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# Università degli Studi di Catania

Facoltà di Ingegneria

## Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Ingegneria

dell’Automazione e del Controllo dei sistemi complessi

## Corso di Fondamenti di Bioingegneria Elettronica

MATHEMATICAL MODELING
OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
L’EPISCOPO GAETANO
MAZZARA BOLOGNA GIUSEPPE

ELETTRICAL MODELS FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Biological System

Physical Laws

Electrical Parameters

State-Space Transfer
Equations Function
RESISTANCE
Resistance Resistive and dissipative properties of system

V Potential
Ohm’s Law V
V=RI I R I Current

## Generalized Ohm’s Law y “Generalized effort”

y=Rz
z “Generalized flow”
RESISTANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized Ohm’s law

## Fluidic Poiseuille’s law ΔP=RtQ Q ΔP

θ1 θ2
Fourier’s Thermal transfer law Δθ=RtQ Q

φ1 φ2

## Chemical Fick’s law of Diffusion ΔΦ=RcQ

Q
CAPACITANCE
Capacitance Storage properties of system

V
Capacitance Law V Potential
1
V = ∫ idt
C Current
I I
C
Also Capacitance Law can be generalized, applying it to other systems

## Generalized Capacitance Law

y “Generalized effort”
1
y = ∫ zdt “Generalized flow”
C z
CAPACITANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized Capacitance law
x
Hooke’s Mechanics Compliance law
1 F
F=
CM ∫ vdt

ΔV
Fluidic Compliance law ΔV=CfΔP
ΔP

## Thermal Heat storage law Q=Ct Δθ θ1 θ2

Δ θ=θ1-θ2
INERTANCE
Inertance Inertial properties of system

Inductance Law V
V Potential
dI
V =L L I Current
dt I

## Generalized Inductance Law

y “Generalized effort”
dz
y=L “Generalized flow”
dt z
INERTANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized inertance law

dv m F
F =m
dt

dQ Q ΔP
∆P = LF
dt

## There is no element that represents inertance in thermal and chemical systems

Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of
aortic and arterial hemodynamics

## Rp//Cp Modeling of the rest of

arterial vasculature
Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of
aortic and arterial hemodynamics
State space equations: VC

dQ R V P
= − ao Q − C + ao
dt Lao Lao Lao
dVC Q Pao
= −
dt Cao + C P Rao ( Cao + C P ) Pao input Q output
Q, VC State space variables

Transfer function:
Q S ( RP Cao + RPC P ) + 1
= 2
Pao S ( RPCao Lao + RPC P Lao ) + S ( Lao + Rao R p Cao + Rao RPC P ) + Rao + R P
Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of
Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical
activity

C Membrane capacitance
Rk,Na,C1 Resistance of membrane to K,Na,C1
Ek,Na,C1 Nernst Potential of membrane for K,Na,C1
Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of
Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical
activity

Equations are:
dV  1 1 1  E K E Na ECl
I =C 
+ + + 
V+ − +
dt  RK RNa RCl  RK RNa RCl

V + EK
IK =
RK

V − E Na
I Na =
RNa

V + ECl
I Cl =
RCl
Exercise 3: Analysis of the respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

RP RC, LC, CS

Cw

CL

## Rc Resistance of central airways Rp Resistance of peripheral airways

Lc Inertance through central airways Cw Compliance of chest-wall
Cs Compliance of central airways CL Compliance of lung
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Equations are:
dQ 1
Pao = RC Q + LC +
dt C S ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt A

 1 1  1
RP QA +  +  ∫ QA dt =
 C L CW  CS ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt
A

## Reducing two equations to one, we obtain:

d 2 Pao 1 dPao d 3Q  LC  d 2Q  1 RC  dQ 1  1 1
2
+ = LC 3
+ 
 RC + 
 2
+ 
 + 
 +  +  Q
dt RPCT dt dt  RP CT  dt  CS RPCT  dt R P CS  CW CL 

−1
 1 1 1 
Where: CT =  + + 
C
 L CW C S 
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

## Input Pao=sin(2πb*60-1*t) cm H2O

where b = breaths/min

## Fixed values for system

parameters are:
RC= 1 cm H2O L-1
RP= 0.5 cm H2O L-1
CL= 0.2 L cm H2O
CW= 0.2 L cm H2O
CS= 0.005 L cm H2O
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0 cm H2O s2 L-1 Neglecting inertance

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.127 L/s
Volume=0.502 L

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.504 L/s
Volume=0.496 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1 Taking inertance into account

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.129 L/s
Volume=0.515 L

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.512 L/s
Volume=0.509 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1, CL=0.4 L cm H2O-1, RP=7.5 cm H2O s L-1
Subject with emphysema (higher lung compliance and higher peripheral airway resistance)

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.166 L/s
Volume=0.661 L

## Peak to peak amplitudes

at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.457 L/s
Volume=0.496 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Summary of all simulations

Conclusions: Both inertance-complete model and neglecting-inertance one have quite similar
trends at all input frequencies. Emphysema model, instead, has a very different trend,
particularly at high frequencies; infact its peak-to-peak amplitude both for air flow and for air
volume is smaller as emphysema features outline.