of Chemical Engineering & Energy Sustainability
Faculty of Engineering Semester II, 2011-2012

Transport Process
Dr Khairuddin Sanaullah

Dr Ivy Tan Ai Wei

Course Outline
Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Momentum Transfer & Transport Properties (Wk 1): Modes of
momentum transfer, Newton‘s Law of viscosity, Types of fluid flow & Reynolds Number, Momentum Transfer in a Fluid, Continuity Equation.

Chapter 2: Momentum Equation (Navier Stoke‘s) & It‘s Applications (Wk 2 & 3):
Derivation of Navier Stoke‘s Equation, Shell momentum balance & velocity profile in laminar flow, Design equations for laminar & turbulent flow in pipes, Compressible flow of gases, Boundary-layer flow & Turbulence.

To be Continued

Page  2

R.J.. John Willey  Holland & Bragg [1995]. Fluid Flow for Chemical Engineers (2nd Ed.Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles . Transport Phenomena Fundamentals. [2002] Transport Phenomena. C..Course Outline Books  Geankoplis. Page  3 . [2003]. CRC Press  Bird. Prentice Hall  Joel Plawsky [2010]. Butterworth.).

2.ρg). Page  4 . Both are generation terms.Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Modes of Momentum Transfer • Shear • Pressure • Convection Shear & Normal Stresses (Internal Fluid Forces): Differences in shear and normal stresses across the control volume result in a flow of momentum from the higher to the lower stress. External Foreces: The most important foreces are due to the pressure gradient & gravity (body force . Shear & Normal stresses normally arise from two sources: 1. Pressure in the fluid Velocity Gradients The pressure gives rise to a normal stress component whereas velocity gradients give rise to the shear stress components and can contribute to the total normal stress.

e. Page  5 .g. The first mechanism mentioned above arises due to the fluid acceleration through the control volume and the second arises from shear stress acting on the fluid. by bulk fluid flow) (ii) By molecular transfer (i. by velocity gradients) (iii) By external forces acting on the body such as gravity or pressure (e. Pump).e.Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Modes of Momentum Transfer Convection: Momentum may flow into and out of the control volume in a variety of ways: (i) By convection (i.

e. depending on the velocity of this fluid (i. Here the discussion is limited to laminar flow.Transport Property (Momentum) Momentum Transport –Newton’s Law of Viscosity: When a fluid is flowing through a pipe or between two flat plates. Viscosity is that property of a fluid which gives rise to forces that resist the relative movement of adjacent layers in the fluid. However. Page  6 . A fluid exhibits to this stress. to flow at a velocity that increases with increasing stress.e. either of two types of flow may occur. Laminar or turbulent). i. The ideas can be clarified by a more quantitative discussion of viscosity: refer figure in the next slide. An elastic solid deforms by an amount proportional to the applied stress. a fluid when subjected to a similar applied stress will continue to deform.

Transport Property (Momentum) Page  7 .

Transport Property (Momentum) Page  8 .

Transport Property (Momentum) Page  9 .

Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Page  10 .

Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Types of Fluid Flow & Reynolds Number Laminar flow ─ the flow is characterized by smooth streamlines and highly-ordered motion. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not occur suddenly. Page  11 . Turbulent flow ─ the flow is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly-disordered motion.

which increases the friction force on the surface and the convection heat transfer rate. The turbulent boundary layer can be considered to consist of four regions: Viscous sublayer Buffer layer Overlap layer Turbulent layer The intense mixing in turbulent flow enhances heat and momentum transfer. with a sharp drop near the surface.Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Types of Fluid Flow & Reynolds Number The velocity profile in turbulent flow is much fuller than that in laminar flow. Page  12 .

Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Re  Inertia forces VLc VLc   Viscous forces   Page  13 .

Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Page  14 .

Fundamental Principles of Momentum Transfer Page  15 .

Transport Property (Mass) Page  16 .

𝐾 or 82. At one end of the pipe at point 1 the partial pressure 𝑝𝑎1 of He is 0. expressed as 8314.687×10−4 𝑚2 /𝑠. 𝑥 𝑐 𝐽𝑎𝑥 𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 = −𝐷𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎2 𝑑𝑐𝑎 1 𝑎1 𝑚3 . where c is as follows for a gas from the ideal gas law. (i) . Use SI units.𝑃𝑎 𝑘𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒.3 For steady state the flux 𝐽𝑎𝑥 in equation (4) is constant. Rearranging equation (4) and integrating. Solution Since total pressure P is constant. Calculate the flux of He at steady state if 𝐷𝑎𝑏 of the 𝐻𝑒 − 𝑁2 mixture is 0. 𝒏 𝑷 𝑷𝑽 = 𝒏𝑹𝑻 ≫ = = 𝒄 𝑽 𝑹𝑻 Where n is kg mol a + b.60 atm and at the other end 0. also 𝐷𝑎𝑏 for a gas is constant. 𝐽𝑎𝑥 = Page  17 𝐷𝑎𝑏 (𝑐𝑎1 −𝑐𝑎2 ) 𝑥2 −𝑥1 ….𝑎𝑡𝑚 10 𝑘𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. R is gas constant. T is temperature in K.20 𝑎𝑡𝑚. V is volume in 𝑚3 .2 m (20 cm) 𝑝𝑎2 = 0.Transport Property (Mass) Example: A mixture of He and 𝑁2 gas is contained in a pipe at 298 K and 1 atm total pressure which is constant throughout.057 × 3 −3 𝑚 .𝐾 and c is kg mol a + b/𝑚3 . then the concentration c is constant.

687×10−4 )(0. 𝑝𝑎 𝑉 = 𝑛𝑎 𝑅𝑇 . 𝑅𝑇 𝑉 𝐷𝑎𝑏 (𝑝𝑎1 −𝑝𝑎2 ) 𝑅𝑇(𝑥2 −𝑥1 ) 𝐽𝑎𝑥 = (0.6 atm 𝑝𝑎2 = 0. and 𝑝 𝑛 𝑐𝑎1 = 𝑎1 = 𝑎 …. 𝑝𝑎1 = 0.20) (82. from the ideal gas law.Transport Property (Mass) Also. 𝟔𝟑 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 𝒌𝒈 𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 𝒂 𝒔.20−0) = 𝟓.𝒎𝟐 Page  18 . (ii) Substituting (ii) into (i) 𝐽𝑎𝑥 = Now substitute values in this equation. Here pressures in atm are used with SI units.06×10−3 )(298)(0.2 atm.60−0.

Transport Property (Mass) Page  19 .

Transport Property (Energy) Page  20 .

Transport Property (Energy) Page  21 .

4 mm thick fiber insulating board.1 K. k=0. where the inside temperature is 352.𝐾 Solution: The thickness.7 K and the outside temperature is 297.1 𝑊/𝑚2 Page  22 .0254 𝑚.048 = 𝑇1 − 𝑇2 = (352.048 𝑚.Transport Property (Energy) Example: Calculate the heat loss per 𝑚2 of surface area for an insulating wall composed of 25.0254 105. Integrating equation (7) for T & x & substituting values.1) 𝐴 𝑥2 −𝑥1 0.7 − 297. Given: thermal conductivity of fiber 𝑊 insulating board. 𝑞 𝑘 0. 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 = 0.

Transport Properties Page  23 .

Transport Properties Page  24 .

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