VIBRATION ANALYSIS BASICS

Presented by : H.S.A

Topics:

Introduction to Vibration Theory

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory  Basic Terminology & Practices

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory  Basic Terminology & Practices  Basic Fault Identification

Topics: Introduction to Vibration Theory  Basic Terminology & Practices  Basic Fault Identification  Case History Examples (show from MT)  .

Topics: Introduction to Vibration Theory  Basic Terminology & Practices  Basic Fault Identification  Case History Examples (Show from MT)  Advanced Topics  .

Topics: Introduction to Vibration Theory  Basic Terminology & Practices  Basic Fault Identification  Case History Examples  Advanced Topics  Requested Topics ???  .

WHAT IS VIBRATION?

MOTION OF A BODY ABOUT A REFERENCE POINT

For example, SHAFT VIBRATION

CAUSED BY AN UNDESIRABLE MECHANICAL FORCE

It's helpful to understand a little about the signal processing step in order to get the most benefit from the Analyzer

VIBRATION SOURCE TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL SIGNAL TIME WAVEFORM

INFORMATION NEEDED FOR ANALYSIS

SIGNAL PROCESSING SPECTRUM PROBLEM DETECTION

AUTOMATED DIAGNOSTICS

MANUAL DIAGNOSTICS

COLLECTION OF VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS

Compare Across Points
5.3 mils
2.3 mils

1.2 mils

3.1 mils

Directional vibration on outboard bearing

Signal Processing Flow Transducer Amplitude Waveform Time FFT Spectrum Amplitude Data Collector/Analyzer Frequency .

Heavy Spot Rotation .

Time Waveform Heavy Spot Amplitude + 0 Time Rotation 1 revolution .

Time Waveform Heavy Spot Amplitude + 0 Time 360 degrees Rotation 1 revolution 3600 rpm 60 Hz 1 order = = = 3600 cycles per minute 60 cycles per second one times turning speed .

Time Waveform Amplitude + 0 Time 1000 rpm 1 revolution .

Time Waveform Amplitude + 0 Time 1000 rpm 4 blades 4 x 1000 rpm = = 1 revolution vibration occurs 4 times per revolution vibration occurs at 4000 cycles per minute = 4000 cpm .

Time Waveform Amplitude + 12 tooth gear 0 Time 1000 rpm 1 revolution .

000 cycles per minute 12.Time Waveform Amplitude + 12 tooth gear 0 Time 1000 rpm 1 revolution 12 teeth are meshing every revolution of the gear 12 x 1000 rpm = = vibration occurs at 12.000 cpm = 200 Hz .

+ 0 Time + 0 Time - + 0 Time - .

Time Waveform contains all the different frequencies mixed together + 0 Time - .

TIME WAVEFORM  AMPLITUDE VS TIME .

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Fast Fourier Transform .We are now entering the Frequency Domain  FFT .

We are now entering the Frequency Domain FFT .Fast Fourier Transform  Separates individual frequencies  .

We are now entering the Frequency Domain FFT .Fast Fourier Transform  Separates individual frequencies  Detects how much vibration at each frequency  .

Amplitude Time Amplitude Amplitude Time Amplitude Frequency .

0 Time 1x + 0 Time Frequency - 4x Frequency + 0 Time 12x Frequency - .

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM (or FFT)  AMPLITUDE VS FREQUENCY Amplitude 1.3 1000 2000 Frequency 3000 4000 .8 1.9 0.5 1.6 0.2 0.

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VIBRATION TERMINOLOGY   FREQUENCY –HERTZ –CPM –ORDERS PHASE (LAG) –DEGREES WHERE IS IT Frequency (CYCLES / SECOND) (CYCLES / MINUTE) (MULTIPLES OF RUN SPEED) TIME BETWEEN EVENTS (ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT)  Amplitude AMPLITUDE –DISPLACEMENT –VELOCITY –ACCELERATION HOW BAD IS IT? (MOVEMENT) (SPEED) (FORCE) Spectrum .

What's an Fmax. and why does it matter? .

What's an Fmax. and why does it matter?  Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum .

you can't analyze it  Fmax = low frequency Fmax = high frequency .What's an Fmax. and why does it matter? Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum  If you don't collect it.

and why does it matter? Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum  If you don't collect it. you can't analyze it  Why not always collect the highest Fmax possible? – Limitations of the analyzer – Takes extra data storage space – Reduces the Resolution of the Spectrum  .What's an Fmax.

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& Displacement ? .What's the difference between Acceleration. Velocity.

) Velocity (general purpose) Displacement (low freq) . Velocity.What's the difference between Acceleration. & Displacement ?  The frequency range of interest Acceleration (high freq.

And let's not forget Phase Analysis .

Phase Comparison In Phase: 180 Out of Phase: o .

Phase Comparison In Phase: 180 Out of Phase: o .

B + 0 Time Amplitude .B + 0 Time In Phase: A B 180 Out of Phase: o A B .Amplitude .A + 0 Time Amplitude .A + 0 Time Amplitude .

Tach Pulse Phase Measured between the two + 0 360 degrees Time - Vibration Signal .

Time for a demonstration: Rotor kit / Strobe  data collection tips  .

5 1.ALIGNMENT 3-6xRPM .Spectrum Analysis 1.3 1xRPM .BALANCE 2xRPM .6 0.2 0.9 0.LOOSENESS GEARS & ANTI FRICTION BEARINGS 6-30xRPM 30-50xRPM 1000 2000 Frequency 3000 4000 .8 1.

Vibration Spectrum and Parameter Bands SubHar monic 1X Amplitude 2X Bearing Bearing Gears Bearing 1x Trend of Balance 5 mm/sec 2x 50x Trend of Bearings Alarm Time (Days) Time (Days) 1 mm/sec .

SELECTED FREQUENCY BAND ALARMING SubHar monic 1X Amplitude 2X Bearing Bearing Gears Bearing 1x Trend of Balance 5 mm/sec 2x 50x Trend of Bearings Alarm Time (Days) Time (Days) 1 mm/sec .

OVERALL ALARM  AREA (ENERGY) UNDER THE SPECTRUM – 'SHOTGUN' METHOD.1 IN/SEC PEAK .RMS OVERALL VALUE  BEARING AND GEAR PROBLEMS WILL NOT GIVE EARLY WARNING WITH OVERALL ALARMS . NO DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION ALARM LEVEL = 0.

1 in/sec Increase 200 % rise over Reference 0.02 in/sec Minimum Value .ENVELOPE ALARMING CONSTRUCTED FROM BASELINE SPECTRA  "VARIABLE SHAPE ENVELOPING"  EFFECTIVE IN FINDING SMALL CHANGES  0.3 in/sec Absolute Value .

Diagnosing Machine Faults  Imbalance .

Diagnosing Machine Faults Imbalance  Misalignment  .

Diagnosing Machine Faults Imbalance  Misalignment  General Looseness or Wear  .

Diagnosing Machine Faults Imbalance  Misalignment  General Looseness or Wear  Bearing Defects  .

Diagnosing Machine Faults Imbalance  Misalignment  General Looseness or Wear  Bearing Defects  Gear Defects  .

.  ..Diagnosing Machine Faults Imbalance  Misalignment  General Looseness or Wear  Bearing Defects  Gear Defects  and many more.

What is Imbalance? Center of Shaft = Center of Mass Heavy Spot Center of Mass Center of Shaft Rotation .

Types of Imbalance  Imbalance can be separated into two components: Couple Imbalance: o Static Imbalance: (constant across rotor) (opposite across rotor) .

IMBALANCE  CHARACTERISTICS .

IMBALANCE   CHARACTERISTICS HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM .

IMBALANCE    CHARACTERISTICS HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM .

IMBALANCE     CHARACTERISTICS HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM .

IMBALANCE     CHARACTERISTICS HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM 1 X RPM SINUSOIDAL PATTERN IN THE TIME WAVEFORM  .

ESPECIALLY LOOSENESS   .IMBALANCE     CHARACTERISTICS HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM 1 X RPM SINUSOIDAL PATTERN IN THE TIME WAVEFORM CAN CAUSE OTHER FAULTS TO SHOW UP.

IMBALANCE RADIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X TURNING SPEED IS MUCH MORE SIGNIFICANT THAN IN THE AXIAL DIRECTION Freq: 60.010 Spec: .390 .04 Order: 1.

What is misalignment? Deviation from a common centerline during operation. GRRR! hmmm! BEFORE AFTER .

Types of Misalignment Offset Angular Both .

MISALIGNMENT  CHARACTERISTICS .

MISALIGNMENT   CHARACTERISTICS 2 X SHAFT RPM MAY DOMINATE .

MISALIGNMENT   CHARACTERISTICS 2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES  HIGH AXIAL AT 1. 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM .

2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM . 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM  HIGH RADIAL AT 1.MISALIGNMENT   CHARACTERISTICS 2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES  HIGH AXIAL AT 1.

2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM  HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM ABOVE 4 X ARE USUALLY LOW . 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM  HIGH RADIAL AT 1.MISALIGNMENT   CHARACTERISTICS 2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES  HIGH AXIAL AT 1.

2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM  HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM ABOVE 4 X ARE USUALLY LOW  PHASE READINGS SHOW A 180 DEGREE SHIFT ACROSS THE COUPLING . 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM  HIGH RADIAL AT 1.MISALIGNMENT   CHARACTERISTICS 2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES  HIGH AXIAL AT 1.

010 Spec: .640 .MISALIGNMENT 2X IS DOMINANT LOCATION OF VIBRATIONS VANE PASS IS DUE TO 11 BLADE PUMP IMPELLER VANE PASS Freq: 59.50 Order: 2.

Using Phase to distinguish Imbalance from Misalignment Cross Coupling Phase 180 deg out In Phase GRRR! .

5X. 4X. 8X . 3X. 6X.MECHANICAL LOOSENESS  MULTIPLE HARMONICS OF RUN SPEED 2X 3X 1X 6X 5X 7X 4X 8X RUN SPEED HARMONICS 1X. 2X. 7X.

Discuss "Harmonics" .

Bearing Fault Frequencies  Function of the Geometry of the Bearing Outer Race (BPFO) Inner Race (BPFI) Ball Spin (BSF) Cage (FTF) .

390 Spec: .180 .ROLLER BEARING EXAMPLE Freq: 441.03 Order: 7.

Discussion Topics: Fault frequencies  Inner -vs.Outer race defects  "Side-band" analysis  Severity stages  .

89 Order: 21.GEARMESH FAULT Freq: 106.00 Spec: .062 .

RESONANCE So much to say and so little time  (lead in to advanced topics)  .

Typical Periodic Vibration Survey Flow Database Exception Report Route Data Collector Automated Diagnosis Report Generation & Machine History Data Analysis Maintenance Action 3 .

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