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SERVICES

LITERATURE STUDY AC S Y S T E M S A N D E L E V A T O R S

AISHWARYA SALIMATH 1RV09AT006 V SEM, SEC A RVCA

AC SYSTEMS
TYPES OF AC S AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET 1. WINDOW AIR CONDITIONERS Most common types of AC s. Widely used in residences. Available in 1, 1.5, 2 TR. ADVANTAGES Window AC s are cheaper than most AC s. They are easy to maintain and install. They are energy efficient, hence economical. DISADVANTAGES: They are noisy. They are aesthetically not pleasing. Not used in large scale buildings.

2. VRV AC S Variable Refrigerant Volume is an AC system for commercial building application with sophisticated individual zone control. This system contains a number of AHU units(upto 48) connected to external condensing unit. They are extremely efficient, reliable, energy saving ways to heat and cool all types of buildings with minimum installation time or disruption. VRV air conditions each room individually. Precise level control is possible that reacts to exact conditions in each room.

3. AHU
It is integrated piece of equipment consisting of fans, heating coils, air control dampers, filters and silencers. The purpose of this equipment is to collect and mix outdoor with that returning from the building space. The mixture is then heated or cooled after which it is released in to the building space through ducts

4. PACKAGED AC S All important components are enclosed in a single casing, which is assembled at the factory. Thus, the compressor, AHU, cooling coil, air filter are all in one casing. ADVANTAGES: Low installation cost. Low power consumption. Less plant room space required.

DISADVANTAGES: Precise control of room conditions is not possible. Operating sound levels can be high. Variations in room temperature due to on/off cycles. Average life span of about 10 years.

SPLIT AC UNIT In split AC, the condenser and compressor are separated from the evaporator and kept outside the room. The evaporator is kept inside the room, usually with the panel. This is the part which cools the air. Compressor unit an be placed on the faade of the building or on the roof. SPLIT AC v/s WINDOW TYPE AC Split AC occupies less space than window AC. Easier installation than window type. Noise level lower than window type. Multiple indoor units possible. Efficiency is roughly same as window AC s.

PLANT ROOM
A Plant room typically houses compressors, condensors, driving motors,w ater pumps, chillers and electric apnels. Rule of thumb: 20sq.m + 2.7sq. M for every 100sq. M to be conditioned, Min. clearance of height- 3.6sq. M

AREA OF PLANT ROOM


Location: Should be as close as possible to the space to be conditioned. Should have a provision to draw fresh air( a room with at least one external wall will be an ideal space). Should have an independent access. Noise is a factor- reduce intensity of vibrations by keeping on a resilient base.

CAPACITY 10-20 TR 20-40 TR 70 TR

AREA 10 m sq. 45 m sq. 100 m sq.

FIRE FIGHTING
Types of portable fire extinguishers: 1.water type extinguisher. 2.chemical foam type 3.Dry powder type 4. Carbon dioxide type. 5.Combustible type Smoke detectors- detects smoke and issues an audible or visual alarm. Types: 1.ionization type 2.optical smoke detectors 3. photoelectric smoke detectors

Source of water for buildings Town s mains Emergency water supply tank- discharge of at least 2275 litres/min i) upto 60m in height: Storage tank with effective capacity not less than 200,000 litres. ii) over 60m in height: Arrangements should be made to avoid undesirably lhigh pressure in risers and hose pipes.

FIRE RESISTANCE OF BUILDING ELEMENTS: 1.Lift sand lift enclosure- walls enclosing lifts shall have a fire resistance of not less than 2 hours. Landings should open in the ventilated lobby. 2.Staircase enclosure-enclosing walls should have fore resistance of not less than 2 hours. And ever landing should be well ventilated. 3.basements- each basement shall be separately ventilated. Vents with cross sectional area of not less than 2.5%of the floor should be provided
Presensce of public address system on all floors- to enable fire fighting services to give evacuation instructions to the occupants in case of emergency. Constructional features: Building shall be made of RCC or structural steel construction. The structural RCC members and the structural steel members encased in fire resisting material, shall have fire resistance of not less than 2 hours.