Contents

        

Network Systems Network Trends Switch Fabric Type of Switches Optical Cross Connects Optical Cross Connects Architecture Large Scale Switches Optical Router Applications

1

Development Milestones

2004 International Engineering Consortium

2

Network
 Network Connectivity
– Point to Point: one to one – Broadcast: one to many – Multicast: many to many

 Network Span
– Local / Metro Area Network – Wide Area Network – Long Haul Network

 Data Rates
– Voice 64kbps – Video 155Mbps, etc.

 Service Types
– Constant or Variable bit rate – Messaging – Quality of Service
3

Fully Connected, Un-switched Network
Ports Ports

Problem - limited and could not scale to thousands or millions of users Solution - switched network
4

Switched Network Pervasive. transparent 5 . high-bandwidth. reliable.

Optical Network .5 Gb/s 10 Gb/s 40 Gb/s Larger  Control (switching) – Electronics • 10 Gb/s (GaAs. InP) can deliver low order optical cross connects (16 x 16) • > 10 Gb/s ??(mainly power dissipation) – Optical  Reconfiguration: – Static or dynamic 6 .Issues  Capacity 2.

Optical Network Elements  Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing  Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (OADM)  Optical Gateways: – A critical network element. ranging from asynchronous legacy networks to 10–Gbps SONET systems. • a mix of standard SONET and ATM services. – A common transport structure to cater for • variety of bit rates and signal formats. 7 .

which fits in with current market requirements. and carriers demanding for at least double this capacity.  Until recently. the optical switches have electrical core.Electrical Right now. because standards are in place and products are available. there are concerns that electrical cores won‟t be able to cope with the explosion in the number of wavelengths in telecom networks (deployment of DWDM). • Easier network management. where – Light pulses are converted back into electrical signals so that their route across the middle of the switch can be handled by conventional ASICs (application specific integrated circuits).  This has a number of advantages: • Enabling the switches to handle smaller bandwidths than whole wavelengths. state-of-the-art ASIC technology wouldn‟t support anything more than a 512-by-512-port electrical core. Optical equivalents are not. at present.  But.Switching . 8 .

Routing and grooming are key areas. and that is where OXCs are used.Optical Network Elements . 2004 9 . International Engineering Consortium.Switches  Optical Bidirectional Line Switched Rings  Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) – Efficient use of existing optical fibre facilities at the optical level becomes critical as service providers started moving wavelengths around the glob.

Optical Switches • To provide high switching speed • To avoid the electronics speed bottleneck • I/O interface and switching fabric in optics • Switching control and switching fabric in optics • Switches act as routers and redirect the optical signals in a specific direction.sub nsecs) 10 .to. • It uses a simple 2x2 switch as a building block Main feature: Switching time (msecs .

– Vendors are finding ways of building larger scale electrical cores. But. not really. with switch of many thousands of ports. 11 . things are turning out a little different in practice. All that it might do is delay things.All Optical Switches  That‟s the theory.  Does this mean that is the end of the idea of alloptical networks? – Well. – This may encourage carriers to put off decisions on moving to all-optical switches.

Cross Connects Electrical Limits 1024 512 • High power consumption: e.Electrical vs. Optical . 1024x1024: 4 kW • Jitter: very large • Large switches • Need OE/EO conversion 128 64 32 16 8 10 MHz 100 MHz Optical Number of ports 256 • Bipolar or GaAs Electrical 1 GHz 10 GHz 100 GHz Data rate M C Wu DS3 OC3 OC12 OC48 OC192 12 .g.

g.Switching table changes according to network dynamics (e.The configuration may change per packet .g. congestion.Switching: Types  Circuit Switching: E. Telephone – Continuous streams • no bursts • no buffers – Connections are created and removed .Switching/forwarding is based on the destination address mapping .Buffering does not exist in circuit-switches  Packet Switching: Uses store & forward .Switching table is used to provide the mapping . failure) 13 .

.e.  The switching elements rely on the electro-optic effect (i.  The result is a 2x2 optical switching element whose state is determined by an electrical control signal.  Can be fabricated using LiNbO3 as well as other materials.Switching Fabric  Electro-optical 2 x 2 switching elements are the key devices in the fabrication of N x N optical data path. Electrical control Electrical control Optical input Optical output Optical input Optical output 14 . the application of an electric field to an electro-optical material changes the refractive index of the material).

Switching Fabric – contd. Input interface Output interface Switching fabric Switching control 15 .

..........55 mm WDM) Terminating equipment | SONET. Optical transport system (1.3 mm intra-office .. ATM.. 1. Optical Crossconnect (OXC) ...Switching Fabric – contd. Transponders . . .. IP. 16 .

Connectivity  Since a switch work as a permutation that routes input to the outputs. therefore it needs to provide at least N! different configuration  A minimum number of Log2(N!) is needed to configure N! different permutation  Blocking  Non-Blocking 17 .

Blocking  Occurs when one reduces the number of crosspoints in order to achieve low crosstalk and less complexity.Connectivity . In some switching architecture internal blocking may be reduced to zero by: – Improving the switching control: Wide sense nonblocking – Rearranging the switching configuration: Rearrangeably non-blocking 18 .

Connectivity– Non-blocking A new connection can always be made without disturbing the existing connections:  Strictly Non-blocking – A connection path can always be found no matter what the current switching configuration is or what switching control algorithm is used  Wide-Sense Non-blocking – A connection path can always be found regardless of the current switching configuration provided a good switching control algorithm is employed – No re-routing of the existing connections  Rearrangeably Non-blocking – The same as wide-sense. but requires re-routing of the existing connections to avoid blocking – Use fewer switches – Requires more complex control algorithm 19 .

position in frame determines output link – read and write to shared memory in different order 1 M U X D E M U X 1 4 3 2 1 TSI 1 2 3 4 2 4 1 3 N N 20 .e.Time Division Switching  Interchanges sample (slot) position within a frame: i. time slot interchange (TSI) – when demultiplexing.

Properties  Simple  Time taken to read and write to memory is the bottle-neck  For 120.TSI .000 telephone circuits – each circuit reads and writes memory once every 125 ms.5 ns => impossible with current technology 21 . – number of operations per second : 120.000 x 8000 x2 – each operation takes around 0.

Space Division Switching  Crossbar  Clos  Benes  Spank .Benes  Spanke 22 .

3) 4 .2) (3. depending on its destination  Crossbar: – Simplest possible space-division switch – Wide.Crossbar Architectures  Each sample takes a different path through the switch.sense blocking: When a connection is made it can exclude the possibility of certain other connections being made 1 2 Input ports 3 4 1 2 3 Output ports 23 Crosspoints – can be turned on or off Sessions: (1.1) (4.4) (2.

Crossbar Architectures . so at most 2X different configurations are supported by the switch.Blocking Input channels   1 Output channels . Case 1: .(3.Cross 24 . each point is either ON or Off.3) blocked Output channels .(4.Bars Input channels 2  3 4 N X N matrix S/W M inputs x N outputs Switch configuration: “set of input-output pairs simultaneously connected” that define the state of the switch For X crosspoints.2) ok Optical switching element 1 2 3 4 .

3) ok 25 .(3.Wide-Sense Nonblocking Input channels Rule: To connect ith input to the jth output.Crossbar Architecture . Case 2: 1 2 3 4 Output channels .(4.(2.2) ok . the algorithm sets the switch in the ith row and jth column at the “BAR” state and sets all other switches on its left and below at the “CROSS” 1 Input channels 2 3 4 state.4) ok .

Crossbar Architectures – 2 Layer  Only uses 6 x 9 = 54 cross points rather than 9 x 9 = 81  Penalty is loss of connectivity 2 3x3 5 26 .

aston.3 Layer 1 2 3 1 2 3 Output ports Input port 4 5 6 7 8 9 Blocking still possible 4 5 6 7 8 9 http://www.uk/~blowkj/index.htm 27 .Crossbar Architectures .ac.

28 .3 Layer 1 2 3 1 2 3 Blocking * 4 5 6 7 8 9  The first four connections 4 have made it 5 impossible for 6 3rd input to be connected to 7th 7 * output 8 9 The 3rd input can only reach the bottom middle switch The 7th output line can only be reached from the top output switch.Crossbar Architectures .

Crossbar Architecture . Fibre-switch loss 29 .Features Architecture: Switch element: Switch drive: Switch loss: SNR: Wide Sense Non-blocking N2 (based on 2 x 2) N2 (2N-1).Lse +2Lfs XT – 10log10(N-1) Where XT. Loss/switch element Lfs. Lse. Crosstalk (dB).

Properties  Advantages: – – – – – – – – simple to implement simple control strict sense non-blocking Low crosstalk: Waveguides do not cross each other number of crosspoints = N2 large VLSI space vulnerable to single faults the overall insertion loss is different for each inputoutput pair: Each path goes through a different number of switches 30  Disadvantages .Crossbar Architecture .

Time-Space Switching Arch. of Crosspoints N = 4 (not 16) 31 . 1 2 3 4 M U X time 1 2 1 TSI 2 1 time 1 M U X 4 3 TSI 3 4 3 1 2 4  Each input trunk in a crossbar is preceded with a TSI  Delay samples so that they arrive at the right time for the space division switch‟s schedule Note: No.

 Can flip samples both on input and output trunk  Gives more flexibility => lowers call blocking probability TSI TSI TSI  Complex in terms of: .Number of cross points .Size of buffers -Speed of the switch bus (internal speed) TSI TSI TSI TSI TSI 32 .Time-Space Switching Arch.

k. k. (32.) • Widely used k N= 1024 p k Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 • Stage 1 (nxp) • Stage 2(kxk) • Stage 3 (pxn) 33 . 2.Clos Architecture 1 nxp 1 kxk 1 pxn 1 n 32 •It is a 3-stage network n . 3. 3. 32)  (3.g. p.1st & 2nd stages are fully connected . n)  e. 5. 3.2nd & 3rd stages are fully connected . 2.1st & 3rd stages are not directly connected 33 2 64 2 2 32 993 64 32  Defined by: (n. 3.

then the total number of crosspoints = 3pN. which is < N2 if 3p < N. Problem:  Internal blocking  Larger number of crossovers when p is large.Clos Architecture In this 3-stage configuration N x N switch has:  2pN + pk2 crosspoints (note N = nk) (compared to N2 for a 1-stage crossbar)  If n = k. 34 .

then – Total Switch Element: 2kn(2n-1) + (2n -1)k2 35 .There are n-1 other inputs at k-switch (stage 1).  If p = 2n -1. suppose the n-1 outputs in the first switch other than output 1 at the third stage are all busy again using n1 different switches at stage 2.Clos Architecture – Blocking If p < 2n-1. . Suppose they each go to a different switch at stage 2.Similarly.If p < n -1 + n -1 +1 = 2n -1 then there will be no line that input 1 can use to connect to output 1. . .Suppose input 1 want to connect to output 1 (these could be any fixed input and outputs. blocking can occur as follows: .

5 N3/2 – 4N.5. then – Total Switch Element: 2kn(2n-1) + (2n -1)k2  Since k = N/n. Thus the number switch elements = 4 (2)0.Clos Architecture – Blocking  If p = 2n -1. therefore – the number of switch elements is minimised when n ~(N/2) 0. which is less than N2 for the crossbar switch 36 .

reducing the number of middle stage switches) 37 . then the Clos network is re-arrangeably non-blocking (RNB) (i.e. there will free line that can be used to connect input 1 to output 1)  If p  n.Clos Architecture – Non-blocking  If p  2n -1. the Clos network is strict sense nonblocking (i.e.

then the resulting switch will be non-blocking.  For p = 19.Clos Architecture – Example  If N = 1000 and and n = 10.  If p < 19. the number of crosspoints are given as follow:38 . then the number of switches at the: – – – – 1st & 3rd stages = N/n = 1000/10 = 100 1st stage = 10 x p 3rd stage = p x 10 2nd stage = p x k x k.  If p = 2n -1 = 19. then blocking occurs.

no blocking occurs.  In the case of a full 1000 x 1000 crossbar switch.000 crosspoints – 2nd stage (p = 19 crossbars each of size 100 x 100. of crosspoints = 38000 + 190000 = 228000 Vs. the number of crosspoints at – 1st and 3rd stages = no. requiring 106 crosspoints. the 106 points used by the complete crossbar. 39 . The total no. of stages x (n x p) x k = 2 x (10 x 19) x 100 = 38.  For n = 10 and p = 19.Clos Architecture – Example contd. = p x k x k = 19 x 100 x 100 = 190000 crosspoints. because N/n = 100.

This is a factor of over 11 less equipment needed to switch 1000 customers! 40 .000 for the complete crossbar and about 190.1000 = 12).Clos Architecture – Example contd. Thus the total number of crosspoints = 91090 + 87120 = 178200 best case for a non-blocking switch as compared with the: 1. and p = 2(23) -1 = 45. of stages x (n x p) x k = 2 x (23 x 45) x 44 = 91080.000.000 for n = 10. then k = N/n = 1000/23 =~ 44 switches in the 1st & 3rd stages. the number of crosspoints at 2nd stage = p x k x k = 45 x 44 x 44 = 87120.5 = (1000/2) 0. the number of switch elements k is minimised when n ~(N/2)0. the number of crosspoints at 1st and 3rd stages = no.5 =~ 23 instead of 19. Since k = N/n. we actually have 12 extra inputs and outputs that we could switch with this configuration ( 23x44=1012 and 1012 . Since n = 23 does not divide 1000 evenly.

Benes Architecture 22 N/2  N/2 Benes 22 N N/2  N/2 Benes N  NxN switch (N is power of 2) RNB built recursively from Clos network:  1st step Clos(2. N/2. 2)  Rearrangably non-blocking 41 . N/2. 2.

total number of crosspoint = N.1 Number of 2x2 switches /each stage = N/2 Total number of crosspoints ~N.log2N .     Number of stages = 2.contd.Benes Architecture .(log2N -1)/2 For large N.log2N  Benes network is RNB (not SNB) and so may need re-routing:  Modular switch design  Multicast switches can be built in a modular fashion by including a copy module in front of the point-to-point switch 42 .

Connection sequence 2 to 1 1 to 5 3 to 3 4 to 2 Fails 43 Note there is no way 4 to 2 connection could be made . 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 X 6 7 8 •e.Benes Architecture .contd.g.

2 to 1 1 to 5 3 to 3 4 to 2 OK 44 .Benes Architecture –Non-blocking contd.g. • Now use different connections • e.

Three Building Blocks for OXC International Engineering Consortium. 2004 45 .

Optical Switches .Tow-Position Switch Control Signal Input port Ii Optical Switch I1 Output ports I2 The input signal can be switched to either of the output ports without having any access to the information carried by the input optical signal • In the ideal case. • 100% of the light should be passed to one port and 0% to the other port. 46 . the switching must be fast and low-loss.

Two Position Switch - contd.
 The two-position switch requires three fibres with collimating lenses and a prism.
Lens B A C Fibre B A C
47

Prisem

Light arriving at port A needs to be switched to port C.

Optical Switches - Applications
 Provisioning: Used inside optical cross connects to reconfigure them and set-up new path. [1 - 10 msecs]  Protection Switching: To switch traffic from a primary fibre onto another fibre in the case of a failure. [1 to 10 usecs]  Packet Switching: 53 byte packet @ 10 Gb/s. [1 nsecs]

 External Modulation: To switch on-off a laser source at a very high speed. [10 psecs << bit duration]  Network performance monitoring  Reconfiguration and restoration: Fibre networks
48

Optical Switching - Technologies
 Slow Switches (msecs) – Free space – Mechanical – Solid state  Fast Switches (nsecs) – LiNbO – Non-linear – InP
49

Optical Switches - Criteria
 Maximum Throughput:
– Total number of bits/sec switched through. – To increase throughput:
• Increase the number of I/O ports • Bit rate of each line

 Maximum Switching Speed
– Important:
• Packet switched • Time division multiplexed

 Minimum Number of Crosspoints
– As the size of the switch increases, so does the number of crosspoints, thus high cost – Multistage switching architecture are used to reduce the number of crosspoints.
50

• Subject to external traffic conditions – Internal blocking: when no input port is available.  Scalability – Replacing an old switch with a new larger switch is costly. where buffering is used. which will introduce additional delay.contd. • Subject to the switch design  Minimum Delay and Loss Probability – Important in packet switching.Criteria .  Minimum Blocking Probability: Important in circuit switching – External blocking: when the incoming call request an output port that is blocked. – Incrementally increasing the size of the existing switching as traffice grows is desirable  Broadcasting and Multicasting – To provide conferencing and multimedia applications 51 .

expensive. and power consumption – Optomechanical switches: excellent insertion loss and crosstalk. loss. SOA): limited expandability due to high crosstalk.contd. • Optical switches with low insertion loss and low crosstalk are needed in broadband optical networks – Restoration – Reprovisioning – Bandwidth on demand • Conventional optical switches cannot satisfy all the requirements: – Solid-state guided-wave switches (electro-optic.Criteria . thermo-optic. and suffer from poor reliability and scalability 52 . but are bulky.

Lossy .Maturity .Maturing .Types  Waveguide  Electro-optic effect .Optical Switches .Reliable  Free Space .Micro-optics (MEM‟s) .InP  Thermo-optic effect .Mechanical / fibre .Slow .Inherently scalable 53 .Polymer .Liquid crystal .Low loss & crosstalk .LiNbO .Fast .Complex .SiO2 / Si .Semiconductor optical amplifier .Slow .

 The thermo-optic coefficient is: – Silica glass – Polymer dn/dt = 1 x 10-5 K-1 dn/dt = -1 x 10-5 K-1  Difference thermo-optic effect results in different switch design.Thermo-Optic Effect  Some materials have strong thermo-optics effect that could be used to guide light in a waveguide. +v Electrodes 54 .Optical Switches .

Silica Mach – Zehnder Configuration Input Ii Outputs I1 I2 Heater I1  sin 2 ( / 2) Ii Directional coupler I2  cos 2 ( / 2) Ii 55 .Thermo-Optic Switch .

Thermo-Optic Switch . then I1 = I2 = Ii /2 • If PH1 = Pon & PH2 = 0. and I2 = Ii • If PH1 = 0 & PH2 = Pon. then I1 = Ii.Polymer Y – Junction Configuration PH1 Ii I1 PH2 I2 • If PH1 = PH2 = 0. and I2 = 0 56 . then I1 = 0.

5 4.005 57 . 112 10 17 1.6 0.6 39 1 Switch Size Si 64 4 18 ~3 5 8x8 Poly.Characteristics Parameters 2x2 Si Poly.Thermo-Optic Switch . of S/W Insertion Loss (dB) Crosstalk S/W time (ms) S/W power (W) 1 2 22 2 1 0. No.5 16 x 16 Si 256 18 13 ~4 15 0.

Telecom (a few) 8X8 3 dB 55 dB 10 msecs 58 Size: Loss: Crosstalk: Switching time: .Instrumentation .Mechanical Switches 1st Generation – Mid.3 dB) slow (msecs) Large Has moving part .2 – 0. 1980’s      Loss Speed Size Reliability Applications: Low (0.

and micro-optical elements on the same substrate Input fibres  Made using micro-machining  Free-space: polarisation independent  Independent of: – Bit-rate – Wavelength – Protocol  Speed: 1 10 ms Output fibres Lens Flat mirror Raised mirror 4 x 4 Cross point switch 59 .Micro Electro Mechanical Switches Combines optomechanical structures. microactuators.

Micro Electro Mechanical Switches This tiny electronically tiltable mirror is a building block in devices such as all-optical cross-connects and new types of computer data projectors. I/O Fibers Reflector MEMS 2-axis Tilt Mirrors Imaging Lenses Lightwave 60 .

bit rate.Micro Electro Mechanical Switches  Monolithic integration --> Compact. lightweight. scalable Batch fabrication --> Low cost  Share the advantages of optomechanical switches without their adverse effects  General Characteristics: + Low insertion loss (~ 1 dB) + Small crosstalk (< .60 dB) + Passive optical switch (independent of wavelength. + + + – modulation format) No standby power Rugged Scalable to large-scale optical crossconnect switches Moderate speed ( switch time from 100 nsec to 10 msec) 61 .

5 Gb/s are currently available  Different sizes are available. but not up to thousands (at the moment) Control 1 2 1 2 N N X N Cross Connect N 62 .  Used in all network control  Bit rate at which it functions depends on the applications.Large Optical Switches .Optical Cross Connects  Switch sizes > 2 X 2 can be implemented by means of cascading small switches. – 2.

Optical Cross Connects 63 .

Optical Switches Electrical switching and optical cabling: inputs come from different clock domains resulting in a switch that is generally timing-transparent. Optical switching and optical cabling. clocking and synchronization are not significant issues because the streams are independent. so the switch is completely timing-transparent. Inputs come from different clock domains. 64 .

System Considerations  For a given switch size N.  A switch with reduced number of crosspoints in each configured path. the internal blocking probability can be reduced to zero by: – using a good switching control – or rearranging the current switch configuration 65 .Optical Switches . – the number of 2x2 switches should be as small as possible. can have a large internal blocking probability  In some switching architectures. When the number is large it will result in: • high cost • large optical power loss and crosstalk.

 Large. new optical technologies have emerged to enable the economic transport of incredible bandwidth over single-mode optical fibrer. including DWDM and OTDM.  There are a variety of technologies and issues that influence the architecture for these types of network elements.  To transport Tbps. 66 . centralized IP routers are also appearing. because they're an extremely efficient solution to IP routing. That means individual optical links can sustain the enormous traffic needed to support the continuing growth of IP data.Optical Routers  In the core large optical-switching elements have already started to appear to handle optical circuits.

 Thus.Optical Routers  High-power. 67 .  New fibres with larger cross-sectional areas mean a large number of high-bit-rate signals can be wavelength-multiplexed onto a single fiber. low-noise optical amplifiers-or erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs)-and pulseshaping technologies mean the high-bit-rate optical signals do not require electronic regeneration except on the very longest fiber spans. it is becoming affordable to actually construct links that can support Tbps of capacity between routing and switching centres.

e the switching and routing centres. With Tbps links.Scalability  The bottleneck at the core of the expanding network is at the junction points of the fibre bundles: I. 68 .  New routers emerge only to be swamped with traffic within months. a huge amount of data converges into a single central office (CO) (see Figure 1).Network Problems .

Clustered routers have the same problem.Network Problems . 69 .Scalability Solution:  Use of cluster of several routers (or crossconnects). • the IP traffic must transit more and more devices. and the latency (the delay of IP packets) and jitter (delay variance) of the cluster grow quickly. • the hot-spot problem. As the number of switches in the cluster grows beyond about 4 or 5. This swamping effect also increases the delay of that saturated small router. the interconnecting links consume most of the ports. because: • a cluster of crossconnects requires interconnecting links between the crossconnects.  However. where one of the small routers in a cluster can be overwhelmed by temporary traffic dynamics in the network that do not exceed the combined node capacity. clustering is not a good long-term solution.

– eliminating clustering problems. large nonblocking switch fabric has the best latency and throughput performance of all router topologies. and – permitting global scheduling.  Similarly.Large. Centralized Router  Current trend in XCs is to use large microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based OXCs for core node protection and grooming of DWDM traffic. It also scales better than a clustered system-and it results in less complicated system software for the network element.  A centralized (single-hop). large centralized routers are an efficient alternative to solving bottleneck problems: – by avoiding the hot-spot problems of distributed routers. 70 . synchronous.

71 . Telecordia Tech.IP Routers + Optical Network Elements End Customer Router Router ONE Router ONE ONE Router Router Optical Network A V Lehmen.

72 .B OXC .C IP Router Crossconnects are reconfigurable:  Can provide restoration capability  Provide connectivity between any two routers OXC .D A V Lehmen. Telecordia Tech.A OXC .Optical Layer Capability: Reconfigurability IP Router IP Router IP Router IP Router OXC .

more hops translates into more packet delays . • But….each router has to deal with thru traffic as well as terminating traffic 73 .. Telecordia Tech.Architecture 1: Large Routers + High capacity Fibres Access lines A Z • All traffic flows through routers • Optics just transports the data from one point to another • IP layer can handle restoration • Network is „simple‟ Access lines A V Lehmen. .

and is more complicated 74 OXC A V Lehmen. Telecordia Tech.Architecture 2: Small Routers + OXC OXC OXC OXC • Router interconnectivity through OXC‟s • Only terminating traffic goes through routers • Thru traffic carried on optical „bypass‟ • Restoration can be done at the optical layer • Network can handle other types of traffic as well •But: network has more NE‟s. .

Router requests a new optical connection 2. Telecordia Tech. 1.Dynamic Set-Up of Optical Connection IP Router IP Router IP Router IP Router OXC .C A V Lehmen. Connection is established and routers are notified 75 . OXC A makes admission and routing decisions 3.A OXC . Path set-up message propagates through network 4.B OXC .

1 x N & N x 1 optical switches •Type II .N x 1 Optical switches 76 .OXC – Router-Selector Architecture 1 N N 1 1 N 1 N •Type I .1 x N passive optical splitter .

OXC – Router . Crosstalk (dB). Lse. Fibre-switch loss 77 .Feature Type I TypeII Architecture Switch Element Switch Drive Switch Loss SNR Where Strictly non-blocking 2N(N-1) 2Nlog2N (2Nlog2N)Lse+4Lfs 2XT-10log10(log2N) N(N-1) Nlog2N log2N(3+Lse)+2Lfs XT-10log10(log2N) XT. Loss/switch element Lfs.

OXC + Wavelength Converters 78 .

dev.Optical Switches: .) Low Low Medium-High 79 Integrated VOA functionality Reliability Insertion loss Cross talk Scalability .A comparison Characteristic Switching Speed Multicast Traditional Optical Switches >1ms Not available Not available ~10 Million cycles (Mech.) Low High Low Next Generation Optical Switches <1µsec Dynamic power partition between ports High dynamic range VOA ~10 Billion cycles (Optoelect.

it brings in lower rate SONET/SDH layer OC-3/STM-1. OC-12/STM-4 and OC48/STM-16 rates and electrical DS-3. Specifically. 2001 80 . and routing of lowerspeed circuits in mesh or ring network configurations. Alcatel.Optical Gateway Cross-Connect Performs digital grooming. STS-1 and STM-1e rates and grooms them into higher rate optical signals. traditional multiplexing.

1998 81 ..IP-router with Tb/s throughput can be built with fast tunable lasers & NxN optical mux From Input Port Buffer Output 40G Rx 40G Rx 40G Rx retiming T-Tx T-Tx Scheduler T-Tx 40 G mod 40 G mod 40 G mod T-Tx 40 G mod 40G Rx Clock Yamada et al.

Router & Optical Switch CHIARO.OptIPuter Optical Switch Workshop 82 .

Several POPs feed traffic into a terabit switch capable of handling all traffic— including IP.The Optical Future.Tomorrow's Architecture  Services are consolidated onto a single access line at the user site and fed into a Sonet multi-service provisioning platform at the carrier’s POP (point of presence). Light signals no longer need regeneration on long distance routes. FDM (frequency division multiplexing) is used to pack as much traffic as possible into wavelengths. The terabit switches sit at the edge of a three-tier network of optical switches—local. DWDM is used throughout the network and access lines. Where fiber is scarce. 83 . regional and long distance-each of which has a mesh topology. ATM and TDM.

Light signals need regenerating on long distance routes. Voice traffic runs over a TDM (time division multiplexer) network running over a Sonet (synchronous optical network) backbone. but not the local rings. The Sonet backbone comprises three tiers of rings at the local. IP traffic is shunted onto an ATM backbone running over other Sonet channels. Separate access networks carry telephony and data into the carrier’s point of presence. 84 . DWDM (dense wave division multiplexing) is in use in the regional and national rings. regional and national level. interconnected by add-drop multiplexers and cross-connects.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful