designated switch handles all communication from that LAN towards the root bridge. • Each non-root switch choose one of its ports as its root port, this is the interface that gives the best path to the root switch. • Select ports that are part of the spanning tree, the designated ports. Non-designated ports are blocked.
492

Spanning Tree Operation
When the network has stabilized, it has converged and there is one spanning tree per network. As a result, for every switched network the following elements exist: • One root bridge per network • One root port per non root bridge • One designated port per segment • Unused, non-designated ports Root ports and designated ports are used for forwarding (F) data traffic. Non-designated ports discard data traffic. Non-designated ports are called blocking (B) or discarding ports.

493

Spanning Tree Port States

494

Spanning Tree Recalculation
A switched internetwork has converged when all the switch and bridge ports are in either the forwarding or blocked state. Forwarding ports send and receive data traffic and BPDUs. Blocked ports will only receive BPDUs. When the network topology changes, switches and bridges recompute the Spanning Tree and cause a disruption of user traffic. Convergence on a new spanning-tree topology using the IEEE 802.1D standard can take up to 50 seconds. This convergence is made up of the max-age of 20 seconds, plus the listening forward delay of 15 seconds, and the learning forward 495 delay of 15 seconds.

Rapid STP Designations

496

497

VLANs
VLAN implementation combines Layer 2 switching and Layer 3 routing technologies to limit both collision domains and broadcast domains. VLANs can also be used to provide security by creating the VLAN groups according to function and by using routers to communicate between VLANs. A physical port association is used to implement VLAN assignment. Communication between VLANs can occur only through the router. This limits the size of the broadcast domains and uses the router to determine whether one VLAN can talk to another VLAN. NOTE: This is the only way a switch can break up a broadcast domain!
498

Setting up VLAN Implementation

499

VLAN Communication

500

VLAN Membership Modes

• VLAN membership can either be static or dynamic.
501

Static VLANs

• All users attached to same switch port must be in the same VLAN.
502

Configuring VLANs in Global Mode
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#vlan 3 Switch(config-vlan)#name Vlan3 Switch(config-vlan)#exit Switch(config)#end

503

Configuring VLANs in VLAN Database Mode
Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan 3 VLAN 3 added: Name: VLAN0003 Switch(vlan)#exit APPLY completed. Exiting....

504

Deleting VLANs in Global Mode
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#no vlan 3 Switch(config)#end

505

Deleting VLANs in VLAN Database Mode
Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#no vlan 3 VLAN 3 deleted: Name: VLAN0003 Switch(vlan)#exit APPLY completed. Exiting....

506

Assigning Access Ports to a VLAN
Switch(config)#interface gigabitethernet 1/1

• Enters interface configuration mode

Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access

• Configures the interface as an access port

Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 3

• Assigns the access port to a VLAN
507

Verifying the VLAN Configuration
Switch#show vlan [id | name] [vlan_num | vlan_name]
VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/5, Fa0/7 Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/11, Fa0/12 Gi0/1, Gi0/2 2 VLAN0002 active 51 VLAN0051 active 52 VLAN0052 active … VLAN ---1 2 51 52 … Type ----enet enet enet enet SAID ---------100001 100002 100051 100052 MTU ----1500 1500 1500 1500 Parent -----RingNo -----BridgeNo -------Stp ---BrdgMode -------Trans1 -----1002 0 0 0 Trans2 -----1003 0 0 0

Remote SPAN VLANs -----------------------------------------------------------------------------508 Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- ------------------------------------------

Verifying the VLAN Port Configuration
Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port

• Displays the running configuration of the interface
Switch#show interfaces [{fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port] switchport

• Displays the switch port configuration of the interface
Switch#show mac-address-table interface interface-id [vlan vlan-id] [ | {begin | exclude | include} expression]

• Displays the MAC address table information for the specified interface in the specified VLAN
509

Implementing VLAN Trunks

510
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BCMSN v2.0—2-510

VLAN Trunking

511

Importance of Native VLANs

512

ISL Encapsulation
– Performed with ASIC – Not intrusive to client stations; client does not see the header – Effective between switches, and between routers and switches

513

ISL and Layer 2 Encapsulation

514

Configuring ISL Trunking
Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 2/1

• Enters interface configuration mode
Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk • Configures

the interface as a Layer 2 trunk

Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation [isl|dot1q]

• Selects the encapsulation
515

Verifying ISL Trunking
Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port Switch#show interfaces [fastethernet | gigabitethernet] slot/port [ switchport | trunk ]
Switch#show interfaces fastethernet 2/1 trunk Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Port Fa2/1 Mode desirable Encapsulation isl Status trunking Native VLAN 1

VLANs allowed on trunk 1-1005 VLANs allowed and active in management domain 1-2,1002-1005 VLANs in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1-2,1002-1005

516

802.1Q Trunking

517

Configuring 802.1Q Trunking

Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 5/8 Switch(config-if)#shutdown Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,15,11,1002-1005 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate Switch(config-if)#no shutdown

518

Verifying 802.1Q Trunking
Switch#show running-config interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port Switch#show interfaces [fastethernet | gigabitethernet] slot/port [ switchport | trunk ]
Switch#show interfaces gigabitEthernet 0/1 switchport Name: Gi0/1 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: trunk Operational Mode: trunk Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Negotiation of Trunking: On Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001 . . .

519

Implementing VLAN Trunk Protocol

520
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BCMSN 2.0—2-520

VTP Protocol Features
– Advertises VLAN configuration information – Maintains VLAN configuration consistency throughout a common administrative domain – Sends advertisements on trunk ports only

521

VTP Modes
• Creates, modifies, and deletes VLANs • Sends and forwards advertisements • Synchronizes VLAN configurations • Saves configuration in NVRAM • Cannot create, change, or delete VLANs • Forwards advertisements • Synchronizes VLAN configurations • Does not save in NVRAM

• Creates, modifies, and deletes VLANs locally only • Forwards advertisements • Does not synchronize VLAN configurations • Saves configuration in NVRAM 522

VTP Operation
• VTP advertisements are sent as multicast frames. • VTP servers and clients are synchronized to the latest update identified revision number. • VTP advertisements are sent every 5 minutes or when there is a change.

523

VTP Pruning
• Increases available bandwidth by reducing unnecessary flooded traffic • Example: Station A sends broadcast, and broadcast is flooded only toward any switch with ports assigned to the red VLAN.

524

VTP Configuration Guidelines
– Configure the following:
• • • • VTP domain name VTP mode (server mode is the default) VTP pruning VTP password

– Be cautious when adding a new switch into an existing domain. – Add a new switch in a Client mode to get the last up-todate information from the network then convert it to Server mode. – Add all new configurations to switch in transparent mode and check your configuration well then convert it to Server mode to prevent the switch from propagating incorrect VLAN information.
525

Configuring a VTP Server
Switch(config)#vtp server

• Configures VTP server mode
Switch(config)#vtp domain domain-name

• Specifies a domain name
Switch(config)#vtp password password

• Sets a VTP password
Switch(config)#vtp pruning

• Enables VTP pruning in the domain
526

Configuring a VTP Server (Cont.)
Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#vtp server Setting device to VTP SERVER mode. Switch(config)#vtp domain Lab_Network Setting VTP domain name to Lab_Network Switch(config)#end

527

Verifying the VTP Configuration
Switch#show vtp status

Switch#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 247 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 33 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : Lab_Network VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x45 0x52 0xB6 0xFD 0x63 0xC8 0x49 0x80 Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 8-12-99 15:04:49 Switch#
528

Verifying the VTP Configuration (Cont.)
Switch#show vtp counters
Switch#show vtp counters VTP statistics: Summary advertisements received Subset advertisements received Request advertisements received Summary advertisements transmitted Subset advertisements transmitted Request advertisements transmitted Number of config revision errors Number of config digest errors Number of V1 summary errors : : : : : : : : : 7 5 0 997 13 3 0 0 0

VTP pruning statistics: Trunk Join Transmitted Join Received

Summary advts received from non-pruning-capable device ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- --------------------------Fa5/8 43071 42766 5 529

530

Contents
• • • • • Remote access overview WAN Connection Types Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols Determining the WAN Type to Use OSI Layer-2 Point-to-Point WANs
– PPP – HDLC – Frame Relay
531

Remote Access Overview
• A WAN is a data communications network covering a relatively broad geographical area. • A network administrator designing a remote network must weight issues concerning users needs such as bandwidth and cost of the variable available technologies.
532

WAN Connection Types

533

WAN Connection Types
• Leased lines
– It is a pre-established WAN communications path from the CPE, through the DCE switch, to the CPE of the remote site, allowing DTE networks to communicate at any time with no setup procedures before transmitting data.

• Circuit switching
– Sets up line like a phone call. No data can transfer before the end-to-end connection is established.
534

WAN Connection Types
• Packet switching
– WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. As long as you are not constantly transmitting data and are instead using bursty data transfers, packet switching can save you a lot of money. – However, if you have constant data transfers, then you will need to get a leased line. – Frame Relay and X.25 are packet switching technologies.
535

Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols
• Each WAN connection uses an encapsulation protocol to encapsulate traffic while it crossing the WAN link. • The choice of the encapsulation protocol depends on the underlying WAN technology and the communicating equipment.
536

Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols
• Typical WAN encapsulation types include the following:
– – – – – – Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) High-Level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC) X.25 / Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
537

Determining the WAN Type to Use
• Availability
– Each type of service may be available in certain geographical areas.

• Bandwidth
– Determining usage over the WAN is important to evaluate the most cost-effective WAN service.

• Cost
– Making a compromise between the traffic you need to transfer and the type of service with the available cost that will suit you.
538

Determining the WAN Type to Use
• Ease of Management
– Connection management includes both the initial start-up configuration and the outgoing configuration of the normal operation.

• Application Traffic
– Traffic may be as small as during a terminal session , or very large packets as during file transfer.
539

Max. WAN Speeds for WAN Connections
WAN Type Asynchronous Dial-Up X.25, ISDN – BRI ISDN – PRI Leased Line / Frame Relay Maximum Speed 56-64 Kbps 128 Kbps E1 / T1 E3 / T3
540

OSI Layer-2 Point-to-Point WANs
• WAN protocols used on Point-to-Point serial links provide the basic function of data delivery across that one link. • The two most popular data link protocols used today are Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
541

HDLC
• HDLC performs OSI Layer-2 functions. • It determines when it is appropriate to use the physical medium. • Ensures that the correct recipient receives and processes the data that is sent. • Determines whether the sent data was received correctly or not (error detection).
542

HDLC
• HDLC Frame Format

• The original HDLC didn’t include any Protocol Type field, every company (including Cisco) added its own field, so it became a proprietary protocol that can be used between only Cisco routers.
543

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
• PPP is a standard encapsulation protocol for the transport of different Network Layer protocols (including, but not limited to, IP). • It has the following main functional components
– Link Control Protocol (LCP) that establishes, authenticates, and tests the data link connection. – Network Control Protocols (NCPs) that establishes and configure different network layer protocols.
544

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
• PPP discards frames that do not pass the error check. • PPP is a standard protocol, and so it can be used with all types of routers (not Cisco Proprietary).

545

PPP LCP Features
• • • • • Authentication Compression Multilink PPP Error Detection Looped Link Detection

546

Compression
• Compression enables higher data throughput across the link. • Different compression schemes are available:
– Predictor : checks if the data was already compressed. – Stacker : it looks at the data stream and only sends each type of data once with information about where the type occurs and then the receiving side uses this information to reassemble the data stream. – MPPC (Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression) : allows Cisco routers to compress data with Microsoft clients.
547

PPP Multilink
• PPP Multilink provides load balancing over dialer interfaces-including ISDN, synchronous, and asynchronous interfaces. • This can improve throughput and reduce latency between systems by splitting packets and sending fragments over parallel circuits.
548

Error Detection
• PPP can take down a link based on the value of what is called LQM (Link Quality Monitor) as it gets the ratio of corrupted packets to the total number of sent packets, and according to a predetermined value, the link can be brought down if it is thought that its performance is beyond limits accepted.
549

Looped Link Detection
• PPP can detect looped links (that are sometimes done by Teleco companies) using what is called Magic Number. • Every router will have a magic number, and if packets were received having the same router’s magic number, then the link is looped.
550

PPP Configuration Commands
• To enable PPP
– Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp

• To configure PAP authentication
– Router(Config-if)#ppp authentication pap – Router(Config-if)#ppp pap username .. password ..

• To configure Compression
– Router(Config-if)#compress [predictor|stack|mppc]
551

Frame Relay

552
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BCMSN v2.0—2-552

Frame Relay
• Frame Relay networks use permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs) but most nowadays Frame Relay networks use permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). • The logical path between each pair of routers is called a Virtual Circuit (VC). • VCs share the access link and the frame relay network.

• Each VC is committed to a CIR (Committed Information Rate) which is a guarantee by the provider that a particular VC gets at least this much of BW.
553

PVC PC CPE UNI Controller Router ISDN dial-up connection or direct connection (V.35, E1, RS232) Switch Port PVC PVC SVC SVC

PBX

Video

Desktop & LAN Formats packets in frames

Network access

Frame Relay Network

554

LMI and Encapsulation Types
• The LMI is a definition of the messages used between the DTE and the DCE. • The encapsulation defines the headers used by a DTE to communicate some information to the DTE on the other end of a VC. • The switch and its connected router care about using the same LMI; the switch does not care about the encapsulation. The endpoint routers (DTEs) do care about the encapsulation.
555

LMI
• The most important LMI message is the LMI status inquiry message. Status messages perform two key functions:
– Perform a keepalive function between the DTE and DCE. If the access link has a problem, the absence of keepalive messages implies that the link is down. – Signal whether a PVC is active or inactive. Even though each PVC is predefined, its status can change.
556

LAPF
• A Frame Relay-connected router encapsulates each Layer 3 packet inside a Frame Relay header and trailer before it is sent out an access link. • The header and trailer are defined by the Link Access Procedure Frame Bearer Services (LAPF) specification. • The LAPF framing provides error detection with an FCS in the trailer, as well as the DLCI, DE, FECN, and BECN fields in the header.
557

LAPF
• DTEs use and react to the fields specified by these two types of encapsulation, but Frame Relay switches ignore these fields. Because the frames flow from DTE to DTE, both DTEs must agree to the encapsulation used. • However, each VC can use a different encapsulation. In the configuration, the encapsulation created by Cisco is called cisco, and the other one is called ietf.
558

DLCI Addressing Details
• The logical path between a pair of DTEs is called a virtual circuit (VC). • The data-link connection identifier (DLCI) identifies each individual PVC. • When multiple VCs use the same access link, the Frame Relay switches know how to forward the frames to the correct remote sites.

The DLCI is the Frame Relay address describing a Virtual Circuit
559

DLCI=32 DLCI=16 R DLCI=17

DLCI=32

DLCI=17

B

FR-network
DLCI=16 DLCI=16 DLCI=21 R

Virtual circuit R B Router Bridge

Frame Relay switch 560

DLCI Addressing Details
• The difference between layer-2 addressing and DLCI addressing is mainly because the fact that the header has a single DLCI field, not both Source and Destination DLCI fields.

561

Global DLCI Addressing
• Frame Relay DLCIs are locally significant; this means that the addresses need to be unique only on the local access link. • Global addressing is simply a way of choosing DLCI numbers when planning a Frame Relay network so that working with DLCIs is much easier. • Because local addressing is a fact, global addressing does not change these rules. Global addressing just makes DLCI assignment more obvious.
562

Global DLCI Addressing
• The final key to global addressing is that the Frame Relay switches actually change the DLCI value before delivering the frame. • The sender treats the DLCI field as a destination address, using the destination’s global DLCI in the header. • The receiver thinks of the DLCI field as the source address, because it contains the global DLCI of the frame’s sender.
563

Layer 3 Addressing
• Cisco’s Frame Relay implementation defines three different options for assigning subnets and IP addresses on Frame Relay interfaces:
– One subnet containing all Frame Relay DTEs – One subnet per VC – A hybrid of the first two options

564

One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs
• The single-subnet option is typically used when a full mesh of VCs exists. • In a full mesh, each router has a VC to every other router, meaning that each router can send frames directly to every other router

565

One Subnet Per VC
• The single-subnet-per-VC alternative, works better with a partially meshed Frame Relay network.

566

Hybrid Terminology
• Point-to-point subinterfaces are used when a single VC is considered to be all that is in the group—for instance, between Routers A and D and between Routers A and E. • Multipoint subinterfaces are used when more than two routers are considered to be in the same group— for instance, with Routers A, B, and C.
567

Frame Relay Address Mapping
• Mapping creates a correlation between a Layer3 address (IP Address) and its corresponding Layer-2 address (DLCI in Frame Relay). • It is used so that after the router receives the packet with the intended IP address could be able to handle it to the right Frame Relay switch (with the appropriate DLCI)

568

Mapping Methods
• Mapping can be done either two ways: • Dynamic Mapping
– Using the Inverse ARP that is enabled by default on Cisco routers.

• Static Mapping
– Using the frame-relay map command but you should first disable the inverse arp using the command no frame-relay inverse-arp
569

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

570
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. BCMSN v2.0—2-570

LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels
• LAPD is used as a data-link protocol across an ISDN D channel. • Essentially, a router with an ISDN interface needs to send and receive signaling messages to and from the local ISDN switch to which it is connected. • LAPD provides the data-link protocol that allows delivery of messages across that D channel to the local switch.
571

LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels
• The call setup and teardown messages themselves are defined by the Q.931 protocol. So, the local switch can receive a Q.931 call setup request from a router over the LAPD-controlled D channel, and it should react to that Q.931 message by setting up a circuit over the public network.

572

LAPD & PPP on D and B Channels
• An ISDN switch often requires some form of authentication with the device connecting to it. • Switches use a free-form decimal value, call the service profile identifier (SPID), to perform authentication. • In short, before any Q.931 call setup messages are accepted, the switch asks for the configured SPID values. If the values match what is configured in the switch, call setup flows are 573 accepted.

PRI Encoding and Framing
• ISDN PRI in North America is based on a digital T1 circuit. T1 circuits use two different encoding schemes—Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 with Zero Substitution (B8ZS). • The two options for framing on T1s are to use either Extended Super Frame (ESF) or the older option—Super Frame (SF). In most cases today, new T1s use ESF.

574

DDR (Dial On Demand Routing)
• You can configure DDR in several ways, including Legacy DDR and DDR dialer profiles. • The main difference between the two is that Legacy DDR associates dial details with a physical interface, whereas DDR dialer profiles disassociate the dial configuration from a physical interface, allowing a great deal of flexibility.
575

Legacy DDR Operation
1. Route packets out the interface to be dialed. 2. Determine the subset of the packets that trigger the dialing process. 3. Dial (signal). 4. Determine when the connection is terminated.

576

DDR Step 1: Routing Packets Out the Interface to Be Dialed
• DDR does not dial until some traffic is directed (routed) out the dial interface. • The router needs to route packets so that they are queued to go out the dial interface. Cisco’s design for DDR defines that the router receives some usergenerated traffic and, through normal routing processes, decides to route the traffic out the interface to be dialed. • The router (SanFrancisco) can receive a packet that must be routed out BRI0; routing the packet out BRI0 triggers the Cisco IOS software, causing the dial to occur.
577

DDR Step 2: Determining the Interesting Traffic
• Packets that are worthy of causing the device to dial are called interesting packets. • Two different methods can be used to define interesting packets.
– In the first method, interesting is defined as all packets of one or more Layer 3 protocols. – The second method allows you to define packets as interesting if they are permitted by an access list.
578

DDR Step 3: Dialing (Signaling)
• Defining the phone number to be dialed. • The command is dialer string , where string is the phone number (used when dialing only one site). • The dialer map command maps the different dialer numbers to the equivalent IP addresses of the routers to be dialed.
579

Configuring SPIDs
• You might need to configure the Service Profile Identifier (SPID) for one or both B channels, depending on the switch’s expectations. • When the telco switch has configured SPIDs, it might not allow the BRI line to work unless the router announces the correct SPID values to the switch. SPIDs, when used, provide a basic authentication feature.
580

ISDN PRI Configuration
1. Configure the type of ISDN switch to which this router is connected. 2. Configure the T1 or E1 encoding and framing options (controller configuration mode). 3. Configure the T1 or E1 channel range for the DS0 channels used on this PRI (controller configuration mode). 4. Configure any interface settings (for example, PPP encapsulation and IP address) on the interface representing the D channel.
581

Configuring a T1 or E1 Controller
• Your service provider will tell you what encoding and framing to configure on the router. Also, in almost every case, you will use all 24 DS0 channels in the PRI—23 B channels and the D channel.

582

DDR With Dialer Profiles
• Dialer profiles pool the physical interfaces so that the router uses any available B channel on any of the BRIs or PRIs in the pool. • Dialer profiles configuration moves most of the DDR interface configuration to a virtual interface called a dialer interface.
583

With all my best wishes for you to succeed and distinguish in the CCNA International Exam, Keep In touch

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

584

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