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 Section I: Ontology  Section II: Elements of an Ontology  Section III: Web Ontology Language

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Section I Overview of Ontological Techniques

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(Ontology)
(
, ,

   A Resource Guide for Philosophers

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 Ontology 

..
.

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   Object, Subject, Relationship


  
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 Object, Relationship, Subject Concept  Classification and Category

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 R. Neches (1991)- the basic terms and relations (1991)comprising the vocabulary of a topic area, and the rule for combining terms and relations to define extensions to the vocabulary.  T. Gruber(1993)/ [Grarino (1995)] -a (explicit) specification of a conceptualization  Ontologies as a specification mechanism  a set of definitions of formal vocabulary

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 N. Guarino (1995)-a specification of concept, a (1995)philosophical discipline, a formal semantic account, a representation of a conceptual system via a logic theory.  B. Swartout (1997)- a hierarchically structured set of terms (1997)for describing a domain that can be used as skeletal foundation for a KB. KB.  W. Borst (1997)/R. Studer (1998) a formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualization.
 http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-

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(Data model)
(Object)


  ontology is a data model that represents a domain and is used to reason
about the objects in that domain and the relations between them.

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Lassila & McGuinness(2001)

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Taxonomy

Ontology

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.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
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Section II Elements of an Ontology

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- concepts, classes - properties, attributes




 


- individuals, instances
( : 50 cm ) )
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- Relations
(
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(concepts) -1



(Class)
 Canine- the class of all dogs Canine Vehicle the class of all cars  Thing- the class of all things Thing
  Super - Sub

RootRoot-Class

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(concepts) -2
Coupe

Car Vehicle

Sedan

Sport Utility Aircraft

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(concepts) -3

Extensional Intensional
 Extensional   : Concept C
Extensional Concept C C extensional Concept C C Concept C

 Intensional 

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Intensional
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(concepts) 4
Age>=20 ok Citizen , 30 ,

x
(age>20, Taipei city citizen)

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(Properties) 1


  
- 2D - , , , , ,

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Section III

Web Ontology Language (OWL)

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XMLXML-based Ontology Lang.


 XML-based Ontology XML     Logical Model RDF (Resource Description Framework) DAML DAML+OIL OWL (Web Ontology Language)

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Logical Model
 
(mathematical or logical) inference
(individual) ( .)

: ( .)

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Logical Model -2
 
( .) ( and) ( and) .

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 Think & Practice..

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Web Ontology Lang. (OWL)


 OWL
W3C zRDF, DAML+OIL Web Semantics z

 OWL  OWL Lite  OWL DL  OWL Full

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Protg
 Protg
OWL editor
 Stanford U.  Protg V.2  RDF  Protg V.3  OWL  Plugin

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Protg vs. OWL vs. Ontology


Ontology ----------Concept Properties individual OWL ----------Class Properties instance Protg ----------Class Slot (role) individual

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Protg - Class
 Class
Ontology (Concept)
Taxonomy  Protg Classes  Class   Class SuperSuper-Sub  (SubSumption )

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Protg slot/role


    
Assigned value age 20. has has-a the student has-a BA degree. hasis-a all graduate students is-a student. isisTransitive all graduate student has a student id. Symmetric ..

class,

individual

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Protg individual
 Individual
 Protg  OWL

(object)
unique name assumption (UNA) UNA

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Section IV Protg

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Protg

 http://protege.stanford.edu/  Version 3.1  Full version ( OWL plugin)


 http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/documentation.html
 pizza~

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Protg -2

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Pizza Tutorial

 Base  Topping

pizza

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