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February 2002 FDA Subcommittee Meeting
Process and Method Validation
Leon Lachman, Ph.D. President Lachman Consultant Services, Inc.
“Establishing documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality attributes.”
Qualification / Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes
IQ and OQ and Calibrations need to be performed prior to use of equipment for process validation.
European Agency Guidance for Process Validation
Validation is the act of demonstrating and documenting that a procedure operates effectively. Process validation is the means of ensuring and providing documentary evidence that processes (within their specified design parameters) are capable of consistently producing a finished product of the required quality.
European Agency Guidance for Process Validation • Change Control: Clearly defined procedures are needed to control changes proposed in production processes. Such procedures should tightly control planned changes. ensure that sufficient supporting data are generated to demonstrate that the revised process will result in a product of the desired quality. consistent with the approved specification and ensure that all aspects are thoroughly documented and approved. 5 .
Representative Dosage Forms • • Solids: Tablets & Capsules Liquids – Solution Suspensions Emulsions • • Lyophilized Ointments / Creams 6 .
Solids: Tablets & Capsules • Size Reduction • Blending • Granulating • Compressing • Encapsulation • Coating 7 .
recommended powder capacity for efficient blending • Blend: Order of addition of ingredients. location. post-discharge. sampling (number. size) 8 . operating principle.Powder Blending Operation • Equipment: Blender geometry. volume • Parameters: RPMs. time • Homogeneity: Blender. size. post-storage. use of intensifier bars.
Solution • • • • • Solution Studies of Ingredients Fill Uniformity Filter Compatibility Product Tubing Interaction Flush Volumes • Cleaning / Sanitization • Inert Gas Effectiveness • Bioburden • Pyroburden 9 .Liquids .
Suspensions • • • • • • Milling Mixing Viscosity Resuspendability Agglomeration Caking 10 .
Emulsions • • • • • • Homogenation / Emulsification Viscosity Creaming Reemulsify Coalesce Globule Growth 11 .
Lyophilized • Freezing Temperature Rate • Drying Temperature Vacuum • Cake Appearance • Dissolution • Melt Back 12 .
Ointments / Creams • • • • • Active Distribution Particle Size Mixing Emulsification Viscosity 13 .
Method Validation Method validation is the process of demonstrating that analytical procedures are suitable for their intended use and that they support the identity. 14 . strength. quality. purity and potency of the drug substances and drug products.
Method Validation Published Guidances ICH-Q2A “Text on Validation of Analytical Procedure:(1994) ICH-Q2B “Validation on Analytical Procedures: Methodology: (1995) CDER “Reviewer Guidance: Validation of Chromatographic Method” (1994) CDER “Submitting Samples and Analytical Data for Method Validations” (1987) CDER Draft “Analytical Procedures and Method Validation” (2000) CDER “Bioanalytical Method Validation for Human Studies” (1999) USP<1225> “Validation of Compendial Methods” (current revision) 15 .
with documented purity. accuracy and precision. In practice. linearity. for instance: specificity. 16 . overall knowledge of the capabilities of the analytical procedure. range.ICH Topic Q2B Validation of Analytical Procedures • • • The main objective of validation of an analytical procedure is to demonstrate that the procedure is suitable for its intended purpose. it is usually possible to design the experimental work so that appropriate validation characteristics can be considered simultaneously to provide a sound. Well-characterized reference materials. should be used throughout the validation study.
Reagents.Considerations Prior to Method Validation • • • • Suitability of Instrument Status of Qualification and Calibration Suitability of Materials Status of Reference Standards. Placebo Lots Suitability of Analyst Status of Training and Qualification Records Suitability of Documentation Written analytical procedure and proper approved protocol with pre-established acceptance criteria 17 .
SEC. Bioanalytical Analysis – In support of PK/PD/Clinical Studies. MS. AA. • Titration Methods. • Dissolution Methods – Method of Analysis – HPLC.Examples of Methods That Require Validation Documentation Chromatographic Methods – HPLC. GC. IR. TLC. NIR. Automated Analysis. Photozone. 18 • . Microscopic. UV. etc. • Particle Sizer Analysis Methods – Laser. etc. etc. NMR. Isotachophoresis. Isoelectric Focusing. • Automated Analytical Methods – Robots. Sieving. • Spectrophotometric Methods – UV-VIS. etc. etc. GC/MS. • Capillary Electrophoresis Methods – Zone. Pharmaceutical Analysis – In support of CMC. XRD. Automated.
Method Characteristics to Be Considered for Validation • • • • • Specificity (Selectivity) Linearity Range Accuracy Precision Repeatability Intermediate Precision Reproducibility • Detection Limit • Quantitation Limit • Robustness • System Suitability Testing (Ruggedness) 19 .
Typically these might include impurities. 20 . degradants. etc.Specificity • Specificity is the ability to assess unequivocally the analyte in the presence of components which may be expected to be present. matrix.
Specificity • It is not always possible to demonstrate that an analytical procedure is specific for a particular analyte (complete discrimination). 21 . In this case a combination of two or more analytical procedures is recommended to achieve the necessary level of discrimination.
22 .Linearity • The linearity of an analytical procedure is its ability (within a given range) to obtain test results which are directly proportional to the concentration (amount) of analyte in the sample.
accuracy and linearity.Range • The range of an analytical procedure is the interval between the upper and lower concentration (amounts) of analyte in the sample for which it has been demonstrated that the analytical procedure has a suitable level of precision. 23 .
Accuracy • The accuracy of an analytical procedure expresses the closeness of agreement between the value which is accepted either as a conventional true value or an accepted reference value and the value found. 24 .
Precision • Repeatability expresses the precision under the same operating conditions over a short interval of time. Repeatability is also termed intra-assay precision. different equipment. • Reproducibility expresses the precision between laboratories (collaborative studies. different analysts. 25 . etc. usually applied to standardization of methodology). • Intermediate Precision expresses withinlaboratories variations: different days.
Detection Limit • The detection limit of an individual analytical procedure is the lowest amount of analyte in a sample which can be detected but not necessarily quantitated as an exact value. 26 .
and is used particularly for the determination of impurities and/or degradation products. The quantitation limit is a parameter of quantitative assays for low levels of compounds in sample matrices. 27 .Quantitation Limit • The quantitation limit of an individual analytical procedure is the lowest amount of analyte in a sample which can be quantitatively determined with suitable precision and accuracy.
28 .Impurities (Quantitation) • Accuracy should be assessed on samples (substance / product) spiked with known amounts of impurities.
29 .Robustness • The robustness of an analytical procedure is a measure of its capacity to remain unaffected by small. but deliberate variations in method parameters and provides an indication of its reliability during normal usage.
System suitability test parameters to be established for a particular procedure depend on the type of procedure being validated. analytical operations and samples to be analyzed constitute an integral system that can be evaluated as such. The tests are based on the concept that the equipment.System Suitability Testing • System suitability testing is an integral part of many analytical procedures. 30 . electronics.
Regulatory Approaches • Compendial Analytical Procedures • Noncompendial Analytical Procedures and Validation Requirements 31 .
Drug and Cosmetic Act as the regulatory analytical procedures for the compendial items.Compendial Analytical Procedures The Analytical procedures in the USP 25/NF 20 are legally recognized under section 501(b) of the Federal Food. the guidance recommends that information be provided for the following characteristics: Specificity of the procedure Stability of the sample solution Intermediate precision 32 . The suitability of these procedures must be verified under actual conditions of use. When using USP 25/NF 20 analytical procedures.
and this concern must be addressed when developing a drug product specification because formulationbased interference may not be considered in the monograph specifications.Compendial Analytical Procedures • Compendial analytical procedures may not be stability indicating. 33 .
Appropriate Automation Can…. • Reduce variability • Improve process and associated with human product consistency interaction • Improve documentation • Increase knowledge of & reporting capabilities process • Reduce costs • Improve monitoring. control and decisions 34 .
individuals. control limits Enhanced data and evaluation capabilities and increased confidence about process reproducibility and product quality Improved ability to set target parameters and control limits for routine production.. correlating with validation results Enhanced reporting capability 35 . range. mean.g.Advantages…Process Validation Expanded real time monitoring and adjustment of process Enhanced ability to statistically evaluate process performance and product variables e.
accurate and/or representative • Improper evaluation • Process assurance and adjustments based on inadequate information • Process deviations • Product quality problems • Avoidable costs: downtime rejection of in-process and finished product product recalls eroded goodwill 36 .Consequences of Inadequate Automation • Acquired data may not be complete.
g. calibrated and maintained at appropriate intervals Environmental requirements for the computerized system must be defined. force.. pressure.Calibration and Maintenance • Sensors must be calibrated e. temperature. maintained and documented 37 . wattage. dimensions • • Controllers must be qualified. humidity. weight. time.
Compliance Issues…automated equipment • System for reporting and evaluating deviations hardware software security life cycle management • • • Equipment Maintenance Calibration Target and Control Limits versus validated parameters versus historical process performance 38 .
documented In-Process Control Data…use and retention • SOPs and Training • Data Integrity • Legacy Systems 39 . controlled.Compliance Issues…automated equipment (continued) • • Operating Environment defined.
as appropriate 40 .Closed System Controls • • • • Validation Electronic and Human readable formats Protection to ensure accurate and ready retrieval Authorized access only •Audit trails •Device checks to determine validity of input •Operational system checks.
as appropriate • Controls over access to system operation and maintenance 41 .Closed System Controls (continued) • Written policies & •Revision and change control procedures procedures •Documented evolution • Controls over system of changes documentation •Qualified personnel • Operational system checks.
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