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Network+ Guide to Networks 5th Edition

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Networking

Objectives
• List the advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks • List elements common to all client/server networks

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

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Objectives (cont’d.)
• Describe several specific uses for a network • Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals • Identify the kinds of skills and specializations that will help you excel as a networking professional

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

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Why Use Networks?
• Network
– Group of computers and devices
• Connected by transmission media

• Stand-alone computer
– Not connected to other computers – Uses local software and data

• Advantages of networks over standalone computers
– Device sharing by multiple users
• Saves money and time

– Central network management
Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 4

5th Edition 5 .Types of Networks • Models vary according to: – Computer positioning – Control levels over shared resources – Communication and resource sharing schemes • Network models – Peer-to-Peer – Client/server Network+ Guide to Networks.

Peer-to-Peer Networks • Direct computer communication – Equal authority • Individual resource sharing – May share resources – May prevent access to resources • Traditional model – Two or more general purpose computers • Capable of sending and receiving information to and from every other computer Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 6 .

) Figure 1-1 Resource sharing on a simple peer-to-peer network Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 7 .Peer-to-Peer Networks (cont’d.

5th Edition 8 .) • Advantages – Simple configuration – Less expensive • Compared to other network models • Disadvantages – Not flexible – Not necessarily secure – Not practical for large installations Network+ Guide to Networks.Peer-to-Peer Networks (cont’d.

) • Resource sharing method – Modify file sharing controls • A user responsibility – Not centrally controlled • Potential variations and security issues • Environments – Small home or office – Large networks using the Internet • Gnutella. original Napster • BitTorrent software Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 9 . Freenet.Peer-to-Peer Networks (cont’d.

devices – No direct sharing of client resources Network+ Guide to Networks.Client/Server Networks • Central computer (server) – Facilitates communication and resource sharing • Clients (other computers) – Personal computers • Known as workstations • Central resource sharing controlled by server – Data sharing. 5th Edition 10 . data storage space.

) • Computer roles – Server – Clients • • • • Run local applications Store data locally Use server shared applications. data. devices Use server as intermediary • Communication – Switches or routers Network+ Guide to Networks.Client/Server Networks (cont’d. 5th Edition 11 .

Client/Server Networks (cont’d.) Figure 1-2 Resource sharing on a client/server network Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 12 .

) • Server requirement – Network operating system • • • • • • Manages client data. Microsoft Server 2003 and 2008. Linux.Client/Server Networks (cont’d. MAC OS X Server Network+ Guide to Networks. resources Ensures authorized user access Controls user file access Restricts user network access Dictates computer communication rules Supplies application to clients • Server examples – UNIX. 5th Edition 13 .

storage capacity – Equipped with special hardware • Provides network management functions • Disadvantages relative to peer-to-peer networks – Complex in design and maintenance Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 14 .Client/Server Networks (cont’d.) • Server features relative to clients – More memory. processing.

) • Advantages relative to peer-to-peer networks – User credential assigned from one place – Multiple shared resource access centrally controlled – Central problem monitoring. diagnostics.Client/Server Networks (cont’d. correction capabilities – User response time optimization capabilities – Efficient processing on large networks – Scalability • Popular in medium. 5th Edition 15 .and large-scale organizations Network+ Guide to Networks.

and WANs • LAN (local area network) – Network confined to a relatively small space – 1980s • LANs became popular as peer-to-peer based – Today • Larger and more complex client/server network • MAN (metropolitan area network) – Network extends beyond building boundaries – Larger than LAN – Connects clients and servers from multiple buildings Network+ Guide to Networks.LANs. 5th Edition 16 . MANs.

LANs. MANs. and WANs (cont’d.) Figure 1-3 A more complex client/server network Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 17 .

MANs. and WANs (cont’d.LANs. 5th Edition 18 .) • WAN (wide area network) – Connects two or more geographically distinct LANs or MANs – Comparison to LANs • Use slightly different transmission methods and media • Use greater variety of technologies – Network connection • Separate offices in same organization • Separate offices in different organizations Network+ Guide to Networks.

) Figure 1-4 A simple WAN Network+ Guide to Networks. and WANs (cont’d.LANs. MANs. 5th Edition 19 .

5th Edition 20 .Elements Common to Client/Server Networks • Client – Network computer requesting resources or services from another network computer – Client workstation human user – Client software installed on workstation • Server – Network computer managing shared resources – Runs network operating system • Workstation – Personal computer • May or may not be connected to network Network+ Guide to Networks.

) • NIC (network interface card) – Device inside computer • Connects computer to network media • Allows communication with other computers • NOS (network operating system) – Server software – Enables server to manage data. 5th Edition 21 . security.Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d. users. applications. and other networking functions Network+ Guide to Networks. groups.

5th Edition 22 .Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d.) Figure 1-5 A NIC (network interface card) Network+ Guide to Networks.

) • Host – Computer • Enables network resource sharing by other computers • Node – Client.Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d. or other device • Communicates over a network • Identified by unique number (network address) • Connectivity device – Allows multiple networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data Network+ Guide to Networks. server. 5th Edition 23 .

Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d. bus. star or hybrid formation Network+ Guide to Networks.) • Segment – Group of nodes • Use same communications channel for traffic • Backbone – Connects segments and significant shared devices – “A network of networks” • Topology – Computer network physical layout – Ring. 5th Edition 24 .

5th Edition 25 .) Figure 1-6 A LAN backbone Network+ Guide to Networks.Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d.

Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d.) Figure 1-7 Common network topologies Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 26 .

) • Protocol – Standard method or format for communication between networked devices • Data packets – Distinct data units exchanged between nodes • Addressing – Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every node • Transmission media – Means through which data is transmitted and received Network+ Guide to Networks.Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d. 5th Edition 27 .

Quick Quiz 1 • 1. Answer: True 2. A network that is larger than a LAN and connects clients and servers from multiple buildings is known as a(n) ____. Answer: False 3. True or False: A common way to share resources on a client/server network is by modifying the file-sharing controls via the computer’s operating system. Which term identifies a computer that enables resource sharing by other computers on the same network? – Subnode – Host – Node – NIC Answer: Host 28 • • • • • • • • • Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition . transferring data via floppy disks was the only possible way to share data. True or False: Before networks. Answer: False 4. Answer: MAN (metropolitan area network) 5. True or False: A client/server network is the simplest network model.

Elements Common to Client/Server Networks (cont’d.) Figure 1-8 Examples of network transmission media Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 29 .

file sharing. remote access capabilities. 5th Edition 30 .How Networks Are Used • Network services – Functions provided by a network – Most visible • E-mail – Other vital services • Printer sharing. network management Network+ Guide to Networks. Internet access and Web site delivery. the provision of voice (telephone) and video services.

applications and disk storage space • File server – Provides file services • File services provide foundation of networking • Print services – Share printers across network – Saves time and money Network+ Guide to Networks.File and Print Services • File services – Capability of server to share data files. 5th Edition 31 .

Access Services • Allow remote user network connection • Allow network users to connect to machines outside the network • Remote user – Computer user on different network or in different geographical location from LAN’s server • Network operating systems include built-in access services Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 32 .

) • Provide LAN connectivity when WAN connection is not cost-effective – External staff used to diagnose problems • Allow external users to use network resources and devices – Same as if logged on to office workstation Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 33 .Access Services (cont’d.

Communications Services • Convergence – Phenomenon of offering multiple types of communications services on the same network • Unified communications – Multiple network-based communications centralized management • E-mail – Oldest and most frequently used • Mail server – Computer responsible for mail services • Coordinates storage and transfer of e-mail Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 34 .

storage. maintenance functions – Communicate with mail servers on other networks • Mail server runs specialized mail server software Network+ Guide to Networks.) • Additional tasks of mail servers – – – – – – Intercept spam Handle objectionable content Route messages according to rules Provide Web-based client Notify administrators or users if certain events occur Schedule e-mail transmission. 5th Edition 35 . retrieval.Communications Services (cont’d.

Internet addressing schemes.Internet Services • Supplying Web pages – Servers work together to bring Web pages to user’s desktop – Web server • Computer installed with appropriate software to supply Web pages to many different clients upon demand • Other Internet services – File transfer capabilities. 5th Edition 36 . means for directly logging on to other Internet computers Network+ Guide to Networks. security filters.

5th Edition 37 .Management Services • Small network management – Single network administrator – Network operating system’s internal functions • Today’s larger network management – Centrally administered network management tasks Network+ Guide to Networks.

) • Other important services – – – – – – – – Traffic monitoring and control Load balancing Hardware diagnosis and failure alert Asset management License tracking Security auditing Address management Backup and restoration of data Network+ Guide to Networks.Management Services (cont’d. 5th Edition 38 .

Becoming a Networking Professional • Job market – Many job postings for computer professionals – Expertise levels required vary • To prepare for entering job market – – – – – Master general networking technologies Select areas of interest Study those specialties Hone communication and teamwork skills Stay abreast of emerging technologies 39 Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition .

Mastering the Technical Challenges • Networking positions utilizing logical and analytical thinking – Obtain skill sets desired • Positions in high demand – Consider a general knowledge of all – Specialize in a few • Determine appropriate personal learning methods • Obtain hands-on experience Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 40 .

Developing Your “Soft Skills” • Soft skills – Not easily measurable – Important to networking projects • • • • • Customer relations Oral and written communications Dependability Teamwork Leadership abilities Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 41 .

Cisco Network+ Guide to Networks. programming language. operating system.Pursuing Certification • Certification process – Master material • Pertaining to particular hardware system. software application – Proving mastery • Pass exams • Professional organizations – CompTIA • Vendors – Microsoft . 5th Edition 42 .

Pursuing Certification (cont’d. 5th Edition 43 .) • Benefits – – – – Better salary Greater opportunities Professional respect Access to better support • Drawback – Number of people obtaining and pursuing them Network+ Guide to Networks.

Finding a Job in Networking • Job research methods – – – – – – Search the Web Read the newspaper Visit a career center Network Attend career fairs Enlist a recruiter Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 44 .

Joining Professional Associations • Provide varying benefits – – – – – – – – Connect with people having similar interests New learning opportunities Specialized information access Tangible assets (free goods) Publications Technical workshops and conferences Free software. prerelease software Expensive hardware lab access Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 45 .

5th Edition 46 .) Table 1-1 Networking organizations Network+ Guide to Networks.Joining Professional Associations (cont’d.

• Answer: False • True or False: Configuration and optimization of routers and switches is a skill currently in high demand. • Answer: remote access • True or False: The oldest and still most frequently used network communications services are print services.Quick Quiz #2 • The functions provided by a network are usually referred to as network ____. • Answer: True • The term ____ refers to those skills that are not easily measurable. • Answer: soft skills Network+ Guide to Networks. 5th Edition 47 . • Answer: services • A(n) ____ server may also be known as simply an access server.

Summary • Defined networks and stand-alone computers • Described network advantages – Relative to stand-alone computer • Discussed peer-to-peer networks – Described traditional peer-to-peer networks • Discussed client/server networks • Defined and compared LANs. 5th Edition 48 . MANs and WANs Network+ Guide to Networks.

) • • • • • Reviewed common client/server network elements Described various network services Reviewed the networking profession Presented overview of certifications available Listed skill sets required for networking positions and projects • Described advantages of joining professional associations Network+ Guide to Networks.Summary (cont’d. 5th Edition 49 .