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Steel Design Concept
“What is Allowable Strength Design (ASD)?”
Allowable Strength Design (ASD) is a method of proportioning structures such that allowable stresses are not exceeded when the structure is subjected to specified working loads. Allowable Stress Design philosophy was left unsupported by AISC after the 9th edition of the manual which remained an acceptable reference design standard in evolving building codes. AISC's Allowable Strength Design
Checks for KL/r limits per Chapter B (B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratio) Local Buckling per Chapter B (B5.“When one does the AISC-ASD code check or member selection. Local Buckling) Axial Compression + Bending per Section H (Combined Stresses) Axial Tension + Bending per Section H (combined Stresses) Shear per Section F 3/3/12 . what are the calculations the STAAD is performing?” The checks done as per the AISC ASD 9th edition code are : Slenderness .
Can you tell me what those are? The terms reported in the TRACK 2 output for AISC ASD are : AX : Cross section Area AY : Area used in computing shear stresses along local Y axis AZ : Area used in computing shear stresses along local Z axis SY : Elastic Section modulus about local Y axis SZ : Elastic Section modulus about local Z axis RY : Radius of gyration about local Y axis RZ : Radius of gyration about local Z axis FA : Allowable axial stress. In the TRACK 2 output for the AISC ASD code. I find some terms that I am not familiar with. Fez : Euler stress for buckling about local Z axis. If failure condition involves axial tension. FCZ : Allowable bending compressive stress about local Z axis. If failure condition involves axial compression. 3/3/12 . FCY : Allowable bending compressive stress about local Y axis FTY : Allowable bending tensile stress about local Y axis. FV : Allowable shear stress. fbz : Actual bending stress about local Z axis. Fey : Euler stress for buckling about local Y axis. FTZ : Allowable bending tensile stress about local Z axis. used in the design condition fby : Actual bending stress about local Y axis. this is the allowable axial tensile stress. fa : Actual axial stress. this is the allowable axial compressive stress. DFF : Permissible limit for checking length to deflection ratio. used in the design condition. dff : Actual length to deflection ratio.“I am running STAAD.
What’s happening?” AICS-ASD B7 (LIMITING 3/3/12 .“Some members on my structure are Failing saying L/R-EXCEEDS.
0 may change depending on the Parameter RATIO (commonly 0.“One member on my structure is carrying Axial load only but it Failed. Again. what’s happening?” Where: fa = Actual Axial Stress (either Tensile or Compressive) Fa = Allowable Axial Stress Note that the value 1.9 on our practice) 3/3/12 .
Incase the Member is in Tensile Stress: As stated on AISC-ASD 9th Edition Chapter D Incase the Member is in Compressive Stress: If: (Intermediate Else If: Column) Column) (Long As stated on AISC-ASD 9th Edition Chapter E 3/3/12 Where: Cc is the Critical Slenderness Ratio separating Elastic and Inelastic Buckling .
where: Lb is the Unbraced Length of the Beam tw Allowable Bending for I-shaped & Channels Bent About Major Axis: Both Tension and Compression 3/3/12 .“How about Flexure/Bending?” For Compact Sections: bf tf d flange width thickness ratio web depth thickness ratio Provided that Lb ≤ Lc .
For Non-Compact Sections: Again. where: Lb is the Unbraced Allowable the Beamfor I-shaped & Channels Bent Length of Bending About Major Axis: wher e: Both Tension and Compression An i d f But if Lb > Lc regardless if section is Compact or NonCompact: Bending Stress in Tension About Major Allowable Axis: 3/3/12 . Provided that Lb ≤ Lc .
Cont.0 if bending moment at any point of the braced length is larger than at both ends Af wher e: Lb M1 Reverse 3/3/12Curvature. M1/M2 M2 is Positive Lb M1 M2 M1 = Smaller Moment M2 = Larger Moment Single Curvature.0 for Cantilever Beams = 1. M1/M2 is Negative . Allowable Bending Stress in Compression About Major Axis: = area of Compression flange = bf x tf Lb = Unbraced Length of the Beam rT = radius of gyration of the section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web Cb = moment gradient multiplier = 1.
If But If 3/3/12 .Cont.
Allowable Bending Stress About Minor Axis regardless the value Compact Lc: For of Lb and Sections: For Non-Compact Sections: 3/3/12 .
“STAAD does not display “Tension”.4 M1/M2 ≥ 0.”.6 – 0. it displays “AICSH….85 for compression members subject to sidesway = 0.85 for rotationally restrained compression members braced against sidesway subjected to transver loading = 1. What does it mean and how is it analyzed?” Whe Large Axial fa = Computed axial stress fb = Computed bending stress n: Fa = Allowable axial stress Compressi Fb = Allowable bending stress on AISC K = Effective Length factor Stability Interaction Lb = Braced Length Criterion H1-1 r = Radius of gyration x or y = Axis of bending F’e = Euler Stress divided by a factor of safety 3/3/12 Cm = Reduction Coefficient = 0.0 for rotationally unrestrained compression members braced against sidesway subjected to transver loading .4 for rotationally restrained compression members braced against sidesway not subjected transverse loading = 0. “Compression” nor “Bending/Flexure” as Critical Condition instead.
Strength Interaction Criterion AISC H1-2 Whe n: Small Axial Compressi on AISC H1-3 For Axial Tension and Bending: 3/3/12 .
EXAMPLE 3/3/12 .
0 Cb=1. Use K = 1.0 (conservative) Cm=0.85 (sidesway) Compute for actual Axial Stress Compute for actual Bending Stress Compute for Allowable Axial Stress First: 150kN-m Then: Therefore Use: 3/3/12 .Determine the adequacy of the H-390 Column (C24) to carry an axial compressive load of 500kN and a moment of 150kN-m about its strong Axis (Z-axis).0 500kN Section Properties: d= 390mm tw= 10mm bf = 300mm tf = 16mm A = 13600mm2 IZ = 387000000mm4 SZ = 1980000mm3 rZ = 169mm Iy = 72100000mm4 Sy= 481000mm3 ry = 72.8mm K=1. The Unsupported Length is 6m and subjected to sidesway.
Substituting Values: We get: Allowable Axial Stress Checking for compactness: & Compute for Lc: & Section is Compact! Choosing the least value: Compute for Allowable Bending Stress: Recalling that Lb>Lc Check if 3/3/12 .
Compute for rT bf tf 1/3 Compression Web tw Substituting rT Then: & Condition Satisfied Therefore use: 3/3/12 .
Compute for Fb1: Compute for Fb2: Limiting the Value of Fb: Therefore Use: Allowable Bending Stress Now that we have Both allowable Axial And Bending Stresses: Then Compute for F’ez: First Check: Large Axial Compression (AISC H1-1) 3/3/12 .
Checking Condition AISC H1-1: Substituting Values: Therefore the section is ADEQUATE!!! 3/3/12 .
Comparing with STAAD Results 3/3/12 .
RECAP AND NOTES 3/3/12 .
Q&A 3/3/12 .
THANKS!!! 3/3/12 .
!!! 3/3/12 ..NO THANKS… EXAM.
0. Fixed to pedestal.85 (sidesway) 600kN 250kN-m 3/3/12 ENJO . Try Upsizing or Additional Bracing! Section Properties: d= 390mm tw= 10mm bf = 300mm tf = 16mm A = 13600mm2 IZ = 387000000mm4 SZ = 1980000mm3 rZ = 169mm Iy = 72100000mm4 Sy= 481000mm3 ry = 72. The Unsupported Length is 6m and subjected to sidesway.8mm K=1.0 (conservative) Cm=0.0 Cb=1. Use K = 1.Stabilize and Optimize a failed Column (currently C24) carrying an axial compressive load of 600kN and a moment of 250kN-m about its strong Axis (Z-axis) getting the least weight.