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In case you disagree with certain content of the reading material, kindly mail to the concerned faculty c. c to golp.lpu@gmail.com

LTP:300 AT:20 (best 2 of 3) ATT:5 MTE:25 ETE:50 Text book:Industrial Robotics by MP groover Mcgraw hill 2009

2

CA components

S. No. 1

Description

contents

Slide no 4 to 72

Unit I: Fundamentals of Robotics: Automation & Robotics, Robot Anatomy, Work Volume, Drive systems, Control System & Dynamic Performance Precision of Movement, End Effects, Sensors, Work cell control & Programming. Unit II: Robot & Peripheral: Control System Concept & Models, Controllers, Control System Analysis, Activation & Feedback Components, Position Sensor, Velocity Sensors. Manipulator, Kinematics, Transformations, Robot Arm Kinematics & Dynamics, End effectors. Unit III: Sensors in Robotics: Sensors in Robotics, Tactile Sensors, Proximity & Range Sensors, Sensor Based Systems, Uses of Sensors in Robotics.

73 to110

111 to151

Motion Manipulator Work volume DOF

Robot

So Definition ?

10

A technology that is concerned with use of mechanical, electronic and computer based system in the operation and control of production.

11

Classes of automation

Fixed (high production rate) Flexible( manufacturing in batches) Programmable(variety of products to be made)

12

ANATOMY

13

14

Equivalance

15

Human robot

16

Motions

17

18

A Robot

19

science fiction writer, introduced the word robotics in his short story

Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Law 2: A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law

20

L2

21

3DOF

22

joints

23

Universal(hookes) joint

24

Spherical joint

25

Cylendrical pair

26

ARM GEOMETRY

ROBOT MUST BE ABLE TO REACH A POINT IN SPACE WITHIN THREE AXES BY MOVING FORWARD AND BACKWARD, TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT, AND UP AND DOWN. ROBOT MANIPULATOR MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MOVEMENT NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE TASK. RECTANGULAR-COORDINATED: HAS THREE LINEAR AXES OF MOTION. X REPRESENTSD LEFT AND RIGHT MOTION Y DESCRIBES FORWARD AND BACKWARD MOTION. Z IS USED TO DEPICT UP-AND-DOWN MOTION.

THE WORK ENVELOPE OF A RECTANGULAR ROBOT IS A CUBE OR RECTANGLE, SO THAT ANY WORK PERFORMED BY ROBOT MUST ONLY INVOLVE MOTIONS INSIDE THE SPACE.

27

28

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES

ADVANTAGES:

THEY CAN OBTAIN LARGE WORK ENVELOPE BECAUSE RAVELLING ALONG THE X-AXIS, THE VOLUME REGION CAN BE INCREASED EASILY. THEIR LINEAR MOVEMENT ALLOWS FOR SIMPLER CONTROLS. THEY HAVE HIGH DEGREE OF MECHANICAL RIGIDITY, ACCURACY, AND REPEATABILITY DUE O THEIR STRUCTURE. THEY CAN CARRY HEAVY LOADS BECAUSE THE WEIGHT-LIFTING CAPACITY DOES NOT VARY AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS WITHING THE WORK ENVELOPE.

DISADVANTAGES:

THEY MAKES MAINTENANCE MORE DIFFICULT FOR SOME MODELS WITH OVERHEAD DRIVE MECHANISMS AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT. ACCESS TO THE VOLUME REGION BY OVERHEAD CRANE OR OTHER MATERIAL-HANDLING EQUIPMENT MAY BE IMPAIRED BY THE ROBOTSUPPORTING STRUCTURE. THEIR MOVEMENT IS LIMITED TO ONE DIRECTION AT A TIME.

29

APPLICATION: PICK-AND-PLACE OPERATIONS. ADHESIVE APPLICATIONS(MOSTLY LONG AND STRAIGHT). ADVANCED MUNITION HANDLING. ASSEMBLY AND SUBASSEMBLY(MOSTLY STRAINGHT). AUTOMATED LOADING CNC LATHE AND MILLING OPERATIONS. NUCLEAR MATERIAL HANDLING. WELDING.

30

CYLINDRICAL-COORDINATED

HAS TWO LINEAR MOTIONS AND ONE ROTARY MOTION. ROBOTS CAN ACHIEVE VARIABLE MOTION. THE FIRST COORDINATE DESCRIBE THE ANGLE THETA OF BASE ROTATION--- ABOUT THE UP-DOWN AXIS. THE SECOND COORDINATE CORRESPOND TO A RADICAL OR Y--- IN OUT MOTION AT WHATEVER ANGLE THE ROBOT IS POSITIONED. THE FINAL COORDINATE AGAIN CORRESPONDS TO THE UP-DOWN Z POSITION. ROTATIONAL ABILITY GIVES THE ADVANTAGE OF MOVING RAPIDLY TO THE POINT IN Z PLANE OF ROTATION. RESULTS IN A LARGER WORK ENVELOPE THAN A RECTANGULAR ROBOT MANIPULATOR. SUITED FOR PICK-AND-PLACE OPERATIONS.

31

32

ADVANTAGE:

THEIR VERTICAL STRUCTURE CONSERVES FLOOR SPACE. THEIR DEEP HORIZONTAL REACH IS USEFUL FOR FAR-REACHING OPERATIONS. THEIR CAPACITY IS CAPABLE OF CARRYING LARGE PAYLOADS.

DISADVANTAGE:

THEIR OVERALL MECHANICAL RIGIDITY IS LOWER THAN THAT OF THE RECTILINEAR ROBOTS BECAUSE THEIR ROTARY AXIS MUST OVERCOME INERTIA. THEIR REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY ARE ALSO LOWER IN THE DIRECTION OF ROTARY MOTION. THEIR CONFIGURATION REQUIRES A MORE SOPHISTICATED CONTROL SYSTEM THAN THE RECTANGULAR ROBOTS.

33

APPLICATION: ASSEMBLY COATING APPLICATIONS. CONVEYOR PALLET TRANSFER. DIE CASTING. FOUNDARY AND FORGING APPLICATIONS. INSPECTION MOULDING. INVESTMENT CASTING. MACHINE LOADING AND UNLOADING.

34

SPHERICAL COORDINATED

HAS ONE LINEAR MOTION AND TWO ROTARY MOTIONS. THE WORK VOLUME IS LIKE A SECTION OF SPHERE. THE FIRST MOTION CORRESPONDS TO A BASE ROTATION ABOUT A VERTICAL AXIS. THE SECOND MOTION CORRESPONDS TO AN ELBOW ROTATION. THE THIRD MOTION CORRESPONDS TO A RADIAL, OR INOUT, TRANSLATION. A SPHERICAL-COORDINATED ROBOTS PROVIDES A LARGER WORK ENVELOPE THAN THE RECTILINEAR OR CYLINDIRICAL ROBOT. DESIGN GIVES WEIGHT LIFTING CAPABILITIES. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES SAME AS CYLINDIRICAL-COORDINATED DESIGN.

35

36

APPLICATIONS:

DIE CASTING DIP COATING FORGING GLASS HANDLING HEAT TREATING INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE TOOL HANDLING MATERIAL TRANSFER PARTS CLEANING PRESS LOADING STACKING AND UNSTICKING.

37

Drive system

Driving force to a robot Speed, LCC, applications and performance etc depends upon it ITS types ?

38

Hydraulic

For larger robots Advantage greater strength Disadvantage Bulky system

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/enginesequipment/hydraulic1.htm

39

Electric

For smaller robots Advantage good control and repeatability Disadvantage Less power

40

Pneumatic

Speedy motion Advantage less complex as compared to hydraulic Disadvantage likely to leak and poor repeatability

41

42

Electrical Hydraulic Pnumatic

43

Electrical actuator

Used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy

Stepper motor (Position control) DC motor (Rotational motion ) Servo motor (Feed back )

45

Rotational motion

Linear motion

46

Stepper motor

Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. A stepper motor converts electrical pulses into specific rotational movements. The movement created by each pulse is precise and repeatable, because of that stepper motors are so effective for positioning applications

Permanent Magnet stepper motors incorporate a permanent magnet rotor, coil windings and magnetically conductive stators. Energizing a coil winding creates an electromagnetic field with a north and south pole as shown in figure 1. The stator carries the magnetic field which causes the rotor to align itself with the magnetic field. The magnetic field can be altered by sequentially energizing or stepping the stator coils which generates rotary motion

48

Working

49

interfacing

50

51

example

Uln 2003 ic having high current sinking capacity

52

DC Motor

When electric current passes through a coil in magnetic field the magnetic force produces a torque which turns the DC motor

53

54

working

Magnetic field of permanent magnet

55

56

Resulting force

57

H Bridge

Vcc

Control Signal

Relay Relay

Control Signal

Control Signal

Relay

Relay

Control Signal

58

Stop condition

59

Reverse motion

60

Forward motion

61

Hydraulic cylinders

62

64

Velocity is different

Hydraulic cylinders Cylinder types: piston, double acting Piston rod on both side

68

69

Piston Rod

Pressure Gauge

Fill Valve

With Locking Lever

Piston

Solenoid Valve

Valve Body

Actuator Port A2

Pressure Port P1

From Regulator

Exhaust Port E

Solenoid Wires

71

Speed Valve Piston and Rod Clevis

One Touch Quick Connect Fitting Cylinder Body Pneumatic Mounting Bracket

72

73

Control system Motion control methods PID Specifications

74

Open loop Close loop

75

Robot controllers

Drum controller Air logic controller Programmable Microprocessor microcomputer

76

77

Movement must be controlled These are four types 1 Limited sequence robot 2 Playback robot with point to point control 3 Playback robot with continuous path 4 Intelligent Robot

78

Fitted at both the ends

79

Positions and motions are taught and robot repeats Motion cycle consists of series of points robot just moves from one point to another point and there may be task related to any point(s)

Positions and motions are taught and robot repeats Motion cycle consists of series of closely spaced points robot just moves from one point to another point and there may be task related to any point(s)

Capability of robot to move to next position in short amount of time To avoid oscillations while moving

82

Precision of movement

Spatial resolution Accuracy Repeatability

83

Spatial resolution

Smallest increment of movement into which robot can divide his work volume Example?

84

Resolution

True value

measurement

85

LCC CR PR

86

Accuracy

Ability of robot to position its end affecter at a desired target point within work volume How near to control resolution it points

87

Repeatability

At same point where it was previously

88

89

Compliance

What is effect on end affecter when Loaded and when not loaded Low compliance means that manipulator is stiff did not get effected by loading /unloading

90

91

Robot is a mechanical device (manipulator) so main function is to control the movement so mathematical model needs to be studied

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

Controllers

To compare actual output with input command so that error can be reduced to zero

Proportional only:

101

ON OFF

ONLY TWO LEVEL OF CONTROL

102

103

PROPOTIONAL

SMMOTHER ACTION REQUIRED CONTROL SIGNAL PROPOTIONAL TO THE ERROR SIGNAL Proportional controls are designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on-off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches setpoint. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the setpoint, but will approach the setpoint and maintain a stable temperature. This proportioning action can be accomplished by turning the output on and off for short intervals. This time proportioning varies the ratio of on time to off time to control the temperature.

105

106

INTEGRAL

The integral term magnifies the effect of long-term steady-state errors, applying ever-increasing effort until they reduce to zero. In the example of the furnace above working at various temperatures, if the heat being applied does not bring the furnace up to setpoint, for whatever reason, integral action increasingly moves the proportional band relative to the setpoint until the error is reduced to zero and the setpoint is achieved

107

Derivative

The derivative part is concerned with the rate-ofchange of the error with time: If the measured variable approaches the setpoint rapidly, then the actuator is backed off early to allow it to coast to the required level; conversely if the measured value begins to move rapidly away from the setpoint, extra effort is applied in proportion to that rapidityto try to maintain it. Derivative action makes a control system behave much more intelligently. On systems like the temperature of a furnace, or perhaps the motion-control of a heavy item like a gun or camera on a moving vehicle, the derivative action of a well-tuned PID controller can allow it to reach and maintain a setpoint better than most skilled human operators could. If derivative action is over-applied, it can lead to oscillations too.

108

PRPPOTIONAL+INTEGRAL

PROPOTINAL CONTROLLERS HAVE ERROR INTERGRAL HAVE ZERO ERROR BUT SLOW

109

110

PROPOTIONAL+DERIVATIVE

PROVIDE CONTROL SIGNAL PROPOTIONAL TO RATE OF CHANGE OF ERROR SIGNAL NO OUTPUT UNLESS ERROR SIGNAL IS CHANGING

111

LESS ERROS MORE STABLE

112

113

114

Sensors Encoders kinematics

115

FEEDBACK CONPONENTS

Position ,velocity and tilt etc

116

117

Position Sensors

Optical Encoders

Relative position Absolute position

Optical Encoders

Relative position light sensor decode circuitry

- direction - resolution

Optical Encoders

Relative position light sensor decode circuitry

mask/diffuser

Optical Encoders

Relative position light sensor decode circuitry

- direction - resolution

A B

A lags B

Optical Encoders

Detecting absolute position

Optical Encoders

Relative position light sensor decode circuitry

- direction - resolution

A leads B

Gray Code

# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Binary

0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 00 001 011 010 110 111 101 100

Accelerometer Types

Resistive Operating Principle

Voltage output of resistor bridge changes proportionally with applied acceleration

+ Signal

+ Power

- Power

- Signal

Fixed Resistors

Mass

Accelerometer Types

Capacitive Operating Principle

Utilizes frequency modulation technique through varying capacitor bridge

Power

Ground

Signal

Fixed Capacitors

Built-In Electronics

Insulator

Flexure

Insulator

Sensing Capacitor #2

Velocity sensor

Techometers?

Tilt sensor

129

Kinematics

130

131

132

Manipulators

Robot arms, industrial robot

Rigid bodies (links) connected by joints Joints: revolute or prismatic Drive: electric or hydraulic End-effector (tool) mounted on a flange or plate secured to the wrist joint of robot

y0

l

y0

x0

= cos ( x0/ l )

0

x0

2 links

135

136

World frame Joint frame Tool frame

z z

y x y

T P

Coordinate Frame

138

Coordinate Transformation

Reference coordinate frame OXYZ Body-attached frame Point represented in OXYZ: Ouvw

P

w v

O, O

Pxyz = p x i x + p y jy + p z k z

Puvw = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w

Two frames coincide ==>

pu = p x pv = p y pw = p z

140

Translation

142

Coordinate Transformation

Pxyz = p x i x + p y jy + p z k z Puvw = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w

Rotation only

P

y v u x

Pxyz = RPuvw

How to relate the coordinate in these two frames?

Basic Rotation

p p x , p y , and z

P = pu i u + pv jv + pw k w

p x = i x P = i x i u pu + i x jv pv + i x k w pw

p y = jy P = jy i u pu + jy jv pv + jy k w pw

p z = k z P = k z i u pu + k z jv pv + k z k w pw

px i x i u p = j i y y u p z k z i u i x jv j y jv k z jv i x k w pu p jy k w v k z k w pw

w

z

0 0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 C S 0 S C

P v

u

x

y

Is it True?

Rotation about x axis with

p x 0 0 p = 0 cos y p z 0 sin p x = pu p y = pv cos pw sin p z = pv sin + pw cos

u

x

0 pu p sin v cos pw

P v

0 0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 C S 0 S C

C Rot ( y, ) = 0 S

0 S 0 0 0 C

0 0 0

Pxyz = RPuvw

C S Rot ( z , ) = S C 0 0

Example

a ,0 ) A pointuvw = (0 ,0 is attached to a rotating frame, the frame rotates 60 degree about the OZ axis of the reference frame. Find the coordinates of the point relative to the reference frame after the rotation.

Example

a ,0 ) A pointxyz = (0 ,0 is the coordinate w.r.t. the reference coordinate system, auvw find the corresponding point w.r.t. the rotated OU-V-W coordinate system if it has been rotated 60 degree about OZ axis.

A sequence of finite rotations

matrix multiplications do not commute rules:

if rotating coordinate O-U-V-W is rotating about principal axis of OXYZ frame, then Pre-multiply the previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an appropriate basic rotation matrix if rotating coordinate OUVW is rotating about its own principal axes, then postmultiply the previous (resultant) rotation matrix with an appropriate basic rotation matrix

RB TB = 0 00

A

A o'

r R00 P00 = 0 0 0

Scaling

1. Translation

I 00 A TB = 0 0 0

A o'

r 0

2. Rotation

A RB 0 0 A 0 TB = 0 00 0

Example

Translation along Z-axis with h:

0 0 Trans ( z , h) = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 h 0 0 0 x 0 y 0 = z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 pu pu 0 pv pv = h pw pw + h 0 0 0

P

w v

O, O

P

y v

O, O

Example

Rotation about the X-axis by

0 0 Rot ( x, ) = 0 0 0 0 C S S 0 C 0 0 0 0 0

x 0 y 0 = z 0 0 0

0 C S 0

0 S C 0

0 pu 0 pv 0 pw 0 0

P v

y

u

x

Homogeneous Transformation

Composite Homogeneous Transformation Matrix Rules:

Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t (X,Y,Z) (OLD FRAME), using premultiplication Transformation (rotation/translation) w.r.t (U,V,W) (NEW FRAME), using postmultiplication

Example

Find the homogeneous transformation matrix (T) for the following operations:

Rotation about OX axis Translatio n of a along OX axis Translatio n of d along OZ axis Rotation of about OZ axis Answer :

T = Tz , Tz ,d Tx ,aTx , I 0 0

C S S C = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 C S S C 0 0 0 0 0 0

Example

For the figure shown below, find the 4x4 homogeneous 0 i 0 transformation matrices and for i=1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ai Ai 0 0 0 0 nx s x a x p x c 0 0 0 e + c n s a 0 py y y A0= z0 F= y 0 0 0 a d nz s z a z p z y0 x 0 0 0 0 0 d z0 0 0 0 0 x0 0 0 0 b 0 0 0 a d z0 e 0 A0 = 0 0 0 0 y0 z0 x0 x0 0 0 0 0

z0

x0

y0

a

y0

z0

x0 y0

y0

Can you find the answer by observation based on the geometric interpretation of homogeneous transformation matrix?

0 0 0 A0 = 0 0

0 0 b 0 0 e + c 0 0 0 0 0 0

Denavit-Hartenberg Convention

Denavit-Hartenberg Convention

Number the joints from 1 to n starting with the base and ending with the end-effector. Establish the base coordinate system. Establish a right( X 0, Y0, Z system handed orthonormal coordinate 0) at the Z0 supporting base with axis lying along the axis of motion of joint 1. Establish joint axis. Align the Zi with the axis of motion (rotary or sliding) of joint i+1. Establish the origin of the ith coordinate system. Locate the origin of the ith coordinate at the intersection of the Zi & ZiX i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i normal between the Zi & Zi 1 or at the intersection of common0 Zi-1 axes and the Zi axis.

Yi = +( Z i or along Establish Xi axis. Establish X i ) / Z i X i the common normal between the Zi-1 & Zi axes when they are parallel. to complete Establish Yi axis. Assign

Example I

3 Revolute Joints

Z1 Y0 Y1 Z3

Z0

Joint 3

Z

2

O0

X3

Link 1 Joint 1

Link 2

d2

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2

Y2

a0

a1

Assign Link Coordinate Frames:

To describe the geometry of robot motion, we assign a Cartesian coordinate frame (Oi, Xi,Yi,Zi) to each link, as follows: establish a right-handed orthonormal coordinate frame O0 at the supporting base with Z0 lying along joint 1 motion axis. Z3 the Zi axis is directedZalong the axis of motion of joint 1 Z0 Joint 3 (i + 1), that is, link (i + 1) rotates about or X translates 3 Y0 O0 Z Y1 2 along Zi; Link 1 Link 2 d2

Joint 1

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2

Y2

a0

a1

Locate the origin of the ith coordinate at the intersection of the Zi & Zi-1 or at the intersection of common normal between the Zi & Zi-1 axes and the Zi axis. the Xi axis lies along the common normal from the Zi-1 axis to the Zi axis Z , (if Zi-1 is parallel to Zi, then XJoint specified Z Z i is 3 arbitrarily, subject only to Y i being perpendicular X Y O0 X Z to Zi); d

3 0 1 0 1 3

2

X i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i 0 Z i

Joint 1

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2

Y2

a0

a1

Assign Yi = +( Z i X i ) / Z i X i to complete the righthanded coordinate system.

The hand coordinate frame is specified by the On geometry of the end-effector. Normally, establish Zn along the direction of Zn-1 axis and pointing away from the robot; establish Xn such that it is normal to both Zn-1 and Zn axes. Assign Yn to Z3 complete the right-handed coordinate system.

Z0 Z1

Joint 3

Y1

Z

2

Y0

O0

X3

Joint 1

d2

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2

Y2

a0

a1

Joint angle i : the angle of rotation from the Xi-1 axis to the Xi axis about the Zi-1 axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is rotary. Joint distance : the distance from the origin of the (i-1) coordinate system to the intersection of the Zi-1 axis and the Xi axis along the Zi-1 axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is prismatic. Link length : the distance from the intersection of the Zi-1 axis and the Xi axis to the origin of the ith coordinate system along the Xi axis. Link twist angle : the angle of rotation from the Zi1 axis to the Zi axis about the Xi axis.

di

ai

Example I

Z0 Y0 Z1 Y1 Z3

Joint 3

Z

2

O0

X3

Joint 1

d2

O0 X0

Joint 2

O0 X1 O0X2

Y2

Joint i 0 0 0 i 0 -0 0 0 ai a0 a0 0 di 0 0 d0 i 0 0 0

a0

a1

i : rotation angle from Zi-1 to Zi about Xi ai : distance from intersection of Zi-1 & Xi

di

to origin of i coordinate along Xi

: distance from origin of (i-1) coordinate to intersection of Zi-1 & Xi along Zi-1

1. 2. 3. 4.

Number the joints Establish base frame Establish joint axis Zi Locate origin, (intersect. of Zi & Zi-1) OR (intersect of common normal & Zi ) Establish Xi,Yi

0

O0 Z0

0

0

X0 Z0 Z0 5. Y0 O0 Y0 Z Z0 O0 X 00 0 Y0 Y0 0 O0 Z0 Y0 X 0 Y0 t O0 X0 X0 O0 Z 0 X0

PUMA 260

X i = ( Z i 0 Z i ) / Z i 0 Z i Yi = + ( Z i X i ) / Z i X i

Link Parameters

0

O0

0

Z0

J 1 2

4 -90 0 X0 Z0 Z0 Y0 5 90 0 0 O Y0 0 Z Z0 6 0 0 t O0 X 00 0 Y0 Y0 0 O0 Z0 i : angle from Xi-1 to Xi Y0 Y0 X0 about Zi-1 O0O X 0 X 0 i : angle from Zi-1 to Zi 0 Z0 about X

i 0 0 0 0 0 0

i

0 90

ai d i

13 0 -l 8 8 0

-90 0

X0

Joint distance

of Zi-1 & Xi to Oi along Xi

Four successive elementary transformations are required to relate the i-th coordinate frame to the (i-1)-th coordinate frame:

Rotate about the Z i-1 axis an angle of i to align the X i-1 axis with the X i axis. Translate along the Z i-1 axis a distance of di, to bring Xi-1 and Xi axes into coincidence. Translate along the Xi axis a distance of ai to bring the two origins Oi-1 and Oi as well as the X axis into coincidence. Rotate about the Xi axis an angle of i ( in the

Relevant references

Artificial Intelligence An Introduction to Robotics Tim Niemueller and Sumedha Widyadharma July 8, 2003 Determination of Location and Path Planning Algorithms for Industrial Robots Yung Ting and Ho-Chin Jar Bringing up robot: Fundamental mechanisms for creating a self-motivated, selforganizing architecture Under review for a special issue of the journal Cybernetics and Systems Lesson 31 Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Energy Savings with Variable Speed Drives Measurement Systems Specifications Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Sensors, Focus on Tactile, Force and Stress Sensors Edited by Jose Gerardo Rocha and Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez robot safety Published by the Industrial Welfare Division, Department of Labour, Private Bag Wellington Website links Industrial Robotics by MP groover Mcgraw hill 2009 www.wisc-online.com

169

Conclusion/Application/future scope

170

171

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