D AWARENESS

For The past years the world had been in hunt for a renewable and reusable source of energy. BYAbhik Majumder Nikhil Rajeev .

Biopolymer Production for Bottles.PLA bottles Outline   Introduction Advantages      PLA production process Chemical and physical properties Problems with PLA(limitations) Alternatives(reinforcing fibers) Conclusion .

Reasons:    Due to concerns of CO2 emission and Environmental impact of non degradable landfill wastes. This demand has led to development of renewable and bio- . Increase in crude oil prices.Introduction  Demand for replacing petroleum based plastics with renewable bio-based materials is increasing in the world green chemistry.

industrial waste etc.  In the field of bio-polymers. municipal waste. further conversion makes it suitable for . PLA(poly-lactic acid) is commercially available with high range of applications. enabling its use in many other applications like bottles.  For large scale production. Recent development of technology. food packages. pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industry etc. it is available at low cost.This lactic acid is polymerized to give PLA. derived fiber materials. reduced raw material prices and increase in demand will result in a better economical competitiveness of biodegradable plastics.  Lactic acid could be produced from cheap and abundant cellulosic materials such as agricultural waste.  Lactic acid is made into monomer(lactide monomer).

.      biodegradable eco-friendly reusable 3R’s reducible recyclable  It is thermoplastic.  PLA shows mechanical and barrier properties similar to synthetic polymers like polyethylene terepthalate.Advantages  Most important. compostable. superior optical properties produced from renewable resources.

 Emission of C02 is minimum when compared to others. .Continued…  Shifting of production and usage of petrochemicals to renewable materials.  Non renewable energy requirement during production is least when compared others.

PET & PS  It is given in kg equivalents of CO2 . .Comparison with PLA.

Continued…  Non Renewable energy in MJ .

sugar beets etc. Steps for production of lactic acid:From corn. . juice is extracted which contains fermentable sugars and other nutrients suitable for microbial activity.PLA Production Process  Production of PLA is a multistep process which starts from production of lactic acid and ends with its polymerization. under fermentation of dextrose .lactic acid is produced. Starch is formed in the presence of co2(carbon dioxide) and H2O (water). {process-photosynthesis} Starch Finally is hydrolyzed to give dextrose(glucose).

Stepwise process for production of lactic acid. .

Tin) to enhance the rate and selectivity of intermolecular . Direct condensation of lactic acid Ring opening condensation of cyclic lactide dimer ¤ But.Production process of PLA from lactic acid:   Common methods for the production of PLA.   Steps involved for pre-polymer lactide process. most low cost & productive way for producing PLA is by prepolymer lactide process. Continuous condensation reaction of lactic acid which is produced by fermentation to produce pre-polymer(low molecular weight PLA)  Pre-polymers are converted into lactide stereoisomer's using catalyst (eg.

Continued…  Molten lactide mixture is then purified by vacuum distillation.   After the polymerization is complete remaining monomers are removed under vacuum and recycled to the beginning of the process. eliminating the use of costly & environment unfriendly solvents. PLA high polymer is produced using ring opening lactide polymerization in the melt. .

.Overall process for the production of PLA by Lactic acid.

General Properties Of PLA Appearance at 25°C and 101.25 Not volatile .3kPa Melting Point Specific Gravity Vapor pressure Clear & Translucent. <140°C 1.

Degradation of PLA bottle with days .

The high temperature and high humidity required for the decomposition are fairly extreme conditions. High diffusion coefficient does not allow PLA to be used for storing aerated substances (e. Low Flexibility and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) . CO2 aerated drinks cannot be stored).Problems Encountered with PLA  It has high water solubility compared with other petrochemical polymers.   High energy cost of production. . Low impact strength even though it has high flexural strength.g.   It has relatively poor abrasion resistance.    PLA permeation closely resembles to that of polystyrene.

A comparison with polypropylene(PP) .

Reinforcing inorganic matter to PLA(composite biopolymer). Methods:    Reinforcing nano size clay. Since. .Enhancement of Barrier Properties  Crystalline PLA shows a limitation when it comes to gas barrier. Solution:. it reduces barrier properties and other with less negative impact. mechanical and thermal properties. Reinforcement of cellulose nano fibers with nano whiskers Reinforcing with cellulose nano fibers is most effective way.

 Master Batch preparation using solvent mixture. Nano composites are prepared using a two step process. It is used as reinforcing phase for PLA matrix.  Extrusion process. Nano fiber is extracted from Kenaf pulp. Have attracted much as reinforcements. .Nano Fiber Reinforcement of PLA    Derived from renewable biomass.

0.Continued… Master Batch Preparation using Solvent mixture   Extraction of Kenaf pulp.  This suspension is grinded using ultrafine grinder at 3500rpm to obtain cellulose nanofiber.5% of pulp is distributed in the water using high shearing mixing to make dilute suspension.  Adequate amount of PLA is weighed and completely dissolved in a solvent mixture of acetone and chloroform in the ratio 9:1 by stirring at 55 °C . Pulp is immersed in distilled water.

 Mixtures of PLA and nano fiber are prepared by mixing the acetone based nano fiber with dissolved PLA. Which is further reformed to produce packaging bottles. Composite films are obtained. .   Mixture is allowed to evaporate at room temperature.Continued…  Nano fibers in aqueous medium are solvent-exchanged to acetone by a series of centrifuging steps.

6 Gpa with increase in yield stress.  Transparency and other tensile properties increases with increase in nano fiber contents. Diffusibility & permeability of gases is reduced to negligible. .  From tensile test.9 Gpa to3.Improving PLA properties    Heat resistance is increased. it is found that elastic modulus is increased from 2. Absorption and solubility of moisture is decreased.

In addition to this environmental issues & risk will vanish. . It will improve the proper usage of carbon.   HENCE IT MAKES PLA(POLY-LACTIC ACID) SUITABLE FOR ECO-FRIENDLY BOTTLE . Tensile strength.Conclusion !!!  Properties of lactic acid based polymers have undoubtly has potential for packaging in the form of bottles. youngs modulus & impact strength is improved compared with the pure PLA.WHICH IS MUCH NEEDED TO SAVE PLANET EARTH FROM EXTINCTION EARLY….

google.sciencedirect.org www.com .in www.ieee.www.References???     Books on biopolymer technology Research papers from university Monthly journals on polymer engineering and technology INTERNET.

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