7 views

Uploaded by Srivatsa Rao

- Finite and Algorithmic Model Theory
- Wilkins - Graph Theory - 2BA1s10_0607
- Domination in graphs basics
- BETTER PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLEX METHOD ON TRANSPORT NETWORK WITH NON ? INTEGER EDGE CAPACITIES.
- Maxflow
- 2. Maths - Ijamss - Different Realizations of the Stasheff Polytope - Shatha Assaas Salman - Iraq
- mav_2012_exam_1
- Grap
- Gate by Rk Kanodia
- (a40508) Design and Analysis of Algorithms
- Computer Science Formulas
- qb2018_EEM303
- Cycle Space 2
- Algorithm Design Tardos
- A Graph Pebbling Algorithm on Weighted
- Inf3380 Floyd
- Personnel Scheduling
- Ce Oct15 Final
- Solutions of systems of inequalities
- 10.1.1.28

You are on page 1of 23

Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA

G multiplicative tree 4-spanner of G

Well-known Tree t -Spanner Problem

Given unweighted undirected graph G=(V,E) and an integer t.

Does G admit a spanning tree T =(V,E) such that

? ) , ( ) , ( , , u v dist t u v dist V v u

G T

s e

Multiplicative Tree t-Spanner:

G multiplicative 2-spanner of G

Well-known Sparse t -Spanner Problem

Given unweighted undirected graph G=(V,E) and integers t, m.

Does G admit a spanning graph H =(V,E) with |E| s m such that

? ) , ( ) , ( , , u v dist t u v dist V v u

G H

s e

Multiplicative t-Spanner:

New Light Flow-Spanner Problem

Light Flow-Spanner (LFS):

) , ( ) , ( , , v u F t v u F V v u

H G

s e

(F

G

(u, v) denotes the maximum flow between u and v in G.)

and

? ) (

'

B e p

E e

s

e

2/3

1/2

1/2

1/1

1/2

1/2

2/3

source sink

2/3

1/2

1/2

1/2

1/2

2/3

source sink

G

An LFS with flow stretch factor of 1.25 and budget 8

Given undirected graph G=(V,E), edge-costs p(e) and edge-

capacities c(e), and integers B, t.

Does G admit a spanning subgraph H =(V,E) such that

Variations of Light Flow-Spanner Problem

Sparse Flow-Spanner (SFS) : In the LFS problem, set p(e)=1, eE.

Sparse Edge-Connectivity-Spanner (SECS) : In the LFS problem, set

p(e)=1, c(e)=1 for each eE.

Light Edge-Connectivity-Spanner (LECS) : In the LFS problem, for

each eE set c(e)=1.

2/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

2/1

source sink

2/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

2/1

source

sink

G

An LECS with flow stretch factor of 1.5 and budget 8

Variations of Tree Flow-Spanner Problem

Tree Flow-Spanner (TFS) : In the LFS problem, we require the

underlying spanning subgraph to be a tree and, for each eE, set

p(e)=1.

easy: max. spanning tree, capacities are the edge-weights

Light Tree Flow-Spanner (LTFS) : In the LFS problem, we require

the underlying spanning subgraph to be a tree.

2/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

2/1

source sink

2/1

1/1

1/1

1/1

2/1

source

sink

G

An LTFS with flow stretch factor of 3 and budget 7

Related Work

k-Edge-Connected-Spanning-Subgraph problem:

Given a graph G along with an integer k, one seeks a spanning

subgraph of G that is k-edge-connected

MAX SNP-hard [Fernandes98]

(1+2/k)-approximation algorithm [Gabow et. al.05]

Linear time with k|V| edges [Nagamochi&Ibaraki92]

Original edge-connectivities are not taking into account

Related Work

Given a graph G=(V, E), a non-negative cost p(e) for every

edge eE and a non-negative connectivity requirement r

ij

for

every (unordered) pair of vertices i, j. One needs to find a

minimum-cost subgraph in which each pair of vertices i, j is

joined by at least r

ij

edge-disjoint paths.

NP-hard as a generalization of the Steiner tree problem

2(1+1/2+1/3++1/k)-approximation algorithm [Gabow et. al.98,

Goemans et. al.94]

By setting r

ij

=F

G

(i, j)/t( for each pair of vertices i, j, our

Light Edge-Connectivity-Spanner problem can be reduced to

SNDP.

Survivable-network-design problem (SNDP):

Related Work

Given a graph G, for every edge eE a non-negative cost p(e)

and a non-negative capacity c(e), a source s and a sink t, and a

positive integer B. One needs to find a subgraph H of G of total

cost at most B such that the maximum flow between s and t in

H is maximized.

Hard to approximate

F*-approximation algorithm (F* is the maximum total flow)

In our formulation, we approximate maximum flows for all

vertex pairs simultaneously

MaxFlowFixedCost problem: [Krumke et. al.98]

Our results

The Light Flow-Spanner, Sparse Flow-Spanner, Light-

Edge-Connectivity-Spanner and Sparse Edge-

Connectivity-Spanner problems are NP-complete.

The Light Tree Flow-Spanner problem is NP-complete.

Two approximation algorithms for the Light Tree Flow-

Spanner problem

For each triple (w

i

, x

j

, y

k

)M, create four

vertices a

ijk

,

ijk

, d

ijk

,

ijk

,

For each vertex aXUY , create a vertex a

and 2Deg(a)-1 dummy vertices

For each vertex aW, create a vertex a and

4Deg(a)-3 dummy vertices

Add one more vertex v and make

connections (E=EUE)

Set t=3/2 and B=|M|+|X|+|E| (=3+2+)

SECS is NP-Complete

Sparse Edge-Connectivity-Spanner (SECS) is NP-hard

Reduce 3-dimensional matching (3DM) to SECS.

Let be an instance of 3DM. For each

element , let Deg(a) be the number of triples in M that

contains a.

Y X W M _

Y X W a e

LTFS is NP-Complete

Reduce 3SAT to LTFS. Let x

1

,

x

2

, , x

n

be the variables and

C

1

, , C

q

the clauses of a 3SAT

instance.

For each variable x

i

, create 2k

i

vertices.

k

i

is the number of clauses containing either

literal x

i

or its negation.

For each clause C

i

create a clause vertex.

Add one more vertex v.

Add edges and set their capacities/costs

Set t=8 and B=3(k

1

+k

2

+

+ k

n

)+3q

Light Tree Flow-Spanner (LTFS) is NP-hard

NP-Completeness Results

Theorem 1. Sparse Edge-Connectivity-Spanner problem is NP-

complete.

Theorem 2. The Light Tree Flow-Spanner problem is NP-complete

Theorem 1 immediately gives us the following corollary.

Corollary 1. The Light Flow-Spanner, the Sparse Flow-Spanner

and the Light-Edge-Connectivity-Spanner problems are NP-

complete, too.

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

Assume G has a Light Tree Flow-Spanner with flow-stretch factor t and budget B.

Sort the edges of G such that c(e

1

) c(e

2

) c(e

m

). Let 1< r t-1 .

Cluster the edges according to the intervals [l

k

, h

k

], , [l

1

, h

1

], where h

1

= c(e

m

)

and l

1

= h

1

/r and, for k i < 1, h

i

is the largest capacity of the edge such that h

i

<

l

i-1

, and l

i

= h

i

/r.

36 30

30

6

G Clusters of edges of G (r=2, t=3)

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

[0.5,1] [3, 6] [18, 36]

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

{ }

1

'

) ( ) 1 /( : ) ( h e c t l G E e E

i i

s s e =

For each connected component of construct a minimum weight

Steiner-tree where the terminals are vertices from and the prices

are the edge weights.

Set the price of each edge in

to 0. The Steiner-tree edges are stored in F.

{ }

1

"

) ( : ) ( h e c l G E e E

i i

s s e = Define

) , (

' '

i i i

E X G =

) , (

" "

i i i

E Y G =

"

i

E

General step:

c(e

1

) c(e

m

)= h

1

[ ] [ ]

G

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

{ }

1

'

) ( ) 1 /( : ) ( h e c t l G E e E

i i

s s e =

For each connected component of construct a minimum weight

Steiner-tree where the terminals are vertices from and the prices

are the edge weights.

Set the price of each edge in

to 0. The Steiner-tree edges are stored in F.

{ }

1

"

) ( : ) ( h e c l G E e E

i i

s s e = Define

) , (

' '

i i i

E X G =

) , (

" "

i i i

E Y G =

"

i

E

[9, 36] [18, 36]

0 0

0

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

0 0

0

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

{ }

1

'

) ( ) 1 /( : ) ( h e c t l G E e E

i i

s s e =

For each connected component of construct a minimum weight

Steiner-tree where the terminals are vertices from and the prices

are the edge weights.

Set the price of each edge in

to 0. The Steiner-tree edges are stored in F.

{ }

1

"

) ( : ) ( h e c l G E e E

i i

s s e = Define

) , (

' '

i i i

E X G =

) , (

" "

i i i

E Y G =

"

i

E

[1.5, 36] [3, 36]

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

{ }

1

'

) ( ) 1 /( : ) ( h e c t l G E e E

i i

s s e =

For each connected component of construct a minimum weight

Steiner-tree where the terminals are vertices from and the prices

are the edge weights.

Set the price of each edge in

to 0. The Steiner-tree edges are stored in F.

{ }

1

"

) ( : ) ( h e c l G E e E

i i

s s e = Define

) , (

' '

i i i

E X G =

) , (

" "

i i i

E Y G =

"

i

E

[0.25, 36] [0.5, 36]

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

30

30

6

G T*

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36

Finally, construct a maximum spanning tree T* of H=(V,F), where

the weight of each edge is its capacity.

Approximation Algorithm for LTFS

30

30

6

G T*

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36

Theorem 4. There exists an (r(t-1), 1.55log

r

(r(t-1)))-approximation

algorithm for the Light Tree Flow-Spanner problem.

t r(t-1) t , P 1.55log

r

(r(t-1)) P (for any r: 1<r<t)

Our Second Approximation

Algorithm for LTFS

30

30

6

G T*

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36 30

30

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

6

6

4

4

6

1

1

1

1

36

Theorem 5. There exists an (1, (n-1))-approximation algorithm for

the Light Tree Flow-Spanner problem.

t t , P (n-1) P

Future work

Sparse Edge-Connectivity-Spanner is NP-hard

Light Flow-Spanner is NP-hard

Sparse Flow-Spanner is NP-hard

Light-Edge-Connectivity-Spanner is NP-hard

Light Tree Flow-Spanner (LTFS) is NP-hard

Two approximation algorithms for LTFS.

Conclusion

Show that it is NP-hard even to approximate.

Better approximations for the LTFS problem.

Approximate solutions for the general LFS problem.

- Finite and Algorithmic Model TheoryUploaded byqueensandaces
- Wilkins - Graph Theory - 2BA1s10_0607Uploaded byאשמורת הנצח
- Domination in graphs basicsUploaded byBaranikumar
- BETTER PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLEX METHOD ON TRANSPORT NETWORK WITH NON ? INTEGER EDGE CAPACITIES.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- MaxflowUploaded byduhancaraciolo
- 2. Maths - Ijamss - Different Realizations of the Stasheff Polytope - Shatha Assaas Salman - IraqUploaded byiaset123
- mav_2012_exam_1Uploaded byGabrielBarnett
- GrapUploaded byNicolas Salcedo
- Gate by Rk KanodiaUploaded byVigneshwaran Chakrapani
- (a40508) Design and Analysis of AlgorithmsUploaded byAnonymous ZntoXci
- Computer Science FormulasUploaded byrohitcem
- qb2018_EEM303Uploaded byShivam Gautam
- Cycle Space 2Uploaded byHamdunah Nasution
- Algorithm Design TardosUploaded bysnigdhaagrawal
- A Graph Pebbling Algorithm on WeightedUploaded byipank69
- Inf3380 FloydUploaded byLuis Tena
- Personnel SchedulingUploaded bymar3333
- Ce Oct15 FinalUploaded byLuísa Brito
- Solutions of systems of inequalitiesUploaded byNilam Doctor
- 10.1.1.28Uploaded byopenid_AePkLAJc
- Bn 31231239Uploaded byIJMER
- Chromatic PolynomialsUploaded byNelia Rivera
- solomon vandiUploaded byBouchra Ghailan
- WAIMLAp2017-OverviewProgram.pdfUploaded byjc224
- CS16.Kruskal AlgorithmUploaded byrsi127287
- A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Obtaining Minimum EdgeUploaded bydavidsmc
- Network CentralityUploaded byAnanKartiwa
- cn recordUploaded byGangadhar Rasamsetty
- Prims AlgorithmsUploaded bynofeelingrahul
- INDEPENDENT AND CONNECTED DOMINATION NUMBER IN MIDDLE AND LINE GRAPHSUploaded byInternational Jpurnal Of Technical Research And Applications

- deepakUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- Smart QuillUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- Cryptography Network SecurityUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- ANDROID Presentation MeUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- WIBREEUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- SeminarUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- dpptUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- New Text DocumentUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- Virtual Retinal Display PresentationUploaded bypriyankapapneja
- FormatUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- Seminar Report of Nano-ramUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- Seminar Report of VrdUploaded bySrivatsa Rao
- biochip-1-1216553103519762-9Uploaded bySrivatsa Rao

- The Art of ReductionUploaded byCong Wang
- Cook’s TheoremUploaded bytarun
- Sudkamp SolutionsUploaded byAdil Ahmad
- TimetableUploaded byCedrick
- Quantum Computer - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byVijay Kumar Vishwakarma
- 326Uploaded byaltamashshaikh09148
- Spring 2015Uploaded byAnonymous 7d2WetVROe
- Integer Programming _ Sven O. KrumkeUploaded byroyeh
- M.E. (Comp. Scien. & Engg.) June 2013Uploaded bybarak
- Task Assignment Optimization in Sap EwmUploaded byhesapadi
- PHI-LEARNING-Computer-Science-IT-Engineering-Electrical-Electronics-Mechanical-Civil-Chemical-Metallurgy-and-Agricultural-Catalogue-2016.pdfUploaded byPragyan Nanda
- Exotic OptionUploaded byRanit Banerjee
- assign1-hints.pdfUploaded byKpsmurugesan Kpsm
- Lecture5.pdfUploaded bySon T. Nguyen
- Dynamic Prgming & BacktrackingUploaded byharimano
- Yuang Bat Book1Uploaded byNaeem Ali Sajad
- Information Science and Engineering.pdfUploaded byAll in one Hacker
- podcUploaded bybhlkumar
- NQueens Extended AbstractUploaded byJR
- Algoritmo de Shore.pdfUploaded byLuis Alvarado
- Integer ProgrammingUploaded byChris Johnson
- part3Uploaded bypreethi
- Randomized AlgorithmsUploaded byRaji Pillai
- Elements of the Theory of Computation - PapadimitriouUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- Marks_2007_Validating.pdfUploaded bycarolhellin
- notesUploaded byPriya Vadhana
- Nips2013 Text ClassificationUploaded byantonio.zippo
- BE CSEUploaded byMadhur D Amilkanthwar
- _daa_ques_bank.docUploaded bySruthy Sasi
- Cse Iitkgp Ac in Oldlook Syllabus HTMLUploaded byvidyasagar