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Pokok Bahasa IV BIOENERGETIKA

FOTOSINTESIS
Maria Dwi BJ

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Photosyinthesis
An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO2) requiring process that uses LIGHT ENERGY (photons) and water (H2O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose)  The equation for photosynthesis shows that these compounds are used to produce glucose : 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

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Where does photosynthesis take place?? Autotroph (self-producers) :

Eukariota : 1. Plants 2. Cells of photosynthetic algae (ganggang multiseluler, mis. Rumput laut 3. Protista uniseluler, mis. Euglena Prokariota : 4. Sianobakteri 5. Prokariota fotosintetik, mis. Bakteri sulfur

Leaves : - stoma - mesophyll cells

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Green sulfur bacteria


     

Strict anaerobes, Very oxygen sensitive. Energy source. Light. Carbon source. always CO2 (photoautotrophs). Electron donor. Sulfide to sulfur and sulfate. Often excretes sulfur globules to the outside. Ecology. Outcompeted in high light intensity, very efficient at low light intensity, found in bottom of lake sediments, lower layers of mixed microbial mats. Example: Chlorobium species.
Chlorobium sp.

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Stomata (stoma) :
Pores in a plants through which gases (CO2 and O2) are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere

CO2 O2

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Chloroplast structure


The photograph below is an Elodea leaf X 400. Individual cells are clearly visible. The tiny green structures within the cells are chloroplasts.

chloroplast

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Thylakoid are membranous disk-like structures that are stacked together in larger structures that resemble stacks of coins. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments are located in the membranes of the thylakoids. The thylakoid membranes also contain Granum the electron transport system.
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CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE

double membrane bound  structure - inner and outer membrane each with distinct functions  grana capture light and electron energizing  stroma chemical reactions that form food storage molecules


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Absorption of Chlorophyl

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Tahapan Reaksi Fotosintesis :


1.

2.

Reaksi Terang/Light Reaction/Light Dependent Reaction - Mengubah energi matahari (foton) menjadi energi kimiawi (ATP dan NADPH) Siklus Calvin/Light Independent Reaction/Carbon Fixation Menggunakan energi (ATP dan NADPH) dari reaksi terang untuk menghasilkan gula (glucose)
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2 Sets of Photosynthesis Reactions :


Light-Dependent Reactions  The light-dependent reactions require light.  These reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane.  They produce ATP and NADPH, which are needed to produce glucose in the light-independent reactions  Notice how the equation for photosynthesis relates to the reactions shown in the diagram below. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Light-Independent Reactions  Light-independent reactions occur in stroma of the chloroplast in light or dark conditions.  They function to reduce CO2 to glucose.

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Photosystems
The closely packed pigment molecules and the reaction center form a unit referred to as an antenna complex.  Photons of light that are picked up by any of the pigment molecules in the antenna pass their energy to nearby pigment molecules until it is eventually passed to a special molecule of chlorophyll a called the reaction center.  The reaction center molecule becomes ionized and it loses its electron to an electron acceptor. This electron will need to be replaced.  The antenna, the reaction center, and the electron transport molecules make up a photosystem. There are two kinds of photosystems in eucaryotes. The reaction center chlorophyll molecule of photosystem I absorbs 700 nm light best and is therefore called P700. The reaction center of photosystem II absorbs 680 nm light best and is called P680.  Photosystem I evolved very early; photosystem II evolved later. 3/5/2012 maria/biosel 18


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1. Light Reaction/Reaksi Terang (Aliran Elektron)


Berlangsung di membran tilakoid  Meliputi 2 jalur aliran elektron : Aliran elektron siklik dan non siklik


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Aliran elektron siklik :


Berlangsung di membran tilakoid  Hanya melibatkan Fotosistem I  Pusat reaksi P700 klorofil a  Menggunakan Rantai Transpor Elektron  Menghasilkan ATP ADP + P ATP


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Aliran elektron non siklik :


Berlangsung di membran tilakoid  Melibatkan Fotosistem I (PS I) dan Fotosistem II (PS II)  Pusat reaksi P680 (PS II) klorofil a  Pusat reaksi P700 (PS I) klorofil a  Menggunakan rantai transpor elektron  Menghasilkan O2, ATP dan NADPH

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Kuis :
Jelaskan Fotosistem I dan II?  Jelaskan reaksi fotosintesis yang tidak bergantung cahaya?


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