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ECE886:INTELLIGENT ROBOTICS

Course instructor :Raman Kumar ID=11886 email:raman.kumar2@lpu.co.in

In case you disagree with certain content of the reading material, kindly mail to the concerned faculty c. c to golp.lpu@gmail.com

LTP:300 AT:20 (best 2 of 3) ATT:5 MTE:25 ETE:50 Text book:Industrial Robotics by MP groover Mcgraw hill 2009
2

CA components

S. No. 1

Description

contents

Slide no 4 to 72

Unit I: Fundamentals of Robotics: Automation & Robotics, Robot Anatomy, Work Volume, Drive systems, Control System & Dynamic Performance Precision of Movement, End Effects, Sensors, Work cell control & Programming. Unit II: Robot & Peripheral: Control System Concept & Models, Controllers, Control System Analysis, Activation & Feedback Components, Position Sensor, Velocity Sensors. Manipulator, Kinematics, Transformations, Robot Arm Kinematics & Dynamics, End effectors. Unit III: Sensors in Robotics: Sensors in Robotics, Tactile Sensors, Proximity & Range Sensors, Sensor Based Systems, Uses of Sensors in Robotics.

73 to110

111 to151

Issues to be addressed in the unit


Motion Manipulator Work volume DOF

How to control power When to provide power How to give instructions

Robot

So Definition ?

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Automation and Robotics


A technology that is concerned with use of mechanical, electronic and computer based system in the operation and control of production.

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Classes of automation
Fixed (high production rate) Flexible( manufacturing in batches) Programmable(variety of products to be made)

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ANATOMY

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SCARA (selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm

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Equivalance

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Human robot

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Motions

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Reach and work volume

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A Robot

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Three Laws of Robotics An American In 1942, Issac Asimov,


science fiction writer, introduced the word robotics in his short story

Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Law 2: A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law
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L2

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3DOF

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joints

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Universal(hookes) joint

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Spherical joint

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Cylendrical pair

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ARM GEOMETRY
ROBOT MUST BE ABLE TO REACH A POINT IN SPACE WITHIN THREE AXES BY MOVING FORWARD AND BACKWARD, TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT, AND UP AND DOWN. ROBOT MANIPULATOR MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MOVEMENT NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE TASK. RECTANGULAR-COORDINATED: HAS THREE LINEAR AXES OF MOTION. X REPRESENTSD LEFT AND RIGHT MOTION Y DESCRIBES FORWARD AND BACKWARD MOTION. Z IS USED TO DEPICT UP-AND-DOWN MOTION.

THE WORK ENVELOPE OF A RECTANGULAR ROBOT IS A CUBE OR RECTANGLE, SO THAT ANY WORK PERFORMED BY ROBOT MUST ONLY INVOLVE MOTIONS INSIDE THE SPACE.

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RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
ADVANTAGES:
THEY CAN OBTAIN LARGE WORK ENVELOPE BECAUSE RAVELLING ALONG THE X-AXIS, THE VOLUME REGION CAN BE INCREASED EASILY. THEIR LINEAR MOVEMENT ALLOWS FOR SIMPLER CONTROLS. THEY HAVE HIGH DEGREE OF MECHANICAL RIGIDITY, ACCURACY, AND REPEATABILITY DUE O THEIR STRUCTURE. THEY CAN CARRY HEAVY LOADS BECAUSE THE WEIGHT-LIFTING CAPACITY DOES NOT VARY AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS WITHING THE WORK ENVELOPE.

DISADVANTAGES:
THEY MAKES MAINTENANCE MORE DIFFICULT FOR SOME MODELS WITH OVERHEAD DRIVE MECHANISMS AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT. ACCESS TO THE VOLUME REGION BY OVERHEAD CRANE OR OTHER MATERIAL-HANDLING EQUIPMENT MAY BE IMPAIRED BY THE ROBOTSUPPORTING STRUCTURE. THEIR MOVEMENT IS LIMITED TO ONE DIRECTION AT A TIME.
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APPLICATION: PICK-AND-PLACE OPERATIONS. ADHESIVE APPLICATIONS(MOSTLY LONG AND STRAIGHT). ADVANCED MUNITION HANDLING. ASSEMBLY AND SUBASSEMBLY(MOSTLY STRAINGHT). AUTOMATED LOADING CNC LATHE AND MILLING OPERATIONS. NUCLEAR MATERIAL HANDLING. WELDING.
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CYLINDRICAL-COORDINATED
HAS TWO LINEAR MOTIONS AND ONE ROTARY MOTION. ROBOTS CAN ACHIEVE VARIABLE MOTION. THE FIRST COORDINATE DESCRIBE THE ANGLE THETA OF BASE ROTATION--- ABOUT THE UP-DOWN AXIS. THE SECOND COORDINATE CORRESPOND TO A RADICAL OR Y--- IN OUT MOTION AT WHATEVER ANGLE THE ROBOT IS POSITIONED. THE FINAL COORDINATE AGAIN CORRESPONDS TO THE UP-DOWN Z POSITION. ROTATIONAL ABILITY GIVES THE ADVANTAGE OF MOVING RAPIDLY TO THE POINT IN Z PLANE OF ROTATION. RESULTS IN A LARGER WORK ENVELOPE THAN A RECTANGULAR ROBOT MANIPULATOR. SUITED FOR PICK-AND-PLACE OPERATIONS.

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ADVANTAGE:
THEIR VERTICAL STRUCTURE CONSERVES FLOOR SPACE. THEIR DEEP HORIZONTAL REACH IS USEFUL FOR FAR-REACHING OPERATIONS. THEIR CAPACITY IS CAPABLE OF CARRYING LARGE PAYLOADS.

DISADVANTAGE:
THEIR OVERALL MECHANICAL RIGIDITY IS LOWER THAN THAT OF THE RECTILINEAR ROBOTS BECAUSE THEIR ROTARY AXIS MUST OVERCOME INERTIA. THEIR REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY ARE ALSO LOWER IN THE DIRECTION OF ROTARY MOTION. THEIR CONFIGURATION REQUIRES A MORE SOPHISTICATED CONTROL SYSTEM THAN THE RECTANGULAR ROBOTS.

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APPLICATION: ASSEMBLY COATING APPLICATIONS. CONVEYOR PALLET TRANSFER. DIE CASTING. FOUNDARY AND FORGING APPLICATIONS. INSPECTION MOULDING. INVESTMENT CASTING. MACHINE LOADING AND UNLOADING.

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SPHERICAL COORDINATED
HAS ONE LINEAR MOTION AND TWO ROTARY MOTIONS. THE WORK VOLUME IS LIKE A SECTION OF SPHERE. THE FIRST MOTION CORRESPONDS TO A BASE ROTATION ABOUT A VERTICAL AXIS. THE SECOND MOTION CORRESPONDS TO AN ELBOW ROTATION. THE THIRD MOTION CORRESPONDS TO A RADIAL, OR INOUT, TRANSLATION. A SPHERICAL-COORDINATED ROBOTS PROVIDES A LARGER WORK ENVELOPE THAN THE RECTILINEAR OR CYLINDIRICAL ROBOT. DESIGN GIVES WEIGHT LIFTING CAPABILITIES. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES SAME AS CYLINDIRICAL-COORDINATED DESIGN.
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APPLICATIONS:
DIE CASTING DIP COATING FORGING GLASS HANDLING HEAT TREATING INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE TOOL HANDLING MATERIAL TRANSFER PARTS CLEANING PRESS LOADING STACKING AND UNSTICKING.

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Drive system
Driving force to a robot Speed, LCC, applications and performance etc depends upon it ITS types ?

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Hydraulic
For larger robots Advantage greater strength Disadvantage Bulky system
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/enginesequipment/hydraulic1.htm

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Electric
For smaller robots Advantage good control and repeatability Disadvantage Less power

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Pneumatic
Speedy motion Advantage less complex as compared to hydraulic Disadvantage likely to leak and poor repeatability

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Main actuators used


Electrical Hydraulic Pnumatic

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Electrical actuator
Used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy

Mostly Used Motors


Stepper motor (Position control) DC motor (Rotational motion ) Servo motor (Feed back )

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Motor can give..


Rotational motion

Linear motion

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Stepper motor

Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. A stepper motor converts electrical pulses into specific rotational movements. The movement created by each pulse is precise and repeatable, because of that stepper motors are so effective for positioning applications

Permanent Magnet stepper motors incorporate a permanent magnet rotor, coil windings and magnetically conductive stators. Energizing a coil winding creates an electromagnetic field with a north and south pole as shown in figure 1. The stator carries the magnetic field which causes the rotor to align itself with the magnetic field. The magnetic field can be altered by sequentially energizing or stepping the stator coils which generates rotary motion

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Working

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interfacing

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Ratings for uln 2003

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example
Uln 2003 ic having high current sinking capacity

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DC Motor

When electric current passes through a coil in magnetic field the magnetic force produces a torque which turns the DC motor

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Permanent-Magnet Brush-Commutated Motor

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working
Magnetic field of permanent magnet

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DC current through windings Changes the direction of motor if reversed

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Resulting force

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H Bridge
Vcc
Control Signal
Relay Relay

Control Signal

Control Signal

Relay

Relay

Control Signal

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Stop condition

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Reverse motion

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Forward motion

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Hydraulic cylinders

smaller force, better efficiency, axial support is necessary

Without inner buffer

With inner buffer (pilot piston)

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Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston, single acting, pressing-cylinder

Spring inside outside

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston, single acting, puller

Spring inside outside

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Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston, double acting

Velocity is different

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston, double acting Piston rod on both side

Velocity is the same in both directions

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: double acting piston, tandem

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: telescopic, single acting

Large working paths or limited space

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Introduction to Pneumatic Components

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Piston Rod

Bicycle Pump Handle Pump


Pressure Gauge

Charges the Pneumatic Battery

Pump Tube or Cylinder

Converts Mechanical Energy into the Potential Energy of Pressurized Air

Fill Valve
With Locking Lever

Piston

Solenoid Valve
Valve Body

Actuator Port A2

Pressure Port P1
From Regulator

Exhaust Port E

Solenoid Wires
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The Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator


Speed Valve Piston and Rod Clevis

One Touch Quick Connect Fitting Cylinder Body Pneumatic Mounting Bracket
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Cylinder Force = Pressure x Piston

Pneumatic Component Connections

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Issues to be addressed in the unit


Control system Motion control methods PID Specifications

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Robot control system


Open loop Close loop

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Robot controllers
Drum controller Air logic controller Programmable Microprocessor microcomputer

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Robot motionControl system


Movement must be controlled These are four types 1 Limited sequence robot 2 Playback robot with point to point control 3 Playback robot with continuous path 4 Intelligent Robot
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Limited sequence robot


Fitted at both the ends

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Playback robot with point to point control


Positions and motions are taught and robot repeats Motion cycle consists of series of points robot just moves from one point to another point and there may be task related to any point(s)

Playback robot with continuous path


Positions and motions are taught and robot repeats Motion cycle consists of series of closely spaced points robot just moves from one point to another point and there may be task related to any point(s)

Speed of response and stability


Capability of robot to move to next position in short amount of time To avoid oscillations while moving

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Precision of movement
Spatial resolution Accuracy Repeatability

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Spatial resolution
Smallest increment of movement into which robot can divide his work volume Example?

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Resolution

True value

measurement

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LCC CR PR

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Accuracy
Ability of robot to position its end affecter at a desired target point within work volume How near to control resolution it points

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Repeatability
At same point where it was previously

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Accuracy vs. Precision

Precision without accuracy

Accuracy without precision

Precision and accuracy

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Compliance
What is effect on end affecter when Loaded and when not loaded Low compliance means that manipulator is stiff did not get effected by loading /unloading

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Basic control system


Robot is a mechanical device (manipulator) so main function is to control the movement so mathematical model needs to be studied

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Controllers
To compare actual output with input command so that error can be reduced to zero

Proportional only:

Proportional plus Integral:

Proportional plus derivative:

Proportional, integral and derivative:

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ON OFF
ONLY TWO LEVEL OF CONTROL

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PROPOTIONAL
SMMOTHER ACTION REQUIRED CONTROL SIGNAL PROPOTIONAL TO THE ERROR SIGNAL Proportional controls are designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on-off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches setpoint. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the setpoint, but will approach the setpoint and maintain a stable temperature. This proportioning action can be accomplished by turning the output on and off for short intervals. This time proportioning varies the ratio of on time to off time to control the temperature.

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INTEGRAL
The integral term magnifies the effect of long-term steady-state errors, applying ever-increasing effort until they reduce to zero. In the example of the furnace above working at various temperatures, if the heat being applied does not bring the furnace up to setpoint, for whatever reason, integral action increasingly moves the proportional band relative to the setpoint until the error is reduced to zero and the setpoint is achieved
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Derivative
The derivative part is concerned with the rate-ofchange of the error with time: If the measured variable approaches the setpoint rapidly, then the actuator is backed off early to allow it to coast to the required level; conversely if the measured value begins to move rapidly away from the setpoint, extra effort is applied in proportion to that rapidityto try to maintain it. Derivative action makes a control system behave much more intelligently. On systems like the temperature of a furnace, or perhaps the motion-control of a heavy item like a gun or camera on a moving vehicle, the derivative action of a well-tuned PID controller can allow it to reach and maintain a setpoint better than most skilled human operators could. If derivative action is over-applied, it can lead to oscillations too.
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PRPPOTIONAL+INTEGRAL
PROPOTINAL CONTROLLERS HAVE ERROR INTERGRAL HAVE ZERO ERROR BUT SLOW

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PROPOTIONAL+DERIVATIVE
PROVIDE CONTROL SIGNAL PROPOTIONAL TO RATE OF CHANGE OF ERROR SIGNAL NO OUTPUT UNLESS ERROR SIGNAL IS CHANGING

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PROPOTIONAL+INTERGRAL+D ERIVATIVE QUICK RESPONSE


LESS ERROS MORE STABLE

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Issues to be addressed in the unit


Sensors Encoders kinematics

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FEEDBACK CONPONENTS
Position ,velocity and tilt etc

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Potentiometer as sensor Vout= Vext x /max

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Position Sensors
Optical Encoders
Relative position Absolute position

Optical Encoders
Relative position light sensor decode circuitry
- direction - resolution

light emitter grating

Optical Encoders
Relative position light sensor decode circuitry
mask/diffuser

light emitter grating

A diffuser tends to smooth these signals

Optical Encoders
Relative position light sensor decode circuitry
- direction - resolution

light emitter grating

A B

A lags B

Optical Encoders
Detecting absolute position

Optical Encoders
Relative position light sensor decode circuitry
- direction - resolution

light emitter grating

Phase lag between A and B is 90 degree

A leads B

Gray Code
# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Binary
0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 00 001 011 010 110 111 101 100

Accelerometer Types
Resistive Operating Principle
Voltage output of resistor bridge changes proportionally with applied acceleration

+ Signal

+ Power

- Power

- Signal

Fixed Resistors

Sensing Resistor #1 Flexure Sensing Resistor #2

Mass

Accelerometer Types
Capacitive Operating Principle
Utilizes frequency modulation technique through varying capacitor bridge

Power

Ground

Signal

Fixed Capacitors

Built-In Electronics

Insulator

Sensing Capacitor #1 Mass

Flexure

Insulator

Sensing Capacitor #2

Velocity sensor
Techometers?

Tilt sensor

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Kinematics

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Manipulators
Robot arms, industrial robot
Rigid bodies (links) connected by joints Joints: revolute or prismatic Drive: electric or hydraulic End-effector (tool) mounted on a flange or plate secured to the wrist joint of robot

Forward kinematics x0 = l cos y0 = l sin Inverse kinematics

y0
l

y0

x0

= cos ( x0/ l )
0

x0

2 links

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Robot Reference Frames


World frame Joint frame Tool frame
z z

y x y
T P

Coordinate Frame

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Coordinate Transformation
Reference coordinate frame OXYZ Body-attached frame Point represented in OXYZ: Ouvw

P
w v
O, O

Pxyz = p x i x + p y jy + p z k z
Puvw = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w
Two frames coincide ==>

Point represented in Ouvw:

pu = p x pv = p y pw = p z

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Translation

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Coordinate Transformation

Pxyz = p x i x + p y jy + p z k z Puvw = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w

Rotation only

P
y v u x

Pxyz = RPuvw
How to relate the coordinate in these two frames?

Basic Rotation

p p x , p y , and z

projections of respectively Since

P represent the onto OX, OY, OZ axes,

P = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w

p x = i x P = i x i u pu + i x jv pv + i x k w pw

p y = jy P = jy i u pu + jy jv pv + jy k w pw

p z = k z P = k z i u pu + k z jv pv + k z k w pw

Basic Rotation Matrix


px i x i u p = j i y y u p z k z i u i x jv j y jv k z jv i x k w pu p jy k w v k z k w pw
w
z

Rotation about x-axis with


0 0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 C S 0 S C

P v

u
x
y

Is it True?
Rotation about x axis with
p x 0 0 p = 0 cos y p z 0 sin p x = pu p y = pv cos pw sin p z = pv sin + pw cos
u
x

0 pu p sin v cos pw

P v

Rotation about x-axis with

Basic Rotation Matrices


0 0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 C S 0 S C

Rotation about y-axis with

C Rot ( y, ) = 0 S

0 S 0 0 0 C
0 0 0

Rotation about z-axis with

Pxyz = RPuvw

C S Rot ( z , ) = S C 0 0

Example
a ,0 ) A pointuvw = (0 ,0 is attached to a rotating frame, the frame rotates 60 degree about the OZ axis of the reference frame. Find the coordinates of the point relative to the reference frame after the rotation.

a xyz = Rot ( z,0)auvw 0 .0 0 0 .00 0 = 0 0 .0 .00 0 0 0 00 0 0 .00 00 = 0 0 .00 00 0

Example
a ,0 ) A pointxyz = (0 ,0 is the coordinate w.r.t. the reference coordinate system, auvw find the corresponding point w.r.t. the rotated OU-V-W coordinate system if it has been rotated 60 degree about OZ axis.

auvw = Rot ( z ,0)T a xyz 0 .0 0 0 .00 0 = 0 0 0 .00 .0 0 0 00 0 0 .00 00 = 0 0 .00 00 0

Composite Rotation Matrix


A sequence of finite rotations
matrix multiplications do not commute rules:
if rotating coordinate O-U-V-W is rotating about principal axis of OXYZ frame, then Pre-multiply the previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an appropriate basic rotation matrix if rotating coordinate OUVW is rotating about its own principal axes, then postmultiply the previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an appropriate basic rotation matrix

Homogeneous Representation Homogeneous transformation matrix

RB TB = 0 00
A

A o'

r R00 P00 = 0 0 0
Scaling

Rotation matrix Position vector

Homogeneous Transformation Special cases


1. Translation
I 00 A TB = 0 0 0
A o'

r 0

2. Rotation
A RB 0 0 A 0 TB = 0 00 0

Example
Translation along Z-axis with h:
0 0 Trans ( z , h) = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 h 0 0 0 x 0 y 0 = z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 pu pu 0 pv pv = h pw pw + h 0 0 0

P
w v
O, O

P
y v

O, O

Example
Rotation about the X-axis by
0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 0 0 0 C S S 0 C 0 0 0 0 0

x 0 y 0 = z 0 0 0

0 C S 0

0 S C 0

0 pu 0 pv 0 pw 0 0

P v
y

u
x

Homogeneous Transformation
Composite Homogeneous Transformation Matrix Rules:
Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t (X,Y,Z) (OLD FRAME), using premultiplication Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t (U,V,W) (NEW FRAME), using postmultiplication

Example
Find the homogeneous transformation matrix (T) for the following operations:
Rotation about OX axis Translatio n of a along OX axis Translatio n of d along OZ axis Rotation of about OZ axis Answer :

T = Tz , Tz ,d Tx ,aTx , I 0 0
C S S C = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 C S S C 0 0 0 0 0 0

Example
For the figure shown below, find the 4x4 homogeneous 0 i 0 transformation matrices and for i=1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ai Ai 0 0 0 0 nx s x a x p x c 0 0 0 e + c n s a 0 py y y A0= z0 F= y 0 0 0 a d nz s z a z p z y0 x 0 0 0 0 0 d z0 0 0 0 0 x0 0 0 0 b 0 0 0 a d z0 e 0 A0 = 0 0 0 0 y0 z0 x0 x0 0 0 0 0
z0
x0

y0
a

y0

z0
x0 y0

y0

Can you find the answer by observation based on the geometric interpretation of homogeneous transformation matrix?

0 0 0 A0 = 0 0

0 0 b 0 0 e + c 0 0 0 0 0 0

Denavit-Hartenberg Convention

Denavit-Hartenberg Convention
Number the joints from 1 to n starting with the base and ending with the end-effector. Establish the base coordinate system. Establish a right( X 0, Y0, Z system handed orthonormal coordinate 0) at the Z0 supporting base with axis lying along the axis of motion of joint 1. Establish joint axis. Align the Zi with the axis of motion (rotary or sliding) of joint i+1. Establish the origin of the ith coordinate system. Locate the origin of the ith coordinate at the intersection of the Zi & ZiX i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i normal between the Zi & Zi 1 or at the intersection of common0 Zi-1 axes and the Zi axis.
Yi = +( Z i or along Establish Xi axis. Establish X i ) / Z i X i the common normal between the Zi-1 & Zi axes when they are parallel. to complete Establish Yi axis. Assign

Example I
3 Revolute Joints
Z1 Y0 Y1 Z3

Z0

Joint 3
Z
2

O0

X3

Link 1 Joint 1

Link 2

d2

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2
Y2

a0

a1

Link Coordinate Frames


Assign Link Coordinate Frames:
To describe the geometry of robot motion, we assign a Cartesian coordinate frame (Oi, Xi,Yi,Zi) to each link, as follows: establish a right-handed orthonormal coordinate frame O0 at the supporting base with Z0 lying along joint 1 motion axis. Z3 the Zi axis is directedZalong the axis of motion of joint 1 Z0 Joint 3 (i + 1), that is, link (i + 1) rotates about or X translates 3 Y0 O0 Z Y1 2 along Zi; Link 1 Link 2 d2
Joint 1

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2
Y2

a0

a1

Link Coordinate Frames


Locate the origin of the ith coordinate at the intersection of the Zi & Zi-1 or at the intersection of common normal between the Zi & Zi-1 axes and the Zi axis. the Xi axis lies along the common normal from the Zi-1 axis to the Zi axis Z , (if Zi-1 is parallel to Zi, then XJoint specified Z Z i is 3 arbitrarily, subject only to Y i being perpendicular X Y O0 X Z to Zi); d
3 0 1 0 1 3
2

X i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i 0 Z i

Joint 1

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2
Y2

a0

a1

Link Coordinate Frames


Assign Yi = +( Z i X i ) / Z i X i to complete the righthanded coordinate system.
The hand coordinate frame is specified by the On geometry of the end-effector. Normally, establish Zn along the direction of Zn-1 axis and pointing away from the robot; establish Xn such that it is normal to both Zn-1 and Zn axes. Assign Yn to Z3 complete the right-handed coordinate system.
Z0 Z1

Joint 3
Y1
Z
2

Y0

O0

X3

Joint 1

d2
O0 X0
Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2
Y2

a0

a1

Link and Joint Parameters


Joint angle i : the angle of rotation from the Xi-1 axis to the Xi axis about the Zi-1 axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is rotary. Joint distance : the distance from the origin of the (i-1) coordinate system to the intersection of the Zi-1 axis and the Xi axis along the Zi-1 axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is prismatic. Link length : the distance from the intersection of the Zi-1 axis and the Xi axis to the origin of the ith coordinate system along the Xi axis. Link twist angle : the angle of rotation from the Zi1 axis to the Zi axis about the Xi axis.

di

ai

Example I
Z0 Y0 Z1 Y1 Z3

Joint 3
Z
2

O0

X3

Joint 1

d2
O0 X0
Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2
Y2

D-H Link Parameter Table


Joint i 0 0 0 i 0 -0 0 0 ai a0 a0 0 di 0 0 d0 i 0 0 0

a0

a1

i : rotation angle from Zi-1 to Zi about Xi ai : distance from intersection of Zi-1 & Xi
di
to origin of i coordinate along Xi

: distance from origin of (i-1) coordinate to intersection of Zi-1 & Xi along Zi-1

i : rotation angle from X to X about Z i-1 i i-1

Example II: PUMA 260


1. 2. 3. 4.

Number the joints Establish base frame Establish joint axis Zi Locate origin, (intersect. of Zi & Zi-1) OR (intersect of common normal & Zi ) Establish Xi,Yi

0
O0 Z0

0
0

X0 Z0 Z0 5. Y0 O0 Y0 Z Z0 O0 X 00 0 Y0 Y0 0 O0 Z0 Y0 X 0 Y0 t O0 X0 X0 O0 Z 0 X0
PUMA 260

X i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i 0 Z i Yi = + ( Z i X i ) / Z i X i

Link Parameters
0
O0

0
Z0

J 1 2

4 -90 0 X0 Z0 Z0 Y0 5 90 0 0 O Y0 0 Z Z0 6 0 0 t O0 X 00 0 Y0 Y0 0 O0 Z0 i : angle from Xi-1 to Xi Y0 Y0 X0 about Zi-1 O0O X 0 X 0 i : angle from Zi-1 to Zi 0 Z0 about X

i 0 0 0 0 0 0

i
0 90

ai d i
13 0 -l 8 8 0

-90 0

X0
Joint distance

0 ai : distance from intersection


of Zi-1 & Xi to Oi along Xi

d i : distance from Oi-1 to intersection of Zi-1 & Xi along Zi-1

Four successive elementary transformations are required to relate the i-th coordinate frame to the (i-1)-th coordinate frame:
Rotate about the Z i-1 axis an angle of i to align the X i-1 axis with the X i axis. Translate along the Z i-1 axis a distance of di, to bring Xi-1 and Xi axes into coincidence. Translate along the Xi axis a distance of ai to bring the two origins Oi-1 and Oi as well as the X axis into coincidence. Rotate about the Xi axis an angle of i ( in the

Transformation between i-1 and i

Relevant references
Artificial Intelligence An Introduction to Robotics Tim Niemueller and Sumedha Widyadharma July 8, 2003 Determination of Location and Path Planning Algorithms for Industrial Robots Yung Ting and Ho-Chin Jar Bringing up robot: Fundamental mechanisms for creating a self-motivated, selforganizing architecture Under review for a special issue of the journal Cybernetics and Systems Lesson 31 Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Energy Savings with Variable Speed Drives Measurement Systems Specifications Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Sensors, Focus on Tactile, Force and Stress Sensors Edited by Jose Gerardo Rocha and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez robot safety Published by the Industrial Welfare Division, Department of Labour, Private Bag Wellington Website links Industrial Robotics by MP groover Mcgraw hill 2009 www.wisc-online.com

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Conclusion/Application/future scope

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