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By B.V.Divya

FT cannot distinguish between stationary and nonstationary signals which creates problem during reconstruction of signal.e^-2 ft dt It is widely used frequency transformation technique. X(f)= x(t). .FOURIER TRANSFORM A periodic function is expressed as an infinite sum of periodic complex exponential functions.

Stationary signal Non-Stationary signal .

. the transform would be two dimensional. FT which is a function of frequency only). it considers a part of the non-stationary signal where the frequency is same as stationary and applies FT to it. The transform is a function of time and frequency (unlike.SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM It uses a window function of a predefined width and moves it along the entire signal. The STFT is almost similar to FT.

The equation of STFT is given as -j2Tft STFT (td. f) = ´ [ x(t) y w( t.td )]y e dt .

.DISADVANTAGE OF STFT Unchanged window size. It only gives the information about what spectral band exist in a time interval but does not give information about the individual frequencies. Wide windows give good frequency resolution but poor time resolution. Narrow windows give good time resolution but poor frequency resolution.

hence giving a time-frequency representation of the signal.WAVELET TRANSFORM Wavelet transform is capable of providing the time and frequency information simultaneously. So wavelet transforms gives a variable resolution . and lower frequencies are better resolved in frequency. Higher frequencies are better resolved in time.

DIFFERENCE B/W STFT AND WAVELET TRANSFORM The Fourier transforms of the windowed signals are not taken. i. The width of the window is changed as the transform is computed for every single spectral component. and therefore single peak will be seen corresponding to a sinusoid.. . negative frequencies are not computed. which is probably the most significant characteristic of the wavelet transform.e.

The basic idea of the wavelet transform is to represent any arbitrary function f(t) as a superposition of a set of such wavelets or basis function. . Wavelets are functions defined over a finite interval and having an average value of zero.WAVELETS-THEORY The term wavelet means a small wave. These basis functions are derived from a single prototype called mother wavelet.

. and it is called the mother wavelet.CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM The continuous wavelet transform is defined as follows: The transformed signal is a function of two variables. Psi(t) is the transforming function. the translation and scale parameter respectively. tau and s.

The mother wavelet is chosen and the computation is begun with s=1. The wavelet is multiplied with the signal and multiplied over all the times. The wavelet is placed at the beginning of the signal at the point which corresponds to time=0. . The above step normalizes the energy.so that the transformed signal has the same energy at every scale.The CWT is computed for all values of s. The result is then multiplied by the constant 1/sqrt(s).COMPUTATION OF THE CWT The signal to be analyzed is taken.

The wavelet at scale s =1 is then shifted to the right by and the above steps are repeated until the wavelet reaches the end of the signal.Cont. ..

APPLICATIONS Digital Image processing Image and data compression Biometrics and Forensic services Medical Imaging Disease Diagnosis Wavelet denoising Image Coding Multi resolution image display Geo-information exchange Invisible water marking schemes .

.CONCLUSION Since the time and frequency resolutions can be achieved together. Computational complexity is also less compared to other transformation techniques.it has wide applications in image compression research.

S ?? ERIE QU 3/4/12 .

YOU ANK TH 3/4/12 .

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