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• 'This material is based on a natural substance extracted from certain brown seaweed. The substance is called anhydro-beta-dymanuronic acid or alginic acid
Irreversible Hydrocolloid (Alginate)
– study models – To costum tray removable fixed partial dentures
Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
Physical Properties of Alginate • Its most important characteristic is its ability to rebound from stresses. .
. • Hydrocolloid because it consists of particles of a gelatinous (colloidal) state in water (hydro) and irreversible because once it has jelled it cannot be returned to a liquid solution.Composition of Alginate • Alginate is classified as irreversible hydrocolloid.
and to ensure the formation of a firm gel surface that is not tacky. – Flavoring . It also aids in forming the sol by dispersing the alginate powder particles in the water. a product of marine kelp – An activator. usually calium sulfate – A retarder such as sodium phosphate • An inert filler to reduce stickiness.• The alginate particles are compromised of: – Salts of alginic acid. The purpose of the diatomaceous earth is to act as filler to increase the strength and stiffness of the alginate gel. to produce a smooth texture. produce a smooth texture and add strength.
dense. Zinc oxide also acts as a filler and • has some influence on the physical properties and setting time of the gel Calcium • sulfate dihydrate is generally used as the reactor. cast surface.• . such as potassium titanium fluoride. is added as an • accelerator for the setting of the stone to be poured in the impression to ensure a hard. . • A fluol-ide. A retarder is also added to control • the setting time.
calcium ions replacc the sodiunl or potassium ions of two adjacent • For example.• Gelation Process • 'I'he typical sol-gel reaction can be described simply as a reaction of soluble alginate • with calcium sulf~%taen d the formation of 1'11 illsoluble calcium alginate gel. • Structurally. the following reaction will first take place: .
Alg + n CaSO. The setting time must • be sufficient to allow the dentis1 to mix the material. and place it in • the patient's mouth. • gelntion will occu~i n about 3 to 4 min at room temperature. Alg (2) • The third salt is known as a relarder...SO. the calcium ions begin to • react with the potassium alginate to produce calcium alginate as follows: • K. . if approximately 16 g of the powder is mixed with 38 ml. The amount of retarder is adjusted to provide • the proper setting time • In general. of water. + Ca. 4 11 K. load the tray.• When the supply of trisodium phosphate is exhausted.
it is tempting to alter the setting time by changing the W/P • ratio or the mixing time. • This slight modification can have mallzed effects on the • p~upestieosf the gel.o plocess • Normally.~n d • no~mal-settinga lginate (3 to 4 5 min) to plovide clinici.5 to 3 min) . the leal strength.ike both fast-setting alginnte (1. and the elctsticity • Thus the selling tlnie is best cgulated by the amount of retarder 'ldded during the manufactuli~l. the rna~lufdctu~erms .Controlling Setting Time • In the clinical selting.lns the oppor~unityt o • choose the matelials that hest suit their working style .
the ternpelatuie of the mixing water should be controlled • caretully within a degree or two of a standa~dte mperature.. usually 20" C. however. • the shorter is the setting time (i e.lture inclease • In such a cmc. so • that a constant and reliable setting time can be obtained I . a I-mi11 reduction in settling time occurs for each • 10 <: of temper. cdii safely influence the setting tlme by altering [he temperature • of the water • It is evident from figure 9-20 that the higher the temperature.• The clinician.
At higher temperatures. It may even be necessary to precool • the mixing bowl and spatula.• In hot weather. special precautions should be taken to provide cool water for • mixing so that premature gelation does not occur. fast-setting materials should be • used under carefully controlled conditions or the working time may be exceeded . especially when small amounts of impression • material are to be mixed.
fluids • Stock trays Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996 .Advantages • Inexpensive • Easy to use • Hydrophilic – Like moisture. blood.
Disadvantages • Tear strength is low • Dimensionally unstable – immediate pour – single cast • Accuracy is low – unacceptable for fixed prosthesis • High permanent deformation • Difficult to disinfect Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996 .
Manipulation • The first step of manipulation is to prepale a p~o p e rn ixtule of water and powder. • 'The measured powder is sifted into premeasured water that has already been • poured into a clean rubber bowl .
All of the • powder must be dissolved. • depending on the brand and type of alginate (fast-set or regular-set) .• A vigorous figure-8 motion is best. 45 sec to 1 min is generally sufficient. • with the mix being swiped or stropped against the sides of the rubber-mixing bowl • with intelmittent rotations (1 80") of the spatula to press out air bubbles. • The mixing time is particularly important.
creamy mixture that does not readily drip off the spatula when it is raised from the bowl • A variety of mechanical devices ale also available for mixing the alginate materials l he~r • principal benefits are convenience. and elimination of human errors.• The result should be a smooth. . speed.
such as • small amounts of gypsurn left in the bowl fiom a previous mix ot plastel or stone. <:ontnmindnts. unless a g~o ssly inco~• rect method is used for scoop~llgt he powder. as many manufactu~er s suggest However. the powder should be weighed and not measured volumetric~~llbyy • means of a scoop.ltions in individual mixes • should have no rneasurdble ellcct on the physical properties . the vari. can • accelelate the set It is best to usc sepalate bowls f o ~mi xing alginnte and stone.uc • att~ibutedto dirty o~c ontaminated mixing or handling devices. • Ideally.• Clean equipment is important becausc many of the problems and ~cldtedfa ilures .
The thickness of the alginate impression between the • tray and the tissues should be at least 3 mm.• Alginate is very weak. . therefore the tray must fit the patient's arch so that there • is a sufficient bulk of material.
the higher the water temperature the faster it sets. temperature is a major factor in the setting time.Setting Time of Alginate • Since alginate reacts or gels chemically. The colder the temperature of the water the longer it takes to set. Ideal water temperature is 68 degrees or room temperature. . conversely.
. The fastsetting type is the most widely used.5 minutes.• When ideal conditions exists a fast-setting type of alginate will gel in 1 to 2 minutes and a normal type gels in 2 to 4.
which • mi~lirnizes distortion of the rnaterial during implession removal. the compressive strength in this case actually • doubles durirlg the first 4 ~ n i naf ier gelation. but it did not illcrease app~ecinblyaf ter • the f i~s4t -mi11p eriod. Most dlginate materials irnprove in elasticity over time. thus permitting .• As can be noted from Table 3-10.
is used in mixing. . if too much or too little watei. Insufficient spatulation results in failure of the ingredients to dissolve sufficiently so that the chemical reactions can proceed uniformly throughout the mass. All manipulative factors under the control of the clinician affect the gel strength. For ex'anple. Manufacturers' directions supplied with the product should be followed in all respects. Overmixing breaks up the calcium alginake gel network as it is forming and reduces its strength.Strength • • • • • • • • • Maximum gel strength is required to prevent fracture and to ensure elastic recovery ol the impression upon its rcrnoval froin the mouth. making it less elastic The proper W/1' ratio should be employed as specified by the manufacturer. the final gel will be weakened.
However. The roughness of the impression surface is sufficient to cause distortion • at the margins of prepared teeth.Accuracy • Most alginate impression materials are not capable of reproducing the finer details • that are observed in impressions with other elastomeric impression materials.~ble partial dentures. . Nevertheless. nlginate materials are sufficiently accurate • that they can be used for making impressions for rernov. this does not increase the dimensional stability of • the material. • Manufacturers have attempted to increase the concentration of alginate to make the • material more accurate.
. Dustless alginate is preferred to minimize • this lisk. • The most lilzely side effect is thermal injury from reversible hydrocolloid as • a result of improper tempering or faulty equipment during impression making. • Inhaling fine airborne particles from alginate impression material can cause silicosis • and pulmonary hypersensitivity.Biocompatibility • No known chemical or allergic reactions are associated with hydrocolloid impressions.
if immersed in water.Dimensional Stability • Alginate has a tendency. after it sets to lose (syneresis) or absorb (imbibition) water. depending on the atomosheric conditions surrounding it. it imbibes moisture or swells. .If conditions are dry it loses water & shrinks.
Advantages of Alginate • • • • It makes an accurate impression It allows for undercuts The process is not time consuming It is easy to work with. has good viscosity & is low in adhesive qualities • It causes no great pain to the patient • Inexpensive to the dentist • Requires little armamentarium .
including the complete peripheral turn and a portion of the retromolar pads or tuberosities • Detail is sharp. not blurred or indistinct • Free of voids in critical areas • Free of large folds of alginate • No areas where alginate has pulled away from the tray .Evaluation Criteria • All detail is reproduced.
not sponge-like .• Free of rips and tears except in interproxinal areas • Alginate thoroughly covers the tray. no tray visible through alginate • Free of bulges or depressions that indicate a sub-surface bubble • Alginate is smooth.
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