MC233

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

GD&T
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Geometric dimensioning and Tolerancing Uses special drawing symbols to specify geometric characteristics as well as dimensional requirements on engineering drawings Used to more closely control how much a feature can deviate from the perfect geometry Use GD&T for control only when needed for fit and function

and datum reference .if required. . specified geometric tolerance.Feature Control Frame  Is a rectangular “box” with compartments that enclose the geometric characteristic symbol.

Simple feature control frame .

circularity When a feature is at its maximum material condition (largest size for external features like shafts. flatness.Form Tolerances    Examples: straightness. smallest size for internal features like holes) the form would have to be perfect to fit So may need tighter control – GD&T .

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.Form Tolerances   Control Straightness. but are applicable to single (individual) features or elements of single features. Do not relate to datums. and cylindricity. flatness. circularity.

Specifies a tolerance zone within which the considered element or axis must lie.Straightness   is where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line. .Form Tolerances .

.Straightness tolerance  Specifies a tolerance zone within which an axis or all points of the considered element must lie.

Form Tolerances . Specifies a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which the surface must lie.Flatness   is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane. .

Flatness tolerance  specifies a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which the surface must lie. .

Circularity    (roundness) is a condition where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from the axis.Form Tolerances . Specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric circles within which each circular element of the surface must lie. .

Roundness (circularity) tolerance  specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric circles within which each circular element of the surface must lie. .

Specifies a uniform boundary along the true profile within which the elements of the surface must lie. and other curved lines. . arcs.Profile Control    is the tolerance to be maintained on the outline of an object in a given plane (two-dimensional figure). Elements are straight lines.

Profile Tolerance (example) .

cylinder. or other geometric form that is assumed to be exact . line. such as a point.Datum surface and features   Datum surfaces and datum features are used as references to control other features on the part Datum features should be actual features on the part. plane.

Tolerances for related features  Parallelism. and angularity are tolerances that relate the orientation of one feature to another . perpendicularity.

.05 apart which are parallel to datum plane A.Parallelism Plane surface (example)   Specified for surface feature by two planes or lines parallel to a datum plane or axis The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.

1 apart and parallel to datum B.Parallelism cylindrical feature (example)  Feature axis must lie between two planes 0. .

Perpendicularity (example)  Surface must lie between two parallel lines 0. .15 apart and perpendicular to datum axis A.

.Angularity (example)  Surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.3 apart which are inclined at 45 degrees.

.1 apart.Angularity (example)  The feature axis must lie between two parallel planes 0.

or angle of a feature Closed within a box These dimensions are exact values from which variations are defined through a feature control frame . size. shape.Basic Dimensions    Are the theoretically exact. untoleranced dimensions that specify the perfect location.

Positional tolerance  Establishes a tolerance zone around the perfect location for a feature .

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Two types: Circular runout.Runout Tolerance   is a composite tolerance used to control the functional relationship of one or more features of a part to a datum axis. Total runout .

.Circular Runout  Controls circular elements of a surface.

each circular element of these surfaces must be within the specified runout tolerance when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis Controls circularity and concentricity .Circular Runout   At any measuring position.

Circular Runout (example) .

Total Runout   Entire surface must lie within the specified tolerance zone when the part is rotated 360 degrees. taper. and profile of a surface. . straightness. coaxiality. Used to control cumulative variations of circularity. angularity.

Total Runout (example) .

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