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Ozone layer  The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in
Ozone layer
The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere
are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as
the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km
above the surface (or between about 6 and 31
miles). Here it filters out photons with shorter
wavelengths (less than 320 nm) of ultraviolet
light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400 nm) from
the Sun that would be harmful to most forms
of life in large doses.
What is Ozone? Ozone Layer?  Ozone (O3) is a highly-reactive form of oxygen.  Unlike
What is Ozone? Ozone Layer?
Ozone (O3) is a highly-reactive form of oxygen.
Unlike oxygen (O2), ozone has a strong scent
and is blue in color.
Ozone exists within both the tropospheric and
stratospheric zones of the Earth’s atmosphere
In the troposphere, ground level ozone is a major
air pollutant and primary constituent of
photochemical smog
In the stratosphere, the ozone layer is an
essential protector of life on earth as it absorbs
harmful UV radiation before it reaches the earth.
Earth’s Atmosphere
Earth’s Atmosphere
Earth’s Atmosphere
 Ozone O 3 or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms.
Ozone O 3 or trioxygen, is a
triatomic molecule, consisting of
three oxygen atoms.
 Ozone in the lower atmosphere is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory
Ozone in the lower atmosphere is an air
pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory
systems of animals and will burn sensitive plants;
however, the ozone layer in the upper
atmosphere is beneficial, preventing potentially
damaging electromagnetic radiation from
reaching the Earth's surface
 Ozone is constantly produced and destroyed in a natural cycle
Ozone is constantly produced and destroyed in a
natural cycle

Images of Antarctica Taken Indicate A Slow

Recovery

Images of Antarctica Taken Indicate A Slow Recovery
Ozone depletion  The ozone depletion process begins when CFCs and other ozone-depletion
Ozone depletion
The ozone depletion process begins
when CFCs and other ozone-depletion
Ozone depletion  The ozone depletion process begins when CFCs and other ozone-depletion substances (ODS) are

substances (ODS) are emitted into the atmosphere(1). Winds efficiently mix the troposphere and evenly distribute the gases. CFCs are extremely stable, and they do not dissolve in rain. After a period of several years, ODS

molecules reach the stratosphere, about 10 kilometers above the Earth's surface (2).
molecules reach the stratosphere, about 10
kilometers above the Earth's surface (2).

Causes of Ozone

depletion Our earth will not be able to sustain life without the ozone layer. The ozone
depletion
Our earth will not be able to sustain life without
the ozone layer. The ozone layer has been
depleting at an alarming level in recent years.
The cause of ozone deletion is release of
Chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere.
Chlorofluorocarbons break down the ozone
molecules punching holes in the atmosphere. The
Chlorofluorocarbons are expelled into the
atmosphere by:
Causes of Ozone depletion Our earth will not be able to sustain life without the ozone
sources  Refrigeration  Aerosol spray cans  Air conditioning  Foam insulation  Cleaning agents
sources
Refrigeration
Aerosol spray cans
Air conditioning
Foam insulation
Cleaning agents
Packing material etc
A combination of low temperatures and elevated chlorine and bromine concentrations are responsible for the destructionwww.met.sjsu.edu/~cordero/ education/education.htm " id="pdf-obj-10-2" src="pdf-obj-10-2.jpg">
A combination of low temperatures and elevated
A combination of low temperatures and elevated

chlorine and bromine concentrations are responsible for the destruction of ozone in the upper stratosphere

thus forming a hole. (Kerr, 1987)

 Ozone-Depleting Substance(s) (ODS): a compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion
Ozone-Depleting Substance(s) (ODS): a
compound that contributes to
stratospheric ozone depletion
 ODS include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, hydrobromofluorocarbons, chlorobromomethane, and methyl
ODS include chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon
tetrachloride, hydrobromofluorocarbons,
chlorobromomethane, and methyl chloroform.
ODS are generally very stable in the troposphere
and only degrade under intense ultraviolet
light in the stratosphere. When they break down,
they release chlorine or bromine atoms, which
then deplete ozone.

Effects of Ozone

depletion
depletion
 Increase eye cataracts  Suppression of the Immune system  Increase skin cancer  Increase
Increase eye cataracts
Suppression of the Immune system
Increase skin cancer
Increase eye burning
Decrease in crop yields i,e., corn, rice,
soybean

Damage to aquatic plants essential to ocean

food webs
food webs
 Breaks down plastics and other polymers  Increased global warming -ice melts increase in ocean
Breaks down plastics and other polymers
Increased global warming
-ice melts increase in ocean volume
-ocean front property erodes
-midwest becomes desert
-Canada/siberia becomes breadbaskets
Premature aging and brown spots

Effects of UV rays on Aquatic

Ecosystems Ozone depletion causes increases in UV rays effects on aquatic ecosystems by: 1. decreasing the
Ecosystems
Ozone depletion causes increases in UV
rays effects on aquatic ecosystems by:
1. decreasing the abundance of phytoplankton –
affects the food stock for fishes and the
absorption of CO2
Effects of UV rays on Aquatic Ecosystems Ozone depletion causes increases in UV rays effects on

2. decreasing the diversity of aquatic organisms reduces food stock and also destroys several

fish and amphibians.
fish and amphibians.

Effects of UV rays on Terrestrial Ecosystems

Effects of UV rays on Terrestrial Ecosystems  Damage to plant cell DNA molecules - makes
 Damage to plant cell DNA molecules - makes plants more susceptible to pathogens and pests
Damage to plant cell DNA molecules - makes
plants more susceptible to pathogens and pests
Reductions in photosynthetic capacity in the
plant - results in slower growth and smaller leaves
Causes mutations in mammalian cells and destroys
membranes
The ozone depletion process
The ozone depletion process
The ozone depletion process
Factors that effect your exposure to the sun  Clouds, pollution block some UV  Angle
Factors that effect your
exposure to the sun
Clouds, pollution block some UV
Angle of the sun
-equator vs. N. pole
-winter vs. summer
-morning vs. noon vs. evening
Altitude
Time in the sun

Harmful effects of UV rays on people

 Skin cancer  Premature aging (photoaging) of the skin (different from normal chronological aging) 
Skin cancer
Premature aging (photoaging) of the skin
(different from normal chronological aging)
Cataracts and eye disorders (corneal sunburn
and blindness)
Immune system damage
The “Ozone Hole”
The “Ozone Hole”
 Lecture Questions 
Lecture Questions
What is the “ozone hole?” When did it first appear? How does it form? The ozone
What is the “ozone hole?” When did it first appear? How does it form?
The ozone hole is the region over
Antarctica with total ozone 220
Dobson Units or lower. (The avg
total column ozone in the
atmosphere is about 300 DU.)

Ozone hole in Sept 2005. Source: NASA

Solutions for Stratospheric Ozone  Stop producing CFCs also properly recycle old CFCs  Use safe
Solutions for
Stratospheric Ozone
Stop producing CFCs
also properly recycle old CFCs
Use safe alternatives
Educate other state governments
for environmental policies

Plants

Plants
Flowerin g  UV-B radiation can alter both the time of flowering as well as the
Flowerin
g
UV-B radiation can alter both the
time of flowering as well as the
number of flowers in certain
species.
Differences in timing of
flowering may have important
consequences for the availability
of pollinators.
The reproductive parts of plants,
such as pollen and ovules are
well shielded from solar UV-B
radiation.
Flowerin g  UV-B radiation can alter both the time of flowering as well as the
Various compounds that have been used in agriculture, dry cleaning, fire suppression, and other applications. 
Various compounds that have been used in
agriculture, dry cleaning, fire suppression, and other
applications.
Halon 10001 (iodomethane)
Halon 1001 (bromomethane)
Halon 1011 (bromochloromethane, CH 2 BrCl)
Halon 104 (carbon tetrachloride)
Halon 1103 (tribromofluoromethane)
Halon 112 (dichlorofluoromethane)
Halon 1201 (bromodifluoromethane)
Halon 1202 (dibromodifluoromethane)
Halon 1211 (bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr)
Halon 122 (dichlorodifluoromethane)
Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane, CBrF 3 )
Halon 14 (tetrafluoromethane)
Halon 242 (1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane)
Halon 2402 (dibromotetrafluoroethane)—used as a fire extinguisher
Halon 2600 (hexafluoroethane)
The "Dobson unit"  British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson
The "Dobson unit"
British meteorologist
G. M. B. Dobson
The ozone hole  The discovery of the Antarctic "ozone hole" by British Antarctic Survey scientists
The ozone hole
The discovery of the Antarctic "ozone hole"
by British Antarctic
Survey scientists Farman, Gardiner and Shanklin (
May 1985) came as a shock to the scientific
community, because the observed decline in polar
ozone was far larger than anyone had
anticipated. Satellite measurements showing
massive depletion of ozone around the south
pole were becoming available at the same time.
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, 2 O 3 → 3 O 2
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent,
2 O 3 → 3 O 2
Ozone with metals  Ozone will oxidize most metals to oxides of the metals in their
Ozone with metals
Ozone will oxidize most metals to oxides of the
metals in their highest oxidation state. For
example:
2 Cu + + 2 H 3 O + + O 3 → 2 Cu 2+ + 3 H 2 O + O 2
With nitrogen and carbon compounds
With nitrogen and carbon compounds
With nitrogen and carbon compounds Ozone also oxidizes <a href=nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide :   NO + O 3 → NO 2 + O 2  The NO 2 can be further oxidized:  NO 2 + O 3 → NO 3 + O 2 " id="pdf-obj-30-4" src="pdf-obj-30-4.jpg">

Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide:

  NO + O 3 → NO 2 + O 2  The NO 2
NO + O 3 → NO 2 + O 2
The NO 2 can be further oxidized:
NO 2 + O 3 → NO 3 + O 2
With nitrogen and carbon compounds Ozone also oxidizes <a href=nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide :   NO + O 3 → NO 2 + O 2  The NO 2 can be further oxidized:  NO 2 + O 3 → NO 3 + O 2 " id="pdf-obj-30-15" src="pdf-obj-30-15.jpg">
 Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but it oxidizes with ammonia to ammonium nitrate:
Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but
it oxidizes with ammonia to ammonium nitrate:
2 NH 3 + 4 O 3 → NH 4 NO 3 + 4 O 2 + H 2 O
Ozone reacts with carbon to form carbon
dioxide, even at room temperature:
C + 2 O 3 → CO 2 + 2 O 2
Tropospheric ozone  Low level ozone is an atmospheric pollutant
Tropospheric ozone
Low level ozone is an atmospheric pollutant
It can be used as
It can be used as
It can be used as
It can be used as
ozone is used to:  Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories etc  Disinfect water 
ozone is used to:
Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories etc
Disinfect water
Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire.
Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces
Sanitize swimming pools
Kill insects in stored grain
Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food
processing plants;
Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold
and bacteria
 Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis  Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is
Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical
synthesis
Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized
in fabric restoration
Assist in processing plastics
Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a
batch of rubber;
Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia
lamblia and Cryptosporidium in surface water
treatment plants