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PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
Communicate for the first meet
• • • • • • • Stand up when you meet someone. Smile Use eye contact Introduce yourself actively Shake hand Exchange name card Remember his/her name for the 1st time you meet him/her. • Listen to him/her. • Only call their nickname if they wish
Close space: 0 --> 50 cm Private space: 50cm --> 1,2 m Social space: 1,2 m --> 3,6 m Public space: > 3,6 m
Types of communication
Verbal communicatio n
Non-Verbal communicat ion
2012 .Remember 1 ABC 5C 7C 2 3 6 March 3.
ABC Principle • Accuracy • Brevity • Clarity .
Cautious . Concise 4.5C & 7C Principle 1. Clear 2. Correct 5. Courteous 6. Consistency 7. Complete 3.
Case 2: An insurance company sent their offers to a large number of customers. Some of these customers . She is so disappointed because she is sure that she phoned to order only 15 cakes yesterday. so if they are not sold today.Ineffective Communication Case 1: Today. These cake cannot be kept longer. she has to throw them away. the supervisor of a cake shop received 50 cakes from the supplier.
so he decided all 40 employees in his department stay there. a manager doesn’t receive the list. their sales did not increase. However. on the day of rehearsal. This caused higher . • Case 4: A company will rehearse a prevent-and-fight-fire program and board of management will send a list of employees who should be involved in this rehearsal.• Case 3: A perfume firm advertised their products during the interlude of an international football match because this is an attractive program. However.
WHY DO THEY COMMUNICATE INEFFECTIVELY? Wrong message Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Wrong method Wrong object No message 11 .
.Non-Verbal communication • It is a transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing. • Body language & other non-verbal cues occupy 93% of our communication whereas speech takes only 7%. • It is very necessary to realize as to when & where to use them in place of verbal communication. • It could be visual or auditory signals.
• Chronemics: The effect of time on communication • Smile . Postures & Gestures. • Oculesics: Eye Contact • Haptics: The communication of touch • Proxemics: The Communication of space & proximity.Types of Non-verbal Communication • Kinesics: Facial expressions.
. emotions. attitudes & thoughts through body movements.Body Language • It is communication of personal feelings. • Body Acting as a “truth talker” – actions do speak louder than words.
Body language .
volume & pauses that convey meaning. • Paralinguistic: Variations in pitch.. etc. eye contact & physical appearance. facial expressions. • That is “What we say?” is less important than “How we say it?” . • Physical Appearance: Attire. postures. • Body language includes gestures. speed. accessories.Contd….
Obama bowing to convention .
but not too much . but don’t stare • Don’t be afraid to take up some space • Relax your shoulders • Nod when they are talking • Don’t slouch. sit up straight • Lean.Do’s & Don'ts of Body Language • Don’t cross your arms or legs • Have eye contact.
Contd… • • • • Don’t touch your face Keep you head up Use your hands more confidently Don’t stand too close .
Speaking skills .
Voice • • • • • • • VD: • You will be promoted • You will be promoted • You will be promoted Tone Emphasis Volumn Pronounce Rhythm (Fluency) Speed .
SPEAKING STYLES • Direct: • Courteous: • Ironic/derisive • Allusion/Implication: .3.
Effective speaking skills • Thinking before speaking! • Prepare what you will say. • Ask for feedback (repeat).4. . • Use suitable tone in the context. • Gain listeners’ attention. easy to understand. • Speak briefly. • Use usual and popular statements and idioms.
LISTENING SKILLS .
analyze and understand Receive sound by physical respond Passive process Active process . Attentively listen Listen Only use ears Physical process. select. unconsciously Attentively listen Use ears and brain/intellect Analyze.Listen vs. store and reject Pay attention.
Listening & Attentively Listen levels Đồng cảm Concentrate Select Pretend Ignore tt A iv t en ly e st Li n e t is L n e .
• Hearing. • Judging.Listening Skills Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps. • Understanding. Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. think about whether it makes sense . The next part of listening happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. After you are sure you understand what the speaker has said.
Obstacles of attentively listening • Speaker (appearance. beliefs. large. voice. styles…) • Context/Environment (noise. arrogant. norms. prejudice.… .…) • Background/Knowledge • Listeners’ feelings and attitudes (unhappy. …) • Culture barriers (language.
• Make sure your mind is focused. .Listening Skills Tips for being a good listener: • Give your full attention on the person who is speaking. • Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want say next. • Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk.
"When you said that no two zebras are alike. you might say. .For example..They may be mentioned at the start or end of a talk.." or "The thing to remember is. . did you mean that the stripes are different on each one?" • Give feedback: . .Sit up straight and look directly at the speaker." • Ask questions: .Pay special attention to statements that begin with phrases such as "My point is.. and repeated. just ask. .If you are not sure you understand what the speaker has said. The main ideas are the most. It is a good idea to repeat in your own words what the speaker said so that you can be sure your understanding is correct..Listening Skills • Listen for main ideas.
WRITING SKILL Outline Style Chronological Shows events in order as they occurred Takes the audience on a journey through a flowing presentation States the problem. the why’s. your solution. and a summary Narrative Problem/ Solution States the cause and explains the effects Cause/ Effect .
Outline Style Topical Divides the general topic into several subtopics Uses some or all of the what. who. why. when. and how questions Journalistic Questions . where.
Outline Format Introduction Outline Format Body Conclusion .
Attention (or Attract) .Desire . or other writing. grabs attention.Writing Skills • The acronym AIDA is a handy tool for ensuring that your copy. The acronym stands for: .Action. .Interest .
your audience will . or a picture that will catch the reader's eye and make them stop and read what you have to say next. So use bullets and subheadings. • Rhetoric is the ancient art of using language to persuade.Writing Skills 1. 2. everybody need to be quick and direct to grab people's attention. Use powerful words. Attention/Attract • In our busy world. Interest • This is one of the most challenging stages. Help them to pick out the messages that are relevant to them quickly. and break up the text to make your points stand out. Gaining the reader's interest is a deeper process than grabbing their attention. If you use it well.
Action • Finally. 4. The main way of doing this is by appealing to their personal needs and wants. "Visit www. be very clear about what action you want your readers to take. . for example.edu. you also need to help them understand how what you're offering can help them in a real way.Writing Skills 3.ftu. Desire • As you're building the reader's interest.vn now for more information”.
Practice • Look at this letter to Mr. Brown (Head of marketing) made. • Correct them and draft a good letter. From: Peter To: Andy Thanks for your ppt documents. Cole (Head of Accounting) and find out what mistakes Mr. I will take a look at them tonight and feedback asap. OK? .
Questioning Techniques • Wrong questions . .wrong answer! • Right questions can help to improve a whole range of communications skills. manage people more effectively and help others to learn too. such as: better information and learn more. stronger relationships.
g. usually begin with what. how. An open question asks the respondent for his or her knowledge. • Open questions elicit longer answers. why. factual answer.Open and Closed Questions • A closed question usually receives a single word or very short.g. E. "Tell me" and "describe" can also . E. opinion or feelings. "Are you thirsty?" The answer is "Yes" or "No“.
Questioning Techniques Open questions are good for: • Developing an open conversation: "What did you get up to on vacation?" • Finding our more detail: "What else do we need to do to make this a success?" • Finding out the other person's opinion or issues: "What do you think about those changes?" .
can kill the conversation and lead to awkward silences. if I get this qualification. are we all agreed this is the right course of action?" Frame setting: "Are you happy with the service from your bank?" A misplaced closed question. . so are best avoided when a conversation is in full flow. on the other hand. I will get a raise?" Concluding a discussion or making a decision: "Now we know the facts.Questioning Techniques • • • • Closed questions are good for: Testing your understanding. or the other person's: "So.
and do you want to see a draft before I give you my final version?". and then homing in on a point in each answer.Questioning Techniques Funnel Questions • This technique involves starting with general questions. E. and asking more and more detail at each level. asking your respondents for an example. or to investigate whether there is proof for what has been said.g. you need additional information for clarification. • At other times. to help you understand a statement they have made. "How do you know that the new . Probing Questions • Asking probing questions is another strategy for finding out more detail. "When do you need this report by.
rather than the choice of one Questioning Techniques . For example. both of which you would be happy with. A good way of doing this is to make it personal. • By adding a personal appeal to agree at the end: "Lori's very efficient.Leading Questions Leading questions try to lead the respondent to your way of thinking: • With an assumption: "How late do you think that the project will deliver?". don't you think?" or "Option 2 is better. isn't it?" • Phrasing the question so that the "easiest" response is "yes" (our natural tendency to prefer to say "yes" than "no" plays an important part in the phrasing of referendum questions): "Shall we all approve Option 2?" is more likely to get a positive response than "Do you want to approve option 2 or not?". This assumes that the project will certainly not be completed on time. • Giving people a choice between two options. "Would you like me to go ahead with Option 2?" rather than "Shall I choose Option 2?".
Closing a sale: "If that answers all of your questions. Leading questions are good for: Getting the answer you want but leaving the other person feeling that they have had a choice. and Drawing information out of people who are trying to avoid telling you something. shall we agree a price?" • • .Questioning Techniques • • Probing questions are good for: Gaining clarification to ensure you have the whole story and that you understand it thoroughly.
Questioning Techniques Rhetorical Questions • Rhetorical questions aren't really questions at all. in that they don't expect an answer. (To which they may answer "So . • They're really just statements phrased in question form: "Isn't John's design work so creative?" • People use rhetorical questions because they are engaging for the listener – as they are drawn into agreeing ("Yes it is and I like working with such a creative colleague") – rather than feeling that they are being "told" something like "John is a very creative designer".
Using Questioning Techniques Open & Rhetorica Probing Funnel Close question l and questions question leading questions Learning Relationship building Managing and coaching Avoiding misunderstandin gs De-fusing a heated situation Persuading people .
. They can help get people to reflect and to commit to courses of action that you've suggested: "Wouldn't it be great to gain some further qualifications?" • Avoiding misunderstandings: Use probing questions to seek clarification. rhetorical and leading questions are useful too. and use probing questioning. you will help to build and maintain an open dialogue. If you do this in an affirmative way "Tell me what you like best about working here".Using Questioning Techniques • Learning: Ask open and closed questions. • Relationship building: People generally respond positively if you ask about what they do or enquire about their opinions. • Managing and coaching: Here. particularly when the consequences are significant.
This will not only distract them from their emotions. but will often help you to make them feel that they have "won" something. but asking a series of open questions will help others to embrace the reasons behind your point of view.Using Questioning Techniques • De-fusing a heated situation: You can calm an angry customer or colleague by using funnel questions to get them to go into more detail about their grievance. • Persuading people: No one likes to be lectured. "What do you think about bringing the sales force in for half a day to have their laptops . and no longer need to be angry.