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An Efficient Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocol for Urban Environments

Ojukwu Henry Matric #: WEK 080706 Supervisor: Dr. Rashid Hafeez Khokhar

Introduction Problem Background Research questions Objective The proposed protocol Simulation tool Conclusion


VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) is an emerging wireless ad hoc network technology for inter vehicular communications Existing VANET routing techniques use broadcast, position-based, geocast and cluster-based routing protocols. However, many packets are dropped, longer overhead, failure notification increases significantly, and failure to find shortest path.



dynamic topology Frequently disconnected network Sufficient energy and storage Fragmented topology


Notification (CN) Road Hazard Control Notification (RHCN)


Road Notification (CRN) Parking Availability Notification (PAN)


Announcements (SA) Real Time Video (RTV)

Problem background
The current VANETs routing protocols can be categorized into 4 classes as follows: 1. Broadcast Routing 2. Position-based Routing 3. Geocast Routing 4. Cluster-based Routing

Problem background (continue)

frequently used routing method for sharing traffic information Problem due to flooding


Problem background


In position-based routing every node knows its geographic position, e.g. by GPS, and maintains a location table with ID and geographic positions of other nodes. Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), (Karp and Kung, 2000).

Figure 2: A Relative Neighborhood Graph (RNG)

Figure 3: A scenario of GPSR failures of nodes in junction

Problem background


3.Geocast Routing Geocast routing is a location-based multicast routing to deliver the packet from a source node to all other nodes with a specified geographical region (Zone of Relevance- ZOR) (Ooi and Fisal, 2004). .
Destination Node ZOR Area Source Node Accident

Figure 6: Geocast routing mechanism in VANETs

Problem background



Cluster-based Routing

In cluster-based, a virtual block can be created among vehicles travelling on the same direction of the road. Cluster-based routing protocols can achieve good scalability for large networks, but a significant hurdle for them in fast-changing VANET systems is the delay and overhead involved in forming and maintaining these clusters.
Cluster head vehicle Normal Node

Figure 7: Multiple clusters in cluster-based routing

Research Questions

to develop efficient routing algorithm for inter-vehicle communication in Urban Environments?


to develop a routing algorithm that can use the best optimal path to send information from source to destination in a vehicular network?


To develop an efficient VANET routing protocol that can improve V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) routing efficiency.
To improve V2V routing performance in an urban environment through Junction-based routing protocol To evaluate the performance of VANET routing protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio and average delay

Proposed protocol

this research, I am going to develop and implement a Junction-based routing protocol on AOVD routing (Clifton Lin (2004) to achieve a better inter vehicular communication in urban environment Junction Based AODV is a reactive, on demand and topology based routing. It is a combination of AODV and RBVT routing. Josiane Nzouonta at el (2008). It implements all the key features of AODV routing mechanisms for route discovery and maintenance

RBVT, it uses real time vehicular traffic

Pseudo code:
ns, nD : ID of the sourceand destination path, TempPath: The best and temporarypaths from ns to nD | path |: path length RS (ni) : Road segment wh node is ni located ere : Waiting time parameter RD : Route discoverypacket RR : Route reply packet Upon receiving RD(ns, nD, TempPath) from nj 1 : if (ni nD) & (| TempPath|| path |) then 2 : path TempPath 3 : Send RR(nD, ns, Path) 4 : return 5 : end if 6 : if RD not seen before then 7 : if ( RS (ni) RS (nj )) & ( RS (ni) TempPath) then 8: Add RS (ni) to TempPath 9 : end if 10 : Set timer dis tan ce(nj, ni) 11 : else 12 : if RS (ni) RS (nj ) then 13 : cancel timer / nj is a better broadcastnode / 14 : end if 15 : end if

Upon timeout 16 : Broadcast RD(ns, nD, TempPath) Upon receiving RR(ns, nD, TempPath) from nj : 17 : if ni ns then 18 : Store Path 19 : ForwardData( Path) 20 : else 21 : forwardRR(nD, ns, Path) 22 : endif

nj J2 ni n a n b J3


n c


nj = transmitter ni =receiving node



S J2 J3 J8





J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

JiST/SWANS: Scalable Simulation for Wireless Ad hoc Networks

built atop JiST as proof of concept
component-based framework for wireless simulation runs standard Java networking applications

JiST Java in Simulation Time

converts a virtual machine into a simulation platform no new language, no new library, no new runtime merges modern language and simulation semantics combines systems-based and languages-based approaches

SWANS will not ask users to input values. It automatically reads the values from XML file. XML files are used to set the configuration runtime parameters StreetMobilityDemo.xml for vehicular ad hoc network runtime visualization and steering tool, enable visualization, you must set the useVisualizer property of the JistExperiment object to true

Simulation setup
Language: JAVA Environment: Eclipse Protocol: AODV Number of nodes: 50, 100, 150 Transmitters: 10 src & des Duration: 600 Mobility: STRAW StreatField: sufolk USA

This research proposes a class of VANET routing protocols that can improve V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) routing efficiency in urban environment We envisaged that our proposed VANET routing protocol will outperform existing approaches in terms of average delivery ratio, average delay, average path length, and overhead.


[1] David Choffnes, SWANS++ User's Guide [2] Clifton Lin (2004) AODV Routing Implementation for Scalable Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Simulation (SWANS) [3] Josiane Nzouonta, Neeraj Rajgure, Guiling Wang, (2008)Member, IEEE, and Cristian Borcea, Member, IEEE, VANET Routing on City Roads using Real-Time Vehicular Traffic Information [4] Moez Jerbi*, Sidi-Mohammed Senouci*, Rabah Meraihi* and Yacine GhamriDoudane, (2007) An Improved Vehicular Ad Hoc Routing

Protocol for City Environments

[5] Elmar Schoch, Michael Feiri, Frank Kargl, Michael Weber, Simulation of Ad Hoc Networks: ns-2 compared to JiST/SWANS

Thank you for listening Q&A