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You are on page 1of 26

W Dornfeld

05Nov2009 Fairfield University

School of Engineering

Lecture 9: Screws

(Chapter 16)

Thread Geometry

Hamrock

Page 707

Diameters

Major

Crest

Pitch

Root

Minor

Thread Height

Thread Pitch

Thread

Angle

p

inch Threads n

1

) / (

The Pitch Diameter

is midway between

the Major and Minor

Diameters.

Thread Types

Hamrock

Page 708

Single-, double-, and triple-threaded screws.

Also called single-, double-, and triple-start.

Lead =

3 x Pitch

Acme

Thread

Square

Thread

Lead =

1 x Pitch

Acme threads are used in C-Clamps, vices, and cartoons.

Details of Thread Profiles

Hamrock

Page 708

Relationships for M (metric) and UN (unified = US) screw threads.

Example:

UN: -20, means 0.25in. Major diameter & 20 threads/inch.

M: M8x1.25, means 8mm Major diameter & pitch of 1.25mm

Thread Height

p

p

h

t

8660 . 0

) 30 tan(

5 . 0

Power Screws

Looking at a square

thread screw, we unwind

one turn:

Lead

2 r

m

This shows an inclined

ramp with angle

m

r

Lead

2

tan

1

W

r

m

r

c

Lead

Thread

friction

Collar

friction

Mean

thread

radius

Mean

collar radius

Load

on nut

c

The Mean Radius is midway

between the Crest and Root Radii.

Square Thread Screw Torque

The torque required to

raise the load W is

and to lower the load, we

flip two signs:

1

]

1

c c m raise

r r W T

tan 1

tan

1

]

1

+

+

c c m lower

r r W T

tan 1

tan

W

r

m

r

c

Lead

c

Hamrock

Page 715

If the thread form is not square but has an angle ,

replace the thread friction with the effective friction

Power Screw Thread Angle

) 2 / cos(

e

The effect:

The thread angle effectively increases surface friction between 3 and 15%

The difference is negligible.

) 1 tan (cos tan

1

n

Power Screws - Overhauling

If the collar friction is small (e.g., it may have a

ball thrust bearing), too small a thread friction

may let the weight screw down on its own.

This can happen when

(the numerator goes negative).

This is the same case for a weight sliding down a ramp

when the incline angle exceeds tan

-1

.

m

r

Lead

2

tan <

Lead

2 r

m

1

]

1

+

+

c c m lower

r r W T

tan 1

tan

0

tan

Ball Screws Have Low Friction

Recirculating balls roll between ball screw

and ball nut to minimize friction.

These almost always overhaul.

Our Scissors Jack

End with nut Handle End with ball

thrust bearing

1522 Lb Tension

1015 Lb

Scissors Jack Analysis

Thread ID = 0.398 in.

Thread OD = 0.468 in.

Estimate d

p

= (0.398+0.468)/2

= 0.433 in.

Handle length = 135/25.4 = 5.31 in.

What torque is required to raise the jack?

What force is required on the handle?

Lead = 0.10 in.

Thread angle = 29

Guess = 0.20

c

= 0 due to bearing

W = 1522 Lb.

C-Clamp Analysis

Thread ID = 0.391 in.

Thread OD = 0.480 in.

Handle length = 3 in.

N = 8 Threads/Inch

Thread angle = 60

Guess = 0.15

c

= 0 to simplify things

W = 500 Lb.

What torque is required to cause

the 500 Lb. squeeze?

Note: If Acme, could use Eqn. 16.4

. 1111 . 1 00 . 1 ) 000 . 1 )( 1 . 1 ( 00 . 1 11 . 1 1 . 1 in p d d

c p

But with a 60 thread angle, this is NOT an Acme.

Estimate d

p

= (ID+OD)/2 = (0.390+0.480)/2 = 0.436 in.

Using Dornfeld Lecture Equations

d

p

= 0.436 in.

N = 8 Threads/Inch

Lead = 1/N = 0.125 in.

11 . 1 ) 11111 . 1 ( tan

) 1 / 111 . 1 ( 1

111 . 1

tan

1

tan

1 1 1

m

r

Lead

. . 11 . 11

0000 . 1

00000 . 1

) 000 . 1 )( 111 (

) 11111 . 1 )( 0000 . 1 ( 1

11111 . 1 1111 . 1

1

111 . 1

111

tan 1

tan

In Lb

r r W T

c c m raise

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

Thread angle b = 60

= 0.15

W = 500 Lb.

Because this is not a square thread, must use effective coefficient of

friction = /cos(/2) = 0.15/cos(30) = 0.15/0.866 = 0.1732

0

Using Hamrock Equations

d

p

= 0.436 in.

N = 8 Threads/Inch

Lead = 1/N = 0.125 in.

) 00000 . 1 1111 . 1 ( tan ) 11 tan 00 . 1 (cos tan )

1

tan (cos tan

11111 . 1 ) tan( ; 11 . 1

1

tan

1

1 1 1

1

n

n

m

r

Lead

. . 11 . 11

11111 . 1

11111 . 1

) 111 (

) 00000 . 1 )( 11 . 1 ( 111 . 1

11 . 1 ) 11111 . 1 )( 111 . 1 (

) 111 . 1 )( 111 (

11 . 1 tan 11 . 1 1 . 11 cos

) 11 . 1 11 . 1 tan 1 . 11 )(cos 1 / 111 . 1 (

111

tan cos

) tan )(cos 1 / (

In Lb

r

d

W T

c c

n

n p

raise

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

Thread angle b = 60

= 0.15

W = 500 Lb.

[Eqn.

16.10]

The equations are equivalent. Pick whichever one suits you best.

How close is this to /2 = 30?

0

Overhauling Revisited

1

]

1

+

+

c c

n

n p

lower

r

d

W T

tan cos

) tan cos )( 2 / (

Power screws can lower all by themselves if the friction

becomes less than the tangent of the lead angle, .

This corresponds to the numerator in the T

lower

equation going

negative, with the transition being where the numerator is Zero.

You can use either Dornfeld or Hamrock equation, but

remember that the Dornfeld equation is Effective friction, and you

must multiply by cos(/2) to get the actual friction.

The equations are equivalent. Pick whichever one suits you best.

1

]

1

+

+

c c m lower

r r W T

tan 1

tan

tan cos

n

tan ) 2 / cos( ) 2 / cos(

tan

e

e

Transition when:

Hamrock:

Dornfeld:

Failure Modes: Tensile Overload

When the tensile stress on a bolt exceeds the

materials Proof Strength, the bolt will

permanently stretch.

t

A

P

Where A

t

is the Tensile Stress Area for

the bolt the equivalent area of a

section cut through the bolt.

Hamrock

Page 731

2

9743 . 0

) 7854 . 0 (

,

_

n

d A

c t

For UN threads,

2

) 9382 . 0 )( 7854 . 0 ( p d A

c t

For M threads,

d

c

= Crest Dia (in.)

n = threads/in.

d

c

= Crest Dia (mm)

p = pitch (mm)

Failure Modes: Thread Shear

Shear of Nut Threads

Shear of Bolt Threads

l d A

crest shear

l d A

root shear

l

The shear strength

of the bolt and nut

material may not

be the same.

Failure Modes: Shank Shear

4

2

shank

shear

d

A

Bolts are not really intended to be used this way unless they are

Shoulder Bolts:

Typically the preload from tightening the bolt clamps the joint,

and the friction between the members holds the joint.

1 1

1

1 1

shank shank

shear

d d

A

Bolt Preload

So the bolt is really a spring that stretches

and creates preload on the joint.

JH Bickford explains :

'When we tighten a bolt,

( a) we apply torque to the nut,

( b) the nut turns,

( c) the bolt stretches,

( d) creating preload.'

P KD T

crest

in preload. This can be approximated simply by:

Where T is torque, D

crest

is the bolt crest diameter, P is the preload,

and K is a dimensionless constant. K = 0.20 for clean, dry threads

and K = 0.15 for lubricated threads.

Bolt Stiffness

A bolt looks like two

springs in series: one

rod with the Crest

diameter and one with

the Root diameter.

Their lengths are

increased to reflect the

head and nut.

,

_

+

+

+

2 2

4 . 0 4 . 0 4 1

r

r t

c

c s

b

d

d L

d

d L

E k

shank

L

thread

L

Hamrock

Page 725

Bolt Stiffness Exercise

Calculate the stiffness of a 3/8-16 screw that is

4 in. long and clamps 3.5 of material. Use

Eqn. 16.23 to determine shank length.

shank

L

thread

L

Hamrock

Page 726

bolt

L

clamp

L

thread

L

Note: Hamrock uses L

t

in Eqns. 16.21 and

16.22/23, BUT THEY ARE DIFFERENT THINGS!

In 16.21 it is the Clamped thread length;

in 16.22/23 it is Total thread length.

L

t

in

16.22/23

L

t

in

16.21

Joint Stiffness

The material clamped by

the bolt also acts like a

spring in compression.

Effectively, only the material

in the red double conical

area matters.

There are many methods to

calculate this stiffness.

Compare these calculator

stiffness results from

tribology-abc.com with

Hamrocks Example 16.6

Hamrock

Page 727

How Bolt Preload Works

From Norton, Chap. 14

Preload isolates the bolt from most of any external loads.

The joint stiffness factor, C

j

, determines what fraction of

external loads the bolt actually sees.

j b

b

j

k k

k

C

+

Hamrock

Eqn. 16.17

Bolt Strength

For Metric grades, the first number x 100 = Sut in MPa. The

fraction x Sut = Sy. Ex: grade 12.9 has Sut 1200 MPa and

Sy 0.9x1200 = 1080 MPa.

Hamrock

Page 731

Bolt Loading

Generally, bolts are preloaded to:

75% of Proof Load for reused

connections

90% of Proof Load for permanent

connections

where Proof Load = Proof Strength x A

t

.

The Proof Strength is approximately at

the elastic limit for the material.

Hamrock

Page 733

Proof

0.2%Yield

Ultimate

Recommended Site:

BoltScience.com

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