# Principles of Ship’s Stability

PETRAS PIKSRYS

SHIP’S STABILITY

• SHIP’S STABILITY IS THE TENDENCY OF SHIP TO ROTARE ONE WAY OR THE OTHER WHEN FORCIBLY INCLINED

WHAY IS STABILITY IS SO

IMPORTENT ?
IF THE SHIP LOST STABILITY WHAT WILL BE HAPPENED: 1. LOST OF MOBILE 2. LOST THE HUMANS LIFES 3. LOST THE SHIP

4. LOST THE CARGO
5. OIL POLLUTION

FUNDAMENTALS OF STABILITY
STABILITY is the tendency of vessel to rotate one way or the other when forcibly inclined.

IMPORTENT !!

Ship’s stability can’t catch directly
Stability can define only by calculating

HOW CALCULATING SHIP‖S STABILITY AND CARCO PLAN ?
• 1.By previous similar cargo plan. • 2.By standard cargo plan according ―STABILITY BOOKLET‖ • 3.By standard cargo plan forms • 4.By special cargo plan computer • 5.By standard PC with special cargo plan program • 6.By special or standard hand calculator

SHIP’S STABILITY CRITERIAS
• THERE ARE TWO SHIP’S STABILITY CRITERIAS: • 1 h>0 ship’s metacenter height always
positive. • 2 Zg < Zcritical
• • •

• Zg critical define according special
diagram.

h = Zm – Zg Zg defined by calculating Zm define according hydrostatic curves

+ Pn . • MAIN OBJECT OF CALCULATING TO DEFINE SHIP’S STABILITY CRITERIAS: • GM=h METACENTER HEIGHT • Zg SHIP’S GRAVITY HEIGHT • MOMENT FORMULA: • D0Z0+P1Z1+P2Z2+……..SHIP’S STABILITY CALCULATING • SHIP’S STABILITY CALCULATING BY MOMENT FORMULAS.+PnZn • Zg = • D0 + P1 +P2 + …….

SHIP’S STABILITY CALCULATING • Zg critical CURVE 6.40 6.60 6.20 6.50 6.30 Zg critical 6.10 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 .

CARGO OFFICER (ch.mate) • 2.SHIP’S MASTER .PORT CARGO OFFICER (supercargo) • 3.WHO CALCULATING SHIP’S CARGO PLAN AND STABILITY? • 1.

SHIP’S STABILITY STABILITY INITIAL OVERALL DYNAMIC .

DYNAMIC STABILITY . .STABILITY INITIAL STABILITY .The work done in heeling a ship to a given angle of heel.The stability of a ship in the range from 0 to 7/10 of inclination.A general measure of a ship's ability to resist capsizing in a given condition of loading. OVERALL STABILITY .

Ship’s underwater body did not change volume • V0=V1 V1 m L1 V0 w W1 C G C1 L .INITIAL SHIP’S STABILITY • Initial ship’s stability when ship inclinating from 7 till12 degrees.

INITIAL METACENTRIC FORMULA M=D lst lst=hsinQ M=D h sin Q m lst Qst h D Vg G C1 C .

SHIP’S STABILITY CALCULATING • Initial stability calculating by ship’s stability triangle • Calculating formula lst= h sinQ • Overall stability calculating by hydrostatic ship’s body formula lf • Dynamic stability is the area under the static stability curve • Dynamic stability also potential energy available to return the ship to the upringing .

STABILITY TRIANGLE m lst =hsin Q l f h G l Q st Vg D lf C1 C .

4 1.8 2.6 1.PHANTACORENS SHIP’S BADY FORM STABILITY ARMS lf lf 2.8 0.2 0.4 80 70 60 50 90 40 30 20 10 4000 6000 8000 10000 20000 12000 14000 16000 18000 DISPLACEMENT .

s Righting Arm.) the metacenter does not move. . the size of the ship. GM. is directly prportional to the size of the ship’s Metacentric Height.s stability. Therefore.METACENTRIC HEIGHT Metacentric height GM is calculated by subtracting KG From KM (GM=KM-KG). GM is a measure of the ship. and Sine function is almost linear(a straight line). GM is a good measure of the ship’s initial stability. With initial stability(0 – 10 deg. GZ. IMPORTENT ! Thus . KM=h.

METACENTRIC HEIGHT m W G h a a L C .

metacenter is the end of hydrostatic force when ship listing. • G.MAIN STABILITY POINTS • There are three main stability points: • m.centre of ship gravity • C.centre of ship underwater body. .

SHIP’S STABILITY • STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS m Zm h r Lo a WO ZG G Zc C .

MAIN STABILITY POINTS • • • m metacenter G center of gravity C center of buoyancy m h Wo W1 Q L1 a G C C1 LO Q .

SHIP’S STABILITY METACENTER m C0 .

SHIP’S STABILITY • METACENTRIC HEIGHT FORMULAS • h=r-a • h=zm – zG zG • h=zc .ro - .

METACENTRIC HEIGHT • METACENTRIC HEIGHT MEENS SHIP’S INITIAL STABILITY m h W G a C r0 .

m above G (b) Neutral stability – m and G in the same position ( c )Negative stability –m below G m h>O G a G m G h=O m b h<O c .Three states of static equilibrium (a) Positive stability .

POSITIVE SHIP’S STABILITY • Positive ship’s stability when m above G • h>0 h m G C1 L1 L W W1 C .

SHIP’S STABILITY CURVE POSITIVE SHIP’S STABILITY L l st h>0 h 57. 3 Q Q .

NEUTRAL SHIP’S STABILITY • Neutral ship’s stability when m and G in the same position • h=0 Gm W L C1 C .

SHIP’S STABILITY • NEUTRAL SHIP’S STABILITY lst h=0 Q .

NEGATIVE SHIP’S STABILITY • Negative ship’s stability when m below G • h<0 G L1 h C1 W W1 m C L .

NEGATIVE SHIP’S STABILITY h=-0 Mst 57.3 Qst -h .

NEUTRAL STABILITY. POSITIVE STABILITY. the ship will assume one of the following three stability conditions: 1. negative Righting Arms (called upsetting arms) are created which tend to capsize the ship. The metacenter is located above the ship’s center of gravity. As the ship is inclined. Righting Arm are created which tend to return the ship to it’s original.s center of gravity is above the metacenter. As the ship is inclined. The ship. . NEGATIVE STABILITY. vertical position. As the ship is inclined.STABILITY CONDITIONS The positions of Gravity and the Metacenter will indicate the initial stability of a ship. . The metacenter and the ship’s center of gravity are in the same location. there are no returing moment. Following damage. 2. 3.

UPSERTING MOMENT .METACENTRIC FORMULA M OVERALL • h=Zm .ZG h W0 m M=( lf —lst)D L1 G lst Vg lf L0 C1 Zm W1 C ZG M.

METACENTRIC HIGHT METACENTRIC HIGHT IS FIRST DERIVATIVE SHIP‖S STABILITY CURVE lst Mst h 57.3 Q .

METACENTER HEIGHT • L1 L C1 W1 C Metacenter height GM is a determine of ship’s stability curve m h W G METACENTER MOMENT IS UPSERTING MOMENT M= D h sin Q .

DYNAMIC STABILITY W L .

SHIP’S DYNAMIC STABILITY • DYMAMIC MOMENT M M DYNAMIC MOMENT Q .

SHIP’S STABILITY • STATIC MOMENT CURVE M Q .

SHIP’S DYNAMIC STABILITY • MAXIMUM DYNAMIC ANGLE M S2 Qdyn WHEN S1= S2 S1 Q static Q dyn Q dyn max Q .

SHIP’S DYNAMIC CURVE • SHIP’S DYNAMIC STABILITY CURVES APPLICATES IS EQUVALENT STATIC CURVES AREA Mdyn S=Mdyn Mdyn Q .

It is areas under the GZ Curve which are required for checking stability criteria which depending Upon the ship.s displacement in tonnes. Principle of conservation of energy. the potential energy in converted into Rotation energy as the ship moves towards the upright. .DYNAMIC STABILITY The dynamic stability is the area under the curve in metre-radians Multiplated by the ship. The area unde GZ curve also the potential energy available to return the Ship to the upringht.s data may be expressed in metre-degrees or metre-radians.

Mst DYNAMIC STABILITY CURVE Mst Mdin Md Q max Q .

STABILITY ELEMENTS THE LAW OF BUOYANCY THE LAW OF GRAVITY STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS LINEAR MESURMENTS IN STABILITY THE STABILITY TRIANGLE RIGHTING MOMENT STATIC STABILITY CURVE DYNAMIC STABILITY CURVE ROLLING PERIOD .

and Archimedes' principle • Comprehend static equilibrium of a floating vessel and the relationship of the centers of gravity and buoyancy to righting arms and stability • Comprehend and identify positive.Learning Objectives • Comprehend the concepts of hydrostatics. negative and neutral conditions of stability • Comprehend the effects of movements of the centers of gravity and buoyancy on vessel stability • Know how ship's stability curves are derived and comprehend their use in determining stability condition . buoyancy.

Definitions • • • • • Draft Freeboard Depth of hull Reserve buoyancy List / Trim .

.SHIP’S HULL MARKINGS At XVIII hundred one Englishman called PLIMSOL in Great Britan Parlament filds for marcks on the hull to for Safe shipping. Now thats marks called PLIMSOL MARKS.

RESERVE BUOYANCY • 2. DISPLACEMENT W L RESERVE BOYANCY DISPLACEMENT .PLIMSOL DISC • PLIMSOL DISC DIVAIDING SHIP‖S BODY IN TWO PARTS: • 1.

FREE BOARD • SHIP’S MAIN FREE BOARD MEENS SHIP’S RESERVE BUOYANCY • DRAFT • SHIP’S MAIN DRAFT MEENS SHIP’S DISPLACEMENT .

RESERVE BUOYANCY • MAINTAIN FREEBOARD – RASERVE BUOYANCY PRIOR TO PREVENT LIMITING DRAFTS ARE ASSIGNED TO EXCESIVE HULL STRESS AS A RESULT OF OVERLOADING .

FREE BOARD FREE BOARD MEENS RESERVE BUOYANCY FREE BOARD WL TF F S W WNA .

DRAFT • MAIN DRAFT MEENS SHIP‖S DISPLACEMENT W L DRAFT .

Buoyancy • Archimedes' principle • Calculations of displacement (W) • The effect of salt water and fresh water on displacement (relate to draft) [1/35 vs 1/36] .

Archimede’s principle BOYAD A body immersed (or floating) in water will buoyed ARCHIMEDE’S FORCE By a force equal to the weight of the water displaced. .

A floatating body displaces a volume of water equal in a body immersed (or floating) in water will be duoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced D=Vg D G W L C Vg . 2. Floatating objects posses the property of buoyancy.THE LAWS OF BUOYANCY 1.

SHIP’S BUOYANCY • D=V*g G L D V*g W C ARCHIMEDES FORCE .

PLIMSOL MARKS (Load lines) Markings of minimum allowable freeboard for registred cargoCarryng ships.WNA-Winter North Atlantic S W WNA .Located amidships on both the port and starboard sides the ship. different markings are used for: TF .F .TF – Tropical Fresh Water F .Fresh Water .S .T .Standard Summer .W .Winter .Tropical Water (sea water) T . Since the required minimum freeboard varies with water density and severity of weather.

Those draft marks indicate the depth of the keel (baseline) below the waterline.SHIP’S HULL MARKINGS Calculative Draft Marks Used for determining displacement and other properties of the ship for stability and damage control. Roman numerals in height 2. Arabic numerals in height . TWO POSIBLE MARKING SYSTEMS: 1.

3048 m XVII XVI XV XIV XIII .DRAFT IN FEETS • 1 ft = 0.

3048 m 44 42 40 38 36 .DRAFT IN METRES • 1 ft = 0.

SHIP’S HULL MARKINGS Navigational Draft Marks Ship’s operational drafts. . These draft marks include the depth of any projections below the keel of the ship. Limiting Draft Marks Limiting drafts are assigned to maintain reserve buoyancy (freeboard) prior to damage. and to prevent excessive hull stresses as a result of overloading.

MOMENT The endency of a force to produce a rotation about a pivot point. The magnitude of the force depends on the ship’s total weight.DISPLACEMENT The weight of the volume of water that is displaced by the underwater portion of the hull is equal to the weight of the ships GRAVITY The force of gravity acts vertically downward through the ship’s center Of gravity. . This works like a torque wrench acting on a bolt.

Weight cargo .DISPLACEMENT • • • • • D=DLS + DS + DC D – Displacement DLS – Weight light ship DS .Weight supply DC .

GRAVITY • THE FORCE OF GRAVITY ACTS VERTICALY DOWNWARD THROUGHT THE SHIP‖S CENTER OF GRAVITY W G D= DL+DC+DS L .

SHIP’S STABILITY • METACENTER MOMENT =UPSERTING MOMENT M = D h sin O .

RIGHTING MOMENT • THE TENDENY OF A FORCE TO PRODUCE A ROTATION ABOUT A PIVOT POINT h m M=Dh D Vg sinQ G C1 C0 .

GRAVITY • The force of gravity acts vertically downward throught the ship’s center of gravity. • D=Vg W D G C L Vg .

Application of following terms to overall stability (a)Couple (b)Righting arm (GZ) (c)Righting moment (RM) .RM= GZ (W) (d)Upsertting moment .

a rotation is developed Righting arm. Since the forces of buoyancy and gravity are equal and act along parallel lines. The distance between center of gravity G and Metacener M . The righting moment is equal to the ship’s Righting arm multiplied by the ship’s displacement. but in opposite directions.DEFINITIONS Couple. The distance between the forces of buoyancy and gravity is know as the ship’s righting arm. Righting moment. Metacentric height. .

The development of the static stability curve from the cross curves of stability Foctors involed: .C is always at the geometric center of the volume of the underwater hull .the shape of the underwater hull changes as heeling angle changes .G does not change position as heeling angle changes .

find (a) Maximum rigting arm (GZ) GZ=h (b) Angle of heel where maximum GZ arm ocurs l static maximum (c) Range of critical stability Q critical .SHIP’S STABILITY CURVE Using curves.

SHIP’S STABILITY • STABILITY CURVES ELEMENTS lst l static max h 57.3 Q Q critical .

Maximum Righting Arm: The angle of inclination where the maximum Righting Arm occurs 3. Danger Angle:One half the angle of the maximum Righting Arms.Much information can be obtained from this curve. 2.STATIC STABILITY CURVE When a ship is inclined through all angles of heel. . the statical stability curve is produced. including: 1.and the righting arm for each angle is measured. Till to approximately 74 dg. Range of Stability: This ship will generate Righting Arms when inclined from 0 deg. This curve is a “snapshot‖of the ship’s stability at that particular loading condition.

as well as other properties of the ship.Moment to Trim One Inch (MT1). drafting per 1 cm . .DRAFT DIAGRAM AND FUNCTIONS OF FORM The Draft Diagram is a nomogram located in Section II(a) of the Damage Control Book. . .Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy(LCB) -Displacement (D) -VOLUME V m -Weight. including: .Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) . It is used for determining the ship’s displacement.Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI).Height of Metacenter (KM).

5 26 25.8 7.2 4.5 23 22.8 18000 17000 16000 15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 17900 16860 15845 14840 13840 12820 11820 10820 9820 19900 18800 17600 16600 15500 15000 14600 14400 14200 26.2 7.0 5.4 6.5 24 23.5 Tm 4.8 6.4 9000 8820 14000 22 Dt Vm3 M t/cm P t/cm .2 6.DRAFT NOMOGRAM 8.5 25 24.6 5.

HYDROSTATIC CURVES • SHIP’S FLOATING BODY FUNCTIONS CAN CALCULATING BY HYDROSTATIC CURVES. • ARGUMENT FOR CALCULATING IS SHIP’S DRAFT • FUNCTIONS FOR CALCULATING: • a) DISPLACEMENT D • b) VOLUME V • c) FLOATING CENTER Xf • d) BOYAD CENTER XC Zc • e METACENTER RADIUS r f) SQUERE OF WATERLINE S . THIS CURVES IS FUNCTIONS FLOATING SHIP’S BODY STABILITY AND UNDERSEA SHIP’S BODY CAPITICY.

HYDROSTATIC CURVES • SHIP’S FLOATING BODY FUNCTION CURVES DRAFT Zc Xf r V D S FUNCTIONS .

COUPLE M=D h sin Q h G D m Q st l Vg C1 C .

PLIMSOL DISC TF F T S W WNA .

LIST Q WO L1 Q Lo W1 .

ROLLING PERIOD • SHIP‖S STABILITY AND ROLLING PERIOD T= CB h W L .

The formula Between ship. for all lagers ships Lloyd’s Register of shipping and the 1991 HMSO Code of Practice for Ro-Ro ships use c= 0. c . Note: the constanta c dependenced from ship’s displacements.73 – when all liquids on board amout 5% HOWEVER. c=0.75 – when liquids on board 10% c=0.s stability and rolling : T = c*B/sqr GM In this formula: T – rolling period in sec.78 .when the ship has on board amout 20 % c=0.88 – when ship is empty or ballast. There are the followings meanings: c=0.ROLLING PERIOD The rolling period of the ship’s dependenced from ship’s stability.7 .constanta B – the ship’s beam to outside of hull.

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
m0

h0
G0

C0

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
h0 < h1

m0
m1

h1
G0
G1 C1 C0 p

h0

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
h0 >h1

h1
P1

m0

m1

P2

G1
G0 C0

h0

C1

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • MOVING CARGO m0 h0 G0 C0 STABILITY REFERENCES POINTS BEFORE MOVING .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • MOVING CARGO P1 m0 P2 h0 G0 C0 STABILITY REFERENCES POINTS BEFORE MOVING DOWN .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • MOVING CARGO m0 h1 > h0 h0 G0 G1 P1 C0 P2 h1 STABILITY REFERENCES POINTS AFTER MOVING DOWN .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • MOVING CARGO m0 h0 G0 C0 P1 P2 STABILITY REFERENCES POINTS BEFORE MOVING UPWARD .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS h0 > h1 • MOVING CARGO P1 P2 m0 G1 G0 C0 h0 h1 STABILITY REFERENCES POINTS AFTER MOVING UPVARD .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • LOADING CARGO m h0 W0 G0 h1 G1 L0 C0 .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • FREE LIQUID AREA W0 G0 C0 P0 L0 .

M Moment liquid SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS M Moment upserting • FREE LIQUID AREA m G0 L1 L0 Q W0 W1 C0 C1 P1 P1 .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • FREE LIQUID AREA Y1 Q1 M1 P1 M2 Y2 P2 M2>M1 Q2>Q1 .

Mcargo SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS • HANGING CARGO Q lz W0 L1 L0 P W1 Mcargo= Pcargo lz sin Q .

TRIM Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF W1 W L TAF TF L1 .

m 9 8 7 6 TAf SHIP’S TRIM DIAGRAM 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tf 9 m .

SHIP’S TRIM DIAGRAM Dt 4000 3600 3200 2800 2400 1600 1200 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 1 2 3 Xc m .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS TRIM Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF W1 W lx TAF P TF L L1 SHIP’S TRIM BEFORE SHIFTING CARGO Mdif DH .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS TRIM Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF d= P lx L W1 W DH L TAF1 TAF0 P lx P TF0 L1 TF1 d L SHIP’S TRIM AFTER SHIFTING CARGO .

LIST Q WO L1 Q Lo W1 .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS LIST P WO Lo SHIP’S LIST BEFORE SHIFTING CARGO .

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS LIST P ly P L1 WO W1 Q Lo tg Q = P ly Dh SHIP’S LIST AFTER SHIFTING CARGO .