You are on page 1of 45

Wheres the Math?

Dr. Janet H. Caldwell Rowan University caldwell@rowan.edu

Models that Make Math Meaningful

Wheres the Math?


Fraction Models Models for Multiplication Models for Division Decimals, Ratio & Percent

Sketch what you first see


One-half Two-thirds Three-fourths Three-fifths One-sixth Two and a quarter Two and two-thirds

Sketch what you first see


One-half Two-thirds Three-fourths

Sketch what you first see


Three-fifths One-sixth

Sketch what you first see


Two and a quarter Two and two-thirds

What fraction is blue?

Part of a Set 3 of 13 pieces

Part of an Area 6 of 36 triangles

Part of an Area 1 of 6 hexagons

Part of an area Blue is 1/3 of largest piece

Fraction Models Part of a Whole


Set Area or region Circles Clocks Rectangles Pattern blocks Strips Length Number line Ruler

Other Meanings for Fractions


Part-whole
Values - eg, money

Division Ratio Rate Wins Losses

Web Resources
Fraction model applet Equivalent fractions Fraction game

Playing Fraction Tracks

Make a triangle that is:


green and red

1/3 red and 2/3 green

Understanding is the key to remembering what is learned and being able to use it flexibly.
- Hiebert, in Lester & Charles, Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving, 2004.

Computational Fluency

7 x 28

Using Base Ten Blocks to Multiply


24 x3 12 60 72

Make an Array
24 x3 12 60 72

A Harder Problem
24 x 13 12 60 40 200 312

Decimals
3 x 0.24
0.12 + 0.60 = 0.72

0.3 x 0.6

Draw a picture that shows

2 3 3 4

Array
2 of 3 rows

3 of 4 in each row

shaded area 2 rows of 3 6 1 total area 3 rows of 4 12 2

Mixed Numbers, too!


8x3
8 x 3 = 24
3 24 8x 6 4 4

24 + 6 = 30

1 2/3 x 2 = ?
6 4

10

5 9 45 9 3 x 3 3 3 4 12 12 4

Algebra
x
x + 1

(x + 1) (x + 2) = x2 + 2x + x + 2
= x2 + 3x + 2

Sidetrip to Geometry Area


Counting squares on a grid Whats the area?
6 4

Break it up
Yellow (L) = x 4 = 2 Blue = 2 x 3 = 6 Yellow (R) = x 2 = 1 Orange = x 2 = 1 Red = x 4 = 2 2+6+1+1+2 = 12 square units
6

Make a Rectangle
Area of rectangle = 3 x 6 = 18 squares Areas of triangles UL: x 4 = 2 UR: x 2 = 1 LL: x 4 = 2 Area of pentagon LR: x 2 = 1 = 18 6 = 12 sq. Total = 6 squares
6 4 2

So?
Find the area of a triangle with base 10 and height 5.
5 10

Area = (10 x 5) / 2 = 25 sq. units

Fraction Division
What is the whole if half is 1? Measurement model
Need two pieces of 1 2 = 1 x 2 size 1, so find 1 x 2 = 3

=3

How many 1/2s are there in 1?


How many cakes can you make with 1 cups of sugar if each cake requires cup?
Partitive Model (Sharing)
1 =3

Whats the length?


The area of a field is 1 square miles. Its width is mile.
Missing Factor Model

1/2

A=1

x ___ = 1

Decimals

Percents
A group of students has $60 to spend on dinner. They know that the total cost, after adding tax and tip, will be 25% more than the food prices shown on the menu. How much can they spend on the food so that the total cost will be $60?

$60

Cost of Food

Tax and Tip

Percent Bar
A group of students has $60 to spend on dinner. They know that the total cost, after adding tax and tip, will be 25% more than the food prices shown on the menu. How much can they spend on the food so that the total cost will be $60?

$60

100%

125%

Another Approach
A group of students has $60 to spend on dinner. They know that the total cost, after adding tax and tip, will be 25% more than the food prices shown on the menu. How much can they spend on the food so that the total cost will be $60?

Dinner

$40

$4

$8

$48

Tax & tip


Total

$10
$50

$1
$5

$2
$10

$12
$60

More on Percent
Josie needs $40 for a new sweater. She has $24. What percent does she have of what she needs?
$24

$40

?%

100%

Using a Table
Josie needs $40 for a new sweater. She has $24. What percent does she have of what she needs?
Needs Has Percent $40 $4 10% $40 $20 50% $40 $24 60%

Still more percent


Jamal has 48% of his homework done. He has done 12 problems. How many problems did the teacher assign?
12 ?

48%

100%

Still more percent


Jamal has 48% of his homework done. He has done 12 problems. How many problems did the teacher assign?
% done 48% 48% 48%

Total # done

100 48

50 24

25 12

SO?
Pictures Manipulatives Oral language Written symbols Tables Graphs Relevant situations Which model(s) are most meaningful for my students? Which models promote more powerful thinking? In what order should I use selected models?

Wheres the Math?


Models help students explore concepts and build understanding Models provide a context for students to solve problems and explain reasoning Models provide opportunities for students to generalize conceptual understanding