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Failure by wear

Failure Analysis seminar Submitted By :Samar Chauhan(M.E.(Materials Technology) sem II Roll no 248) Submited To:Dr Vandana Rao (Asst.Prof) Materials and Metallurgy Department Faculty of Technology, M.S University ,Vadodara

What we understand by failure?




Does failure mean there is always a fracture in the component?

What is wear?
Wear is usually defined as the undesired removal of material from contacting surface by mechanical action  enormously expensive problem  usually foreseeable type of deterioration


Important points when analyzing wear failures


when studying for failure where wear is suspected its very important to have good understanding of the history of operation of the part of mechanism involved.  other parts/materials also need to be inspected they must be studied also.


Classification of Wear -I
Because of the definition of wear is very broad, there are various ways by which it can be classified. Many times it can be classified under corrosion also. ABRASIVE WEAR EROSIVE WEAR GRINDING WEAR GOUGING WEAR  ADHESIVE WEAR  FRETING WEAR


Classification of Wear II
CONTACT STRESS FATIGUE  SUBSURFACE ORIGIN  SURFACE-ORIGIN  SUBCASE ORIGIN  CAVITATION FATIGUE


Abrasive Wear
 

cutting is the keyword occurs when hard particles suspended in a fluid or projection from one surface roll or slide under pressure against another surface as shown in figure, thereby cutting the other surface in an undesired manner.its same like in machining except that its desired in machining. microscopic distortion of the surface and heat is generated.

Three basic ways wear can be dealt with


 

Increase surface hardness: may not suitable for cutting tools Remove foreign particles:remove hard particles coming in contact (oil,water air filters in various types of mechanisms) Replace worn parts:simplest and most common solutions(inaccessible labor cost or downtime unavailable of parts in emergency).

Characteristics of major categories of Abrasive Wear

   

Erosive Wear : i)general removal of soft surface coatings or material e.g in fan and propeller bodies the paint on the rear of concave blades

    

ii) Grooving or chanelling of the material where fluid is involved fluid flows faster or is changed in direction at certain locations pumps or impellers in which vanes push the particles-laden fluid into passages inside of pipes/tubes are often damaged at curves sudden /sharp curves should be avoided instead gentle curves.

iii) Rounding of corners:  can change the shape of impellers turbine blades and vanes  leads to impaired operating efficiency


Grinding Wear:


caused by particles under high stress that cut or plow many small grooves at relatively low speed across a metal surface. low speed operation is characteristic of tillage tools (plows cultivators rakes etc) and other ground contact parts like bull-dozer track shoes cutting edges of blades. high stress locations like points edges

Grinding wear :solutions


        

increase of hardness is one solution Hard facing by welding ,metal spraying alloy carbides such as W,Ti,Cr,Mo,V etc oxides ,borides or nitrides are also used carburising nitriding,chromizing bornozing are also employed evaluation of best type of coatin or diffusion process is very difficult even simulation test can be misleading for e.g sand dry and sand in wet has different grinding action controlled grinding can be taken advantage for e.g in certain cutting tools like plowsharescan be self hardening.

Gouging wear:


 

caused by extremely high stress battering or impact that tends to cut or gouge large wear fragments from the surface of metal. this happens in earthmoving mining quarrying ,oilwell drilling,steelmaking,cement and clay product manufacture,railroading,dredging and lumbering etc. when hard abrasive products are crushed,battered,or pounded under extremely high stress rapid deterioration of contact surface can be expected. replaceable parts e.g. teeth for backhoe buckets more resistant material (Hadfield Mn Steel)(C 1.1 to 1.4 % and Mn 11 to 14 %)

Thank You

References
1)Understanding How Components Fail? Donald J. Wulpy 2)http://www.tms.org/Students/Winners/ Davidson/Davidson.html