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GSM

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Cellular Concept

High transmitted power


Large coverage area Minimizing MS power consumption

Vehicular movement supported Limited spectrum allocation for service provider Capacity consideration Cell planning Handover/handoff

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Capacity Consideration
Target: as much as possible QoS consideration

Service coverage Better speech quality/higher data rate Low blocking/drop rate

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Capacity Consideration
Capacity Consideration Frequency reuse

Cluster Interference

A A G A F D E A A C B

Co-channel Adjacent channel

Frequency plan

Interference mitigation
Power control Sectored antenna...

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Cell Planning

Cell size
Downlink/uplink transmission power Transmission delay (interference)

Channel allocation
Co-channel interference reduction Adjacent channel interference avoidance Capacity demand

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GSM Family
GSM 900 in standard DCS 1800 is an up-banded GSM optimized for small cell sizes PCS 1900 is the North American version defined for the 2-GHz band

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(1)
The Mobile Station (MS) The Base Station System(BSS) The Mobile-service Switching Center(MSC) Operation and Maintenance Center(OMC)

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(2)

Registers
The Home Location Register(HLR) The Visitor Location Register(VLR) The Equipment Identity Register(EIR) Group Call Register(GCR) Authentication Center (AUC)

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Mobile Station
, , (MMI) , (SIM) 1. : IMSI, SIM 2. : IMEI

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BSS (Base Station System)


,

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

BSC

Base Station controller

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SMSS(1)
SMSS (MSC) (Registers) MSC GSM , , (IWF) (PSPDN) (CSPDN) (Registers): HLR, AUC,VLR, EIR, GCR

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SMSS(2)
HLR HLR AUC( ) HLR VLR MSC EIR IMEI MSC GCR , GCR

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SMSS(3)

GMSC

/ PSTN,ISDN PSPDN #

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OMC Operation and Maintenance Center

OMC BSS MSC , :


OMC-R OMC-S

:
HLR SIM MSC, GMSC

: EIR IMEI

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MS BSS BTS OMC EIR BSC MSC/VLR ISDN BTS MS


RF A Abis

PDN PSTN

MS

BTS

HLR AUC

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GSM PLMN (1)

Call Handling Packet Handling Subscriber Authentication Emergency calls Supplementary Services ISDN Voice group services Short Message Service

GSM

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GSM PLMN (2)

Location Registration Handover Call Re-establishment Security Related Service DTMF

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MS MSC Local ? YES LS MSC? GMSC 1 GMSC 2 MSC LS NO YES TS 1 TS 2

NO

LS

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LS GMSC? YES GMSC/MS C MSC MS NO TS 1 TS 2 GMSC/MS C MSC MS

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MS MSC/VLR NO GMSC/MS C HLR

MSC ? YES

MSC MS MS

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GSM

(TCH) TCH/FS TCH/HS TCH/F9.6 F4.8 TCH/F4.8, F2.4 kb/s.

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CCH) BCH FCCH SCH BCCH CCCH PCH RACH AGCH

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(SDCCH) (SACCH) (FACCH)

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GSM Technique Specifications

Total of about 130 specifications


01 02 03 04 05 06 07

series series series series series series series

: : : : : : :

General Service Aspects Network Aspects MS-BS interface & Protocol Physical Layer on the radio path Speech Coding Specification terminal Adaptors for MS

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GSM Technique Specifications


08 series : BS to MSC interface 09 series : Network Interworking 11 series : Equipment and Type Approval Specifications, SIM specification 12 series : Operation & Maintenance

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Important Numbering & Identities

Mobile subscribers
IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity TMSI : Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

Numbering

MSISDN : Mobile Station ISDN Number IMEI : International Mobile station Equipment Identity

Mobile Station Equipment

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Important Numbering & Identities

Location areas & base stations


LAI : Location Area Identification (MCC+MNC+LAC) CI: Cell Identity CGI: Cell Global Identity (LAI+CI) BSIC : Base Station Identity Code (NCC+BCC)

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SIM
Maybe one SIM card for multiple MSs
handheld, vehicular mounted borrow a more powerful, if failed

only emergency call (112 in Europe, 911 at US) if no SIM in MS protected by 4-digit personal identification number (PIN)

if 3 error inputs in a row then block

8-digit personal unblocking key (PUK)

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SIM Card Data Stored


SIM Card Data Stored Personal phone number Short message received A list of abbreviated and customized dialing numbers Temporary data

address of current VLR the number to which the calls must be forwarded (if subscriber selects call forwarding) transient parameters for authentication and ciphering