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ACIDS
COMMON ACIDS IN DAILY LIFE
Many foods and drinks contain acids.

INTRODUCING ACIDS

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carbonic acid(碳酸)

citric acid(檸檬酸), ascorbic acid (維他命C)

ethanoic acid(乙酸)
These everyday things contain acids.

tannic acid (丹寧酸)

INTRODUCING ACIDS

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COMMON ACIDS IN LABORATORY
Acids most commonly found in the laboratory are hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid. These are often called mineral acids because people in the past prepared them from minerals. (1) Sulphuric acid (硫酸) H2SO4

(2) Hydrochloric acid (鹽酸) HCl (3) Nitric acid (硝酸) HNO3

INTRODUCING ACIDS

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Acids in the laboratory are usually aqueous solutions.

The three mineral acids commonly used in the laboratory.

INTRODUCING ACIDS

5 There are concentrated acids and dilute acids. Dilute acids contain acids dissolved in a large amount of water. INTRODUCING ACIDS . Concentrated acids contain acids dissolved in a small amount of water. depending on the concentration.

CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .6 CHARACTERISTICS PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DILUTE ACIDS  Taste Dilute acids have a sour taste.

7  Effect on litmus Colour in acid solutions Indicator HCl Blue litmus paper H2SO4 red red They change blue litmus paper to red colour. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

8  Electrical conductivity They conduct electricity. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS . Acid solution contains mobile ions.

 9 Reaction with metals 1 2 CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

10 Reaction of magnesium with dilute hydrochloric acid. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

What is the observation? A ‘pop’ sound is heard What is the gas given out? Hydrogen Write an equation for the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .11 What do you observe? Colourless gas bubbles released. Magnesium ribbon dissolved.

CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .12 colourless bubbles of hydrogen zinc granule The reaction between zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid.

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .13 Write an equation for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

14 acid + metal For example.  salt + hydrogen H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s)  MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

15 Question 1 Colourless gas bubbles evolve Calcium granules dissolve The solution becomes warm Question 2 No. because the metals are too reactive. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS . explosion would result.

16  Action on carbonates and hydrogencarbonates acid + carbonate  salt + carbon dioxide + water e. HNO3(aq) + NaHCO3(s)  NaNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .g. 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s)  CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) acid + hydrogencarbonate  salt + carbon dioxide + water e.g.

17 CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .18 Carbon dioxide turns limewater milky.

Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Write an equation for the reaction between sodium hydrogencarbonate and hydrochloric acid.19 What is the gas given out? Carbon dioxide Write an equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

20  Action on metal oxides and hydroxides (neutralization) acid + metal oxide  salt + water acid + metal hydroxide  salt + water CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

21 acid + metal oxide  e.g.g. H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS . salt + water H2SO4(aq) + CuO(s)  CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) acid + metal hydroxide  salt + water e.

CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .22 Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with copper(II) oxide to form copper(II) sulphate solution.

23 What is the observation? The black copper(II) oxide solid dissolves to give a blue solution. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

24 Question (a) ZnO + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2 (b) Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4  MgSO4 + 2H2O (c) CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) (d) KHCO3(s) + HCl(aq)  KCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

H+(aq).25 DEFINING ACIDS Aqueous solutions of acids must therefore contain the same common ion – the hydrogen ion. An ACID is a hydrogen-containing compound (HX) which forms hydrogen ions H+ as the only positive ion when dissolved in water. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS .

The action of solid citric acid and aqueous citric acid on blue litmus paper.26 THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS Water must be present for an acid to show acidic properties. THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS .

27 Hydrogen ions (H+(aq)) are responsible for all the acidic properties. THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS . Without water. acids cannot ionize to form H+(aq) and hence do not have acidic properties.

THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS .28 Fizzy drink tablets effervesce in water.

THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS .29 HOW BAKING POWDER WORK Baking powder is a mixture of NaHCO3 and solid acid. In making cakes. water and a little baking powder is added to flour H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l) The CO2 formed makes the cakes more ‘spongy’.

THE ROLE OF WATER FOR ACIDS .30 Question (a) No change (b) It turns red.

equal to or less than the OH-(aq) concentration. pH . neutral or alkaline. This depends on whether the H+(aq) concentrations is greater than.31 THE pH SCALE All aqueous solution contain H+(aq) and OH-(aq) ion. A solution can be acidic.

An alkaline solution has a pH value greater than 7.32 Solution Difference in H+(aq) and OH-(aq) concentration acidic neutral H+(aq) concentration > OH-(aq) concentration H+(aq) concentration = OH-(aq) concentration H+(aq) concentration < OH-(aq) concentration alkaline Difference in H+(aq) and OH-(aq) concentration for acidic. pH . neutral and alkaline solution. An neutral solution has a pH value of exactly 7. On the pH scale : An acidic solution has a pH value less than 7.

household ammonia soap solution NaHCO3 solution blood pure water 11 10 9 8 neutral 7 6 5 4 ordinary distilled water rainwater (NH4)2SO4 solution soft drink orange juice vinegar. 0. .1 M CH3COOH 3 2 1 0 pH lemon juice 0.1 M HCl 1 M HCl The pH scale and pH values of some common substances.pH 14 13 12 33 1 M NaOH 0.1 M NaOH limewater Na2CO3 solution Milk of Magnesia.

34 Question A : weakly acidic B : strongly acidic C : weakly alkaline D : neutral pH .

35 NEUTRALIZATION When acids and bases are mixed. they react with each other. Their acidic and alkaline properties disappear. That is. they can neutralize each other. NEUTRALIZATION OF ACID AND ALKALI Suppose we slowly add dilute hydrochloric acid to dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in a beaker. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) NEUTRALIZATION . Eventually sodium chloride is formed.

H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) 2HCl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) The essential equation is: H+(aq) + OH-(aq)  H2O(l) salt + water K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) NEUTRALIZATION .36 neutralization acid + base For example.

37 Question HNO3(aq) + KOH(aq)  KNO3(aq) + H2O(l) NEUTRALIZATION .

If we add it to warm dilute sulphuric acid.+ 2H+  H2O NEUTRALIZATION . CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq)  CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) black blue The essential process is: O2. the solution will gradually turn blue.38 NEUTRALIZATION OF ACID AND INSOLUBLE BASE Copper(II) oxide is an insoluble base.

39 Copper(II) oxide reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to form copper(II) sulphate and water. NEUTRALIZATION .

H2SO4(aq) + ZnO(s) 2HCl(aq) + MgO(s) The essential equation is: 2H+(aq) + O2-(aq)  H2O(l) salt + water ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) NEUTRALIZATION .40 neutralization acid + base For example.

19.(or oxide ions O2-) to form water molecules H2O. a salt is formed.1 NEUTRALIZATION . In the process.41 DEFINING NEUTRALIZATION H+(aq) + OH-(aq)  H2O(l) or 2H+(aq) + O2-(aq)  H2O(l) NEUTRALIZATION is the combination of hydrogen ions H+ and hydroxide ions OH.

42 APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION SOIL pH CONTROL Most plants grow well only in soils which are neither too acidic nor too alkaline. APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION . Farmers often add powdered limestone (a natural form of calcium carbonate) or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to neutralize acids in soil.

APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION .43 Liming soil with powdered limestone or slaked lime to neutralize acids in soil.

Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION . so as to relieve stomach pain. It is often used to neutralize excess acid in the stomach.44 NEUTRALIZATION OF EXCESS ACID IN STOMACH Milk of Magnesia is a suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water.

45 Milk of Magnesia or limewater can neutralize excess acid in the stomach. APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION .

APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION .46 INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSAL Liquid wastes from industries are often acidic. Industrial wastes are often acidic.

47 To reduce pollution. This is done by addition of calcium hydroxide or sodium carbonate to the acidic solution. the acidic liquid waste should be neutralized before disposal. APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION .

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