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POPULATION OF INDIA

Amrutha Akshat Vijeth

INDEX
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Census 2011 Report (Actual census Slides) Comparison with other countries Why population in Economics BOONS AND BANE

Introduction
Our world population is rapidly growing Today: Over 6 billion people and on the rise
Lack of increased immigration / lack of migration (urbanization) Education and contraceptive use Medical advancements

Leads to environmental and social impacts


Deforestation Global Warming Natural disasters, sea level rising Lack of natural resources Lack of freshwater Pollution Diseases Food Resources

Indias Population
Second largest population in the world

One out of every 6 people live in India


Population growing at the rate of 1.9% per year 16% of worlds total population

Indias Population in Future


In the year 2025, population could reach 1.4 billion Could overtake China and become the most populous nation

Population facts
Birth Rate: 25.94 births/ 1,000 population Death Rate: 9.61/ 1,000 population Age Structure:
0-14 years: 34% 15-64 years: 62% 65 years and over: 4%

Sex Ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male/ female Under 15: 1.06 male/female 15-64 years: 1.08 males/ female 65 years and over: 0.98 male/female

Life Expectance at Birth:


Total population: 63.9 years Male: 63.2 years Female: 64.6 years

Factors Affecting population growth


Poverty Availability and acceptability of contraceptives and health services for women and children Cultural preference for sons Education status of women Infant mortality rate

India's Answer to population growth


The year 1959 announced a policy to lower the birth rate Clinics Family planning

Poverty and Literacy


30-40% of the population live in poverty 4 out of 5 of Indias poor live in rural areas The literacy level of women has a significance on the fertility rate Literacy Rates: (age 15 and over who can read and write) Total Population: 52% Male: 65.5% Female: 37.7%

Urban Life
Three of the worlds largest cities are in India i.e. Bombay, Calcutta and New Delhi Indians are migrating to the cities in search of jobs and a better life Overcrowding is a problem for public transportation systems Air pollution is a serious problem Most serious environmental problem and threat to public health is inadequate access to clean water and sanitation

Ethnic Division and Religion


Indo-Aryan 72% Dravidian 25% Mongoloid and other 3% Various Religion include

Hindu 80% Muslim 14% Christian 2.4% Sikh 2% Buddhist 0.7% Jains 0.5% Other 0.4%

Language facts and Culture


Hindi - Official language (30%) English - Official working language 15 national languages recognized by the Indian constitution Languages spoken in over 1600 dialects Most Indians speak more than one language

Creative Arts Sculpture, Architecture, Painting Classical Dances Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Manipuri Traditional Literature Fiction, Epics

CENSUS 2011

Our Census, Our Future

Population
Census 2011 (Provisional)

Population
Persons

1210.2 million 623.7 million 586.5 million

Males

Females

Males include Males and Others


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Population 2001-2011
2001 2011 Difference Growth%

Persons

1,02,87,37,436

1,21,01,93,422

18,14,55,986

17.64

Males
Females Females

53,22,23,090
49,65,14,346 49,65,14,346
23.87
25.00

62,37,24,248
58,64,69,174 58,64,69,174
21.54

9,15,01,158
8,99,54,828 8,99,54,828

17.19
18.12 18.12

% Growth Rate

20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00

17.64 % Growth Rate of Population

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0.00

Years 1981-1991

1991-2001

2001-2011

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INDIA compared to 9 other most populous countries in the world

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Population Highlights
The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011 The absolute addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world! The population of India, at 1210.2 million, is almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together

(1214.3 million)!
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Share of different States in Indias population

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Population 1901 - 2011

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Population Highlights
2001-2011 is the first decade (with the exception of 19111921) which has actually added lesser population compared to the previous decade. The percentage decadal growth during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since Independence - a decrease of 3.90 percentage points from 21.54 to 17.64 percent

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Population Highlights

Uttar Pradesh (200 million) is the most populous State in the country - population is more than the population of Brazil. Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (312 million), is greater than the population of USA

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Largest and the Smallest States/UTs


Top 5 States/UTs
Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Andhra Pradesh 19,95,81,477 11,23,72,972 10,38,04,637 9,13,47,736 8,46,65,533

Bottom 5 States/UTs
Lakshadweep Daman & Diu D. & N. Haveli A. & N. Islands Sikkim 64,429 2,42,911 3,42,853 3,79,944 6,07,688

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Districts Ranked as per Population 2011

Top 2 Districts Thane (Maharashtra) 1,10,54,131

Bottom 2 Districts Dibang Valley (Arunachal Pradesh) 7,948

North Twenty Four 1,00,82,852 Parganas (West Bengal)

Anjaw (Arunachal Pradesh)

21,089

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Population (0-6 years)

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Population (0-6 years) 2001-2011

2001

2011

Difference

% Growth

Persons
Males

16,38,37,395
8,50,08,267

15,87,89,287
8,29,52,135

-50,48,108
-20,56,132

-3.08
-2.42

Females

7,88,29,128

7,58,37,152

-29,91,976

-3.80

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Population (0-6 years) Highlights


The total number of children in the age-group 0-6 is 158.8 million (-5 million since 2001) Twenty States and Union Territories now have over one million children in the age group 0-6 years. On the other extreme, there are five States and Union Territories in the country that are yet to reach the one hundred thousand mark. Uttar Pradesh (29.7 million), Bihar (18.6 million), Maharashtra (12.8 million), Madhya Pradesh (10.5 million) and Rajasthan (10.5 million) constitute 52% Children in the age group of 0-6 years.
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Population (0-6 years) Highlights


The proportion of Child Population in the age group of 0-6 years to total Population is 13.1 percent while the corresponding figure in 2001 was 15.9 percent. The decline has been to the extent of 2.8 points.

The share of children in the EAG States, at 53.2% in 2011 has increased by about 1.3 percent compared to 2001.
The proportion of Child Population in the age group of 0-6 years to total Population is indicative of fall/rise in fertility

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Districts ranked as per Proportion of Population (0-6 years) 2011

Top 2 Districts District Kupwara (Jammu & Kashmir) Proportion (0-6 )years 22.50

Bottom 2 Districts District Kolkata (West Bengal) Proportion (0-6 )years 6.69

West Khasi Hills (Meghalaya)

22.47

Pathanamthitta (Kerala)

7.65

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Gender Composition - Sex Ratio

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Gender Composition of Population 2011

2001 Population (in mn) Proportion (in %)

2011 (Provisional) Population (in mn) Proportion (in %)

Males

532.2

51.74

Females

496.5

48.26

623.7 586.4
940

51.54

48.46

Sex Ratio

933

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Gender Composition of Population 2011


Overall Sex ratio at the National level has increased by 7 points since Census 2001 to reach 940 at Census 2011 This is the highest Sex Ratio recorded since Census 1971 and a shade lower than 1961 Increase in Sex Ratio is observed in 29 States/UTs

Three major States (J&K, Bihar & Gujarat) have shown decline in Sex Ratio as compared to
Census 2001.
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Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years)

2001 Population (0-6) (in mn) Proportion (0-6) (in %)

2011 (Provisional) Population (0-6) (in mn) Proportion (0-6) (in %)

Males Females Sex Ratio

85.0 78.8 927

51.89 48.11

82.9 75.8 914

52.24 47.76

The Child Sex Ratio at India level (914) is lowest since Independence
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Status of Literacy

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Literates 2001-2011

2001 Persons Males

2011

Difference 21,77,00,941 10,76,31,940 11,00,69,001

% Growth 38.82 31.98 49.10

56,07,53,179 77,84,54,120 33,65,71,822 44,42,03,762

Females 22,41,81,357 33,42,50,358

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Effective Literacy Rate 2001-2011

2001 Persons Males Females 64.83 75.26 53.67

2011 74.04 82.14 65.46

Difference 9.2 6.9 11.8

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Literacy Status: Highlights


As per provisional population totals of Census 2011, literates constitute 74 per cent of the total population aged seven and above and illiterates form 26 per cent. Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.
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Literacy Status: Highlights

The literacy rate for males and females works out to 82.14 per cent and 65.46 per cent respectively. The increase in literacy rate in males and females during 2001-2011 is in the order of 6.88 and 11.79 percentage points respectively.

It is encouraging to note that out of total of 217,700,941 literates added during the decade, female
110,069,001 outnumber male 107,631,940.
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Literacy Status: Highlights


A significant milestone reached in Census 2011 is that a decline of 31,196,847 among illiterates is noted. Out of total decrease of 31,196,847 in number of illiterates, the female 17,122,197 outnumber males 14,074,650. Ten States and Union Territories viz., Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mizoram, Tripura, Goa, Daman & Diu, Puducherry, Chandigarh, NCT of Delhi and Andaman & Nicobar Islands have achieved literacy rate of above 85 per cent, the target set by the Planning Commission to be achieved by 20112012.
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Literacy Status: Highlights

The gap of 21.59 percentage points recorded between male and female literacy rates in 2001 Census has reduced to 16.68 percentage points in 2011. Planning Commission has set up target of reducing this gap to 10 percentage points by the year 2011-2012. The States/Union Territories which have achieved malefemale gap in literacy rate of 10 percentage points or less are Chandigarh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Lakshadweep, Kerala and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

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Ranking of States/UTs-Literacy Rate-2011

Top 2 States/UTs States/UTs Kerala Lakshadweep Literacy Rate 93.91 92.28

Bottom 2 States/UTs States/UTs Bihar Arunachal Pradesh Literacy Rate 63.82 66.95

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Districts ranked as per Literacy Rate 2011

Top 2 Districts District Serchhip (Mizoram) Aizawl (Mizoram) Literacy Rate 98.76 98.50

Bottom 2 Districts District Alirajpur (Madhya Pradesh) Bijapur (Chhattisgarh) Literacy Rate 37.22 41.58

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Density of Population 2001-2011

2001 Density 325

2011 382

Difference 57

% Difference 17.5

*Density is defined as the Number of persons per sq. km.


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Ranking of States/UTs as per Population Density-2011

Top 2 States/UTs
States/UTs NCT of Delhi Chandigarh Density 11,297 9,252

Bottom 2 States/UTs
States/UTs Arunachal Pradesh A. & N. Islands Density 17 46

*Density is defined as the Number of persons per sq. km.

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Districts ranked as per Population Density 2011

Top 2 Districts District North East (NCT of Delhi) Chennai (Tamil Nadu) Density 37,346

Bottom 5 Districts District Dibang Valley (Arunachal Pradesh) Samba (Jammu & Kashmir) Density 1

26,903

*Density is defined as the Number of persons per sq. km.

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Population comparison with the world


The country's headcount is almost equal to the combined population of the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together, it said The combined population of UP and Maharashtra is bigger than that of the US Interestingly, the addition of 181 million population during 2001-2011 is slightly lower than the total population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world The literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 per cent

INDIA VS CHINA
The difference: Almost 130 million. But because India is growing so much faster than China (see below), it is expected to become the worlds most populous nation in another two decades DECADAL GROWTH China: 73.9 million (5.84%) India: 181 million (17.64%) MEN PER 100 WOMEN China: 105 India: 106 YOUTH China (0-14): 222,459,737 India (0-6): 158,789,287 The youth population numbers arent directly comparable yet but its clear even from this data that Indias 0-14 population is higher than Chinas. Indian projections from 2006 suggested that population would be around 346,942,000. The actual numbers may be a little higher than that since the project put Indias 2011 population at 1,192,507,000, lower than it turned out to be. Some experts are saying that its now time for China to reverse its one-child policy.

LITERACY (%) China: 95.92 India: 74.04

WHY POPULATION IN ECONOMICS?


Population has grown along with economic production, increases in GDP do not necessarily result in an improvement in the standard of living Economic growth per capita is primarily driven by improvements in productivity, also called economic efficiency Among other factors that might prevent a long-term improvement in standard of living despite economic growth is the potential for population growth matching or outstripping productivity improvements Economic growth can also be of interest without reference to per capita changes in standard of living

Boons and Bane


Pros
Strategic importance worlds developed countries have ageing population we have population more young work forceHuman resource Faster development cheap labour

Cons
utilization of this opportunity is challenge Resource management Security Poverty quantity and quality is a problem

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