You are on page 1of 24

Modelling of light transmission under

heterogeneous forest canopy

Da SILVA David, BALANDIER Philippe, BOUDON Frédéric,


André MARQUIER, Christophe PRADAL,
Christophe GODIN, SINOQUET Hervé
Light influence
Transmited irradiance

Understorey microclimate :
Light, temperature,
air humidity, … Flora, wildlife,
regeneration saplings

Soil water, soil Soil biological activity,


temperature humus
FSPM 07 - Napier
Understorey developement
Maximum 
biodiversity
Relative Biodiversity

Classical
forest flora

Invasion by
 competitives
Regeneration species

Bare soil

0 10 20 30 40 50
Transmittance (%)

Larch stands, France and Belgium


FSPM 07 - Napier [Balandier et al., Forestry, 2006]
Objectives
• Determine a minimal set of simple
measurements to obtain satisfactory light
transmission classes
 Basal area
 Height
 Closest neighbour distance
• General model
 Coarse or detailed parametrization
 Mono or multi-scale
• Output : light transmission classes
FSPM 07 - Napier
Method

• Model developement
• Starting from detailed description of stand at
tree scale
• Sensitivity analysis
 spatial distribution, clustering
 size of tree crown
 shape and orientation of tree crown
• Simplify the measures requirement

FSPM 07 - Napier
Light interception model
• Porous envelope based
• Fraction of light intercepted is related to the
crown projection area and its envelope
projection area in the direction

= x 0.93
FSPM 07 - Napier
Light interception model
• Crown discretization using regularly spaced beams
• Beam opacity evaluation according to components
distribution hypothesis
Known positions

Uniform distribution

FSPM 07 - Napier
[Sinoquet et al., 2005]
Experimental unit
Light measurements :
• PAR sensors
Buffer zone, no light measurement
• Hemispherical photos

Interest zone
Dendrometric measures :
64 PAR • X, Y positions
sensor grid
Tree height • Total height
• Base crown height
Tree height • DBH (diameter at breast height)
• 4 to 8 crown radii

FSPM 07 - Napier
Light measurements
Grid of PAR Sensor

[Chaboche K., 2006]

Full light reference


FSPM 07 - Napier
Crowns opacity
Thresholding and pixel count
using PiafPhotem
[UMR Piaf, INRA, Clermont-Ferrand]

Tree opacity = 93,5%


FSPM 07 - Napier
Crown reconstruction using
Skinned Surfaces
Constructed from different profiles

FSPM 07 - Napier
Stand reconstruction

Fitting the hulls 3D tree reconstruction using


to measured radii height informations
FSPM 07 - Napier
Computing direct & diffuse
incident light
• Direct light depending
on latitude, longitude,
julian day, time step,
start and stop hour
• Diffuse light simulated
by 46 directions of
Turtle Sky [Den Dulk 89]

FSPM 07 - Napier
Simulation steps

FSPM 07 - Napier
Simulation steps

Weighted merging according to elevation


FSPM 07 - Napier [Campbell G.S. and Norman J.M., 1998]
Combining direct and diffuse

Image are merged using PDIF ratio


(diffuse PPFD / diffuse+direct PPFD)

FSPM 07 - Napier
Extracting interest zone information
Simulation
Tree opacity = 93.5%
Mean : 48.972
Std : 8.071

FSPM 07 - Napier
Calibration
Simulation
Tree opacity = 93.5%

• Ongoing work Mean : 48.972


Std : 8.071
• First results for one stand

Measures

Mean : 38.081
• Unsuficient edge Std : 9.455

• Unique opacity

FSPM 07 - Napier
Stand replication
Simulation
Tree opacity = 93.5%
Mean : 42.68
Std : 12.08

Measures

Mean : 38.081
Std : 9.455

FSPM 07 - Napier
Calibration options
• Duplicates positioning and/or introducing
randomness
• Use of porous wall as calibrating device
• LAD determination to take beam travel
distance in crown into account
• Usage of the multi-scale possibilities of the
model

FSPM 07 - Napier
Multi-scale light interception model

Known positions

Uniform distribution

FSPM 07 - Napier
[Sinoquet et al., 2005]
Perspectives
(after calibration…)

• Stand type caracterization [Marie-Ange NgoBieng, 2007]


• Simulation of n stands
• Variability caracterization
• Sensitivity analysis
 Spatial distribution
 Crown shape
 Intra and inter-tree clustering
• Determination of descriptors of main interest

FSPM 07 - Napier
Acknowledgment
Virtual Plants team UMR Piaf

• CHAUBERT Florence • DONES Nicolas


• CHOPARD Jérôme
• STOMA Szymon

ANR Project ECOGER


“Bases of mixed stands sustainable management of mixed stands:
ecophysiology, growth and demogenetics of constitutive species.”
Collaboration between INRA, the French National forestry commission and CEMAGREF

FSPM 07 - Napier
Existing models
• Simple : [Monsi & Saeki,1953 ; Ross, 1981]
– Output = mean an std
• Layers : [Kimes & Smith, 1980 ; Hanan 2001 ]
– Not adapted for heterogeneous stands
• 3D cells : [Kimes & Kirchner, 1982 ; Sinoquet et al., 2005]
– Difficulty to characterize canopy cells in the field
• Tree crown : [Cescatti, 1997 ; Brunner, 1998 ; Canham et al., 1999]
– Different level of shape complexity
– High and fixed requirement

FSPM 07 - Napier