OSI Reference Model

ISO followed the following principles when they designed the reference model:
• Each layer of the model has its own responsibilities which should help it stand out as a distinct layer • To avoid function overlapping, there should be enough layers

• It simplifies network related operations. • It provides compatibility and standard interfaces for systems designed by different institutions. • It enables all producers to be able to produce interoperable network devices , which facilitates the standardization of networks • It lays the complex concept of communications down into simpler and smaller problems, which facilitates our understanding and operations • It separates the whole network into areas, which guarantees that changes in one area will not affect other areas and networks in each area can be updated quickly and independently

7. 2. 6. 3. 5. Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer . 4.Seven layers of OSI reference model 1.

Physical Layer .

transmission distance and physical connectors. mechanical specifications.Functions of Physical Layer: • Specifies media. . process and functional specification for activating. maintaining and shutting down physical links between terminal systems. • Specifies the power level. signaling types. • Provides electrical and electronic specifications. interface. data rate.

5 for Token ring networks .4 for Token bus networks • IEEE 802.Common standards: • IEEE 802.3 for Ethernet • IEEE 802.

24 V.35 G.Common standards for WAN: • • • • EIA/TIA-232 (RS-232) V.703 .

Physical Layer Mediums: • Coaxial cable – Thick (for large LAN) – Thin • Twisted pair cable – Shielded – Unshielded • Fiber – Single mode – Multimode – Step index – Graded index • Wireless radio .

or onto the other side of an obstruction. so that the signal can cover longer distances. • HUB .Physical layer device: • Repeater A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power.

Data Link Layer .

encapsulate the data and transmit via network .Sublayers: • Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer: – Appoint how to transmit data packet via physical line and communicate with physical layer • Logic Link Control (LLC) sublayer: – Distinguish protocol types.

Protocols: • LAN – IEEE 802.2 LLC • WAN – High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) – Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) – Frame Relay (FR) .

Data link layer address: • MAC address comprises 48 bits. • MAC address of a network device is unique globally. • Network interface card (NIC) has a fixed MAC address burnt into its ROM by the producers. • A computer may have multiple MAC addresses . • First (higher order) 24 bits indicate vendor code and the rest indicate serial number.

Network layer .

Functions: Network layer is responsible for forwarding packets from source to destination across networks. The functions of the network layer can be generalized as follows: • Provide logical addresses for transmission across networks • Routing: Forward packets from one network to another .

Devices: • Router • Layer 3 switches .

determines the next hop • Forward the frame to another router according to routing table .Router: • Receives frames from hosts residing within the same network that the router covers • Analyzing the frame header.

• ICMP – Management protocol.Protocols: • IP – Provides logical address. performs routing and encapsulation or decapsulation of packets. provides information for IP • ARP – Maps an IP address to hardware address • RARP – Maps hardware address into an IP address .

• Presented in dotted decimal notation.21 .160. for example 192.168.Network address • Known as IP address • Enables communication between devices on different networks • IP address is 4 byte long and consists of network address and host address.

Transport layer .

• Create end-to-end connections to transmit data streams • Send data segments from one host to another. flow control and ensure complete data transfer • Some of the transport layer protocols ensure data are transmitted correctly which means data are not lost or changed during transmission and the order of data packets remains the same when they are received at the end .Functions: • Encapsulate data received from application layer and decapsulate data received from network layer. perform error recovery.

Transmission Layer Protocols .

It is not sure that the data reaching at the receiving device is in the same order as the sending side.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Transmission Control Protocol is considered as a reliable protocol. . because of the problems in network or different paths packets flow to the destination. TCP is responsible for keeping the unordered segments in the right order. TCP assures a reliable delivery by resending anything that gets lost while traveling the network. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is responsible for breaking up the message (Data from application layer) into TCP Segments and reassembling them at the receiving side.

the data is retransmitted. • Reliability: The most important feature of TCP is reliable data delivery. TCP must recover from data that is damaged. lost. The receiving TCP uses the sequence numbers to rearrange the segments when they arrive out of order. known as TCP segments. If the ACK is not received within a timeout interval. • Stream Data transfer: Applications working at the Application Layer transfers a contiguous stream of bytes to the bottom layers. duplicated. The application does not have to bother to chop the byte stream data packets. It is the duty of TCP to pack this byte stream to packets. TCP assigns a sequence number to each byte transmitted. In order to provide reliability.Characteristics of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). which are passed to the IP layer for transmission to the destination device. and expects a positive acknowledgment (ACK) from the receiving TCP layer. and to eliminate duplicate segments. or delivered out of order by the Network Layer. .

TCP uses a sliding window mechanism for implementing flow control. the number of bytes it can receive (beyond the last received TCP segment) without causing serious problems in its internal buffers.Characteristics of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). . • Multiplexing: Multitasking achieved through the use of port numbers. when sending an ACK back to the sender. also indicates to the TCP at the sending device. • Flow control: Network devices operate at different data rates because of various factors like CPU and available bandwidth. It may happen a sending device to send data at a much faster rate than the receiver can handle. The number assigned to a segment is called the sequence number and this numbering is actually done at the byte level. The TCP at the receiving device.

the devices must establish a connection. which can uniquely identify a connection. The connections are made between the port numbers of the sender and the receiver devices. A TCP connection identifies the end points involved in the connection. • Full duplex: TCP provides for concurrent data streams in both directions .Characteristics of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). A socket number is a combination of IP address and port number. • Connections: Before application processes can send data by using TCP.

flow-control. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is also called as a connection less protocol. UDP provides no reliability. and it doesn't perform any of the complex functions of TCP we discuss before. or error recovery to IP. UDP only serves as a multiplexer/demultiplexer using port numbers. which is not reliable when compared with Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). . UDP is basically an application interface to IP.User Datagram Protocol (UDP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a protocol at Transport Layer. UDP is much simpler than TCP.

where the Datagrams might take different paths to the destination and experience delays in different routers. which means UDP is not a reliable protocol when compared with Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol. This may happen in large networks. .Characteristics of User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Therefore. In LAN's sequencing is not going to create problems. • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is capable of performing fundamental error checking. the data may arrive at the destination device in a different order from which it was sent. The UDP header includes a checksum field that the destination device can use to check the integrity of the data. • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) does not provide sequencing of data. Applications that require sequencing must code their own sequencing mechanism as part of the application. such as the Internet.

Remember that UDP is only concerned with speed.Application of UDP UDP is never used to send important data such as webpages.WMA) . This is the main reason why streaming media is not high quality.RM). etc. . Streaming media such as Windows Media audio files (. The data sent over the Internet is affected by collisions. Real Player (. database information. UDP is commonly used for streaming audio and video. and errors will be present. and others use UDP because it offers speed! The reason UDP is faster than TCP is because there is no form of flow control or error correction.

5) Delivery of data is guaranteed if you are using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). 4) Sequencing of data is a feature of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). which means the devices should open a connection before transmitting data and should close the connection gracefully after transmitting the data. 2) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) assure reliable delivery of data to the destination. 6) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is comparatively slow because of these extensive error checking mechanisms 7) Multiplexing and Demultiplexing is possible in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) using TCP port numbers. 3) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol provides extensive error checking mechanisms such as flow control and acknowledgment of data.Comparison between Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 1) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection oriented protocol. 8) Retransmission of lost packets is possible in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). .

2) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is efficient for broadcast/multicast transmission. . maintaining. 8) There is no retransmission of lost packets in User Datagram Protcol (UDP). 5) The delivery of data cannot be guaranteed in User Datagram protocol (UDP) . However. User Datagram protocol (UDP) it is less robust then TCP 7) Multiplexing and Demultiplexing is possible in User Datagram Protcol (UDP) using UDP port numbers.Comparison between Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 1) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is Datagram oriented protocol with no overhead for opening. 6) User Datagram protocol (UDP) is faster. 3) User Datagram protocol (UDP) has only the basic error checking mechanism using checksums. 4) There is no sequencing of data in User Datagram protocol (UDP) . simpler and more efficient than TCP. and closing a connection.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful