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Brain Computer Interface

by-

MANEESH RANJAN MCA 4th Sem. SJCE,MYSORE

Overview
Introduction Application History What is BCI Structure and signals Architecture/Logical structure Brain waves Functionality Future Work Conclusion References

Introduction
It is the study of brain functions BCI are system that provide translation of the electrical activity of the human brain into command which can control device in real time. An Electroencephalogram based BrainComputer-Interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer.

Applications
Bioengineering applications: assist devices for disabled people. Human subject monitoring: sleep disorders, neurological diseases, attention monitoring, and/or overall "mental state". Neuroscience research: real-time methods for correlating observable behavior with recorded neural signals. Man Machine Interaction: Interface devices between human and computers, machines.

History- Discovering the Basics


1924: Hans Berger discovers the EEG Analyses the interrelation of EEG and brain diseases. 1970: First developments to use brain waves as input ARPA has vision of enhanced human First step in the right direction

History-Monkey first
1990: First successful experiments with monkeys Implanting electrode arrays into monkey brains Recording of monkeys brain waves 2000: Monkeys control robots by thoughts

History - Humans follow


More non-invasive than invasive approaches Brain reading by eg. EEG, MEG or fMRI 2004: First human benefits from research

KEY ISSUES IN BCI RESEARCH AND USERS


RESEARCH DISCIPLINES

Engineering Clinical ... Psychological Neuroscience

KEY ISSUES IN BCI RESEARCH AND USERS


Target users:
Researchers - clinical researchers, neuroscientists, signal processing experts, etc. Technical operators - caregivers, therapists who are in charge of training someone on BCI operation. End-users -people with disabilities who rely on the system for communication Casual end-users -those who use a BCI as an alternative input for entertainment devices.

What is BCI
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI)
Interaction between the human neural system and machines Goal
Enabling people (especially disabled) to communicate and control devices by mere thinking.

BCI is a control system

Structure of a BCI

Structure of a BCI
1) Signal Acquisition: the EEG signals are obtained from the brain through invasive or non-invasive methods (for example, electrodes). After, the signal is amplified and sampled. 2) Signal Pre-Processing: once the signals are acquired, it is necessary to clean them. 3) Signal Classification: once the signals are cleaned, they will be processed and classified to find out which kind of mental task the subject is performing. 4) Computer Interaction: once the signals are classified, they will be used by an appropriate algorithm for the development of a certain application.

Signal Processing
Feature Extraction The Translation Algorithm

Output Device
Any controllable machines
For answering yes/no questions For word processing Wheelchair Virtual Reality

Usually, Computer screen and the output is the selection of targets or cursor movement

Existing Solution
Successful Story, Wearable BCI
A successful transition of the whole BCI system to the portable device No machine learning Limited computational power (limited signal processing)
A general-purpose system for (BCI) research
Source Module (new device new driver) Signal Processing Module (reusable, No Machine Learning) User Application Module (UDP/IP support to be running in any machine) Microsoft Windows 2000/XP C++ language

BCI2000

Platform

Wearable BCI
Mobility
Communication technologies
Bluetooth 802.11(wire less WLAN) GSM/GPRS

PDA instead of stationary computer

Dry Electrode instead of wet (reducing montage time) Making the BCI transparent
No need to change electrodes for a reasonable long time

Architecture

Logical scheme of BCI


Increase of performance
user training appropriate feature extraction

Modification of Brain Signals

Signal Features

computer training

Psychological Effort (Intention)

Classification Of Intent

appropriate feedback strategy

Environment

CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAINWAVES
Theta waves [4, 7.5] associated with reverie, daydreaming, meditation, creative ideas

Delta waves [0,4] Hz associated with deep sleep and in the awake state were thought to indicates physical defects in the brain.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAINWAVES
Alpha wave(8-13hz)-its indicates both a relaxed and attention mode of the brain.

Beta wave(13-30 hz)-it is the brain wave usually associated with activity thinking, active attention.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN WAVES


Gamma waves-within 35Hz-it reflect the mechanism of consciousness. Mu wave(8-12)hz associated with Motor activity,

MU AND ALPHA WAVES

Functionality of BCI
Steps for the function of BCI. 1.user wired to a multi-electrode EEG skin cap, which is connected to a pc running BCI2000. 2.user of the signal asked to generate a series of signals. 3.EEG potential record and analyze the signal 4.the software attempt to match these signal to previous recorded signals. 5.at last identified words are wrapped on output devices like-screen or speech synthesizer.

Risk factors and alternate solution


Undergone through hurdle brain surgery. New surgery for each up gradation Risky and complicated eyes surgery. Use wearable computing devices. External device is good option. Glasses and Lasik operation is best options.

Current Projects
Berlin Brain-Computer-Interface
Joint Venture of several German research organisations Supported by the Ministry of Education and Research

Graz Brain-Computer-Interface
Wide range of research topics Impressive combination of BCI and FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation)

Future Work
Virtual Reality Bluesense,Sniff mode Bluesense, Security

Conclusions
Distributed framework
Controlling the Breakout video game through brain signals
Acceptable delay, sampling frequency Reliable Robust TCP support Simplicity

BluesenseAD No ribbon cable

Game Server Application

Video Game

Suitable for BCI experiment Can be run on Java-enabled handsets

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Xplorer Digital Library website(Through SJCE Server) http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore [2] Wikipedia - internet encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain-computer_interface

Any Questions..?

Thank You