cable. and infrastructure. air. cable. road. such as air. divided into infrastructure. water. vehicles. The field can be space. Transport is performed by modes. operations. rail. road. water. vehicles. .Transportation  Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. rail. operations. modes. pipeline and space.

(street lights) lights) and edge treatments (curbs. tramways. including structures (bridges. train stations). sidewalks. tunnels. including air navigational systems Mass transit systems (Commuter rail systems. terminal facilities (rail yards. landscaping) sidewalks. subways. tunnels. signaling and communications systems Canals and navigable waterways requiring continuous maintenance (dredging. (bridges.) Seaports and lighthouses Airports. electrical systems (street lighting and traffic walls). Railways. Airports. level crossings. etc. culverts. subways. retaining walls). tramways.Transportation infrastructure        Roads and highway networks. including structures. culverts. landscaping) Railways. trolleys and bus terminals) terminals) Bicycle paths and pedestrian walkways .

construction of embankments. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building. tunnels. continuous right-of-way. bridges and tunnels.Construction of roads  Road construction requires the creation of a right-of-way. and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying deforestation) material. . embankments. of pavement material. and may be required to meet standards set by law or official guidelines. permit vehicle or foot travel. The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting. overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to travel.

Types of roads in INDIA:  National highways  State highways  Major district roads  Other district roads  Village roads .

Indian highways constitute approximately 2% of the total road network of India. They span about 67. but carry nearly 40% of the total traffic.000 km.NATIONAL HIGHWAYS:  National Highways are the primary long-distance longkm.200 mi) have four lanes or more. roadways. of which about 200 km (120 mi) are designated expressways and mi) 10. .000 km (6.

. These highways provide connections to industries / places from key areas in the state making them more accessible. district headquarters within the state and connecting them with National Highways or Highways of the neighbouring states. The State Highways usually are roads which link important cities .STATE HIGHWAYS:  State Highway refers to the numbered highways which are laid and maintained by the State Government. towns .

It also connects Taluka headquarters and rural areas to District headquarters within the state.MAJOR DISTRICT ROADS:  These are important roads within a district connecting areas of production with markets and connecting these with each other or with the State Highways & National Highways. .

the road connectivity is essential for rural population. sandBecause the agricultural produce and the finished products of smallsmallscale industries in rural areas are to be moved from the producing centres to the marketing centres. .OTHER DISTRICT ROADS AND VILLAGE RAODS:  The rural roads in India forms a substantial portion of the vast Indian road network. Most of the rural roards were initially sand-roads.

EXPRESSWAYS:  The Expressways of India make up approximately 200 km (120 mi) mi) of the Indian National Highway System. System. Expressways in India: Ahmedabad ± Vadodara Expressway Delhi ± Gurgaon Expressway Mumbai ± Pune expressway Noida ± Greater Noida Expressway Delhi ± Noida direct Flyway Jaipur ± Kishangarh expressway Durgapur Expressway Belghoria Expressway Panipat Elevated Expressway .

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