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Chapter 13 Pg. 372-402

Goal

To learn about the behavior of gases both on molecular and macroscopic levels.

**General Characteristics of Gases
**

Uniformly fills any container. Mixes completely with any other gas. Exerts pressure on its surroundings.

**Force = mass X acceleration
**

To understand pressure, one has to understand force. Weight = your mass X acceleration due to gravity Acceleration due Mr. Yoos· force to gravity F = 87 kg X 9.8 m/s2 F = 852.6 kg m /s2 = 850 N

**Pressure = Force / Area
**

If Mr. Yoos weighs 850 N on earth, and I am standing on a scale that is 0.5m X 0.5m or 0.25m2 , the pressure I exert is «

F 850kgm / s P! ! 2 A 0.25m

2

3400kg 3400 N ! 0r 2 2 ms m

Let·s Say Mr. The force is 850 N. What is the pressure? 1N/m2 = 1 Pascal or 1 Pa . Yoos is Wearing High Heels Total area for the heels = 1X10-4m2.

1 atm = 101.Air Exerts Pressure The ´standard atmosphereµ is equal to 101.325 Pa 1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg .325 Pa.

Barometer .

.

.the pressure exerted by a gas is inversely proportional to the volume the gas occupies if the temperature remains constant.The Gas Laws Boyle·s Law.

9 atm at constant temperature? .3 atm occupies a volume of 27 L. What volume will the gas occupy if the pressure is increased to 3.Boyle·s Law Example: A gas which has a pressure of 1.

Boyle·s Law .

the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in Kelvins) of the gas.Charles·s Law At constant pressure. .

Charles·s Law .

00C and 1.00 atm? . Example: A gas at 30.842 L.00C and 1. What volume will the gas occupy at 60.00 atm occupies a volume of 0.

.Avogadro·s Law For a gas at constant temperature and pressure the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.

(at constant T. the volume will also triple. . P) If you triple the number of moles of gas (at constant temperature and pressure).

If we add an additional 1.00 atm pressure contains 0. Example: A 5.00C and 2.20 L sample at 18. what will the total volume occupied by the gas be? .27 moles of the gas at the same temperature and pressure.436 moles of a gas.

The Ideal Gas Law P in atm V in L n in moles T in Kelvins R= .

.

2. This relationship assumes that the gas behaves ideally (conditions of low pressure and high temperature). .Keep in Mind: 1. Correction factors must be added under certain conditions. Always list what you are given. You may be able to simplify the problem. Keep track of dimensions! Many ideal gas law problems are best solved using DA. 3.

What pressure does the gas exert? .614 moles of a gas at 12.00C occupies a volume of 12. Example: A sample containing 0.9 L.

0 L.848 atm and 4. Example: A sample of methane gas (CH4) at 0.0oC? .52 atm and the temperature is increased to 11.0oC occupies a volume of 7. What volume will the gas occupy if the pressure is increased to 1.

Example: How many moles of a gas at 104oC would occupy a volume of 6.8 L at a pressure of 270 mmHg? .

The problem solving strategy that we have used throughout is still the same. you want to relate moles of reactants to moles of products. The ideal gas law will allow you to use the following strategy: .Gas Stoichiometry Many gas law problems involve calculating the volume of a gas produced by the reaction of volume of other gases. That is.

Standard Temperature and Pressure ´STPµ P= T= The molar volume of an ideal gas is _________ at STP .

volume of reactants (apply the ideal gas law) moles of reactants (apply stoichiometry) moles of products (apply ideal gas law) volume of products .

what is the volume of the balloon). after all of the dry ice has sublimed? .0 g of dry ice (CO2(s)) is put into a balloon and allowed to sublime according to the following equation: CO2 (s) CO2 (g) How big will the balloon be (ie.04 atm. at 22.0oC and 1. Example: A sample containing 15.

oC? .500 L of H2 (g) are reacted with 0.600 L of O2 (g) at STP according to the equation 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (g) What volume will the H2O occupy at 1.00 atm and 350. Example: 0.

Density and Molar Mass PV = nRT P = nRT/V .

40 g/L. .75 atm has a density of 3. Calculate the molar mass (MM) of the gas.0oC and 1. Example: A gas at 34.

Because RT/V will be the same for each of the different gases in the same container. the total pressure is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone.Dalton·s Law of Partial Pressures For a mixture of gases in a container. .

Example: A volume of 2.5 L of N2 at STP. was added to a vessel that contained 4. What is the total pressure and partial pressure of each gas at STP after the He is added? .0 L of He at 46oC.2 atm pressure. and 1.

The Production of Oxygen by Thermal Decomposition of KCIO3 .

The mole fraction of a particular component is a mixture of ideal gases is directly related to its partial pressure .Mole Fraction The ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture.

The collisions of the particles with the walls of the container are the cause of the pressure exerted by the gas.Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 1. The volume of the individual particles of a gas can be assumed to be negligible. The particles are assumed to exert no forces on each other 4. . The particles are in constant motion. 2. The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is assumed to be directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. 3.

Temperature is a Measure of the Average Kinetic Energy of a Gas .

3145 kg m2/s2 / Kmol T = temp in Kelvins M = mass of a mole of the gas in Kilograms .Root Mean Square Velocity The expression dealing with the average velocity of gas particles is called the root mean square velocity.3145 J/K mol = 8. Where R = 8.

Example: Calculate the root mean square velocity for the atoms in a sample of oxygen gas at a.0oC b. 0.oC . 300.

.relates to the passage of a gas through an orifice into an evacuated chamber.Effusion or Diffusion? Diffusion.term used to describe the mixing of gases. Effusion.

Rate of effusion 2 ! Rate of effusion1 rms 2 rms1 ! M1 M2 .Graham·s Law of Effusion The higher the molar mass of the gas. the slower the rate of effusion through a small orifice.

Example: How many times faster than He would NO2 gas effuse? .

With Regard to Diffusion The important idea is that even though gases travel very rapidly (hundreds of meters per second). so mixing is relatively slow. The basic structure of Graham·s Law holds. Distance traveled2 ! Distance traveled1 M1 M2 . their motions are in all directions.

9% Ar. The ozone layer is especially reactive to UV radiation.Chemistry in the Atmosphere The atmosphere is composed of 78% N2. . Air pollution is a direct result of such processes. X-rays. 21% O2. Upper atmospheric chemistry is largely affected by UV.03% CO2 along with trace gases. 0. Manufacturing and other processes of our modern society affect the chemistry of our atmosphere. The composition of the atmosphere varies as a function of distance from the earth·s surface. and cosmic radiation emanating from space. and 0. Heavier molecules tend to be near the surface due to gravity.

2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) 3. and other respiratory conditions. N2 (g) + O2 (g) + heat 2NO (g) 2.Air Pollution Photochemical smog reactions: 1. NO2 (g) + radiant energy NO (g) + O (g) 4. . O (g) + O2 (g) O3 (g) Ozone Ozone causes lung and eye irritation and can be dangerous for people with asthma. emphysema.

Photochemical Smog .

Ozone Layer .

A Schematic Diagram of the Process for Scrubbing Sulfur Dioxide from Stack Gases in Power Plants .

SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) . 2NO2 (g) + H2O (l) HNO2 (aq) + HNO3 (aq) 2. 2SO2 (g) + O2(g) 2SO3 (g) 3.Acid Rain 1.

Acid Rain .

Acid Rain .

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