# ENERGY CONVERSION

ES 832a
Eric Savory
www.eng.uwo.ca/people/esavory/es832.htm
Lecture 8 ± Basics of heat exchangers
Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering
University of Western Ontario
Heat Exchangers
The most common types of energy conversion
systems (e.g. internal combustion engines,
gas/steam turbines, boilers) consist of three parts:
1. a combustion process generating heat and
kinetic energy (K.E.)
2. a device for converting K.E. to mechanical
(useful) energy
3. heat exchangers to recuperate the heat
either for heating purposes or to increase
efficiency.
The different applications of heat exchangers
require different designs (geometries):
Heat Exchangers are classified according to
their function and geometry:
Function:
1. Recuperative: two fluids separated by a solid
wall (this is the most common type)
2. Evaporative: enthalpy of evaporation of one
fluid is used to heat or cool the other fluid
(condensers/evaporators and boilers)
3. Regenerative: use a third material which
stores/releases heat
Geometry: 1. Double Tube
2. Shell and Tube
3. Cross-flow Heat Exchangers
4. Compact Heat Exchangers
Underlying calculation approach
The heat transfer rate for most heat exchangers
can be calculated using the LMTD-method (Log
Mean Temperature Difference), if the inlet (T
1
) and
outlet (T
2
) temperatures are known:
T A U Q A =
¸ )
F
T / T ln
T T
T
1 2
1 2
A A
A A
= A
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient [ W/m
2
-
o
C ]
A = Effective heat transfer surface area [ m
2
]
F = Geometry correction factor
= Log mean temperature difference
T A
Otherwise, the Effectiveness (\) ± Number of
Transfer Units (NTU) method may be used:
¸ )
min
max
C m
A U
NTU
Q
Q

= = \
General Formulation for Heat Exchanger
Analysis (LMTD-method)
Most heat exchangers are characterized relative to a
double-pipe heat exchanger (H = Hot, C = Cold):
AT
2
AT
1
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
Ci Co C Ho Hi H
T T C m T T C m T A U Q = = A =

We now want to derive the expression for LMTD
for a counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger.
This will be done by considering the first law (for
counter flow):
First globally:
Then locally: Apply the first law between points 1
and 2 (for counter-flow)
Heat lost by hot side = Heat gained by cold side
For counter-flow:
By using the notation 1 and 2, as shown on the
graphs, this definition is valid for both Counter-
current and Co-flow (parallel) double-pipe heat
exchangers.
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
¦
'
+

'

=
¦
'
+

'

+
=
Co Hi
Ci Ho
Co Hi Ci Ho
Co Hi
Ci Ho
Ci Co Hi Ho
T T
T T
ln
T T T T
A U
T T
T T
ln
T T T T
A U Q
¦
'
+

'

A
A
A A
= ÷
1
2
1 2
T
T
ln
T T
A U Q
ȟ-NTU (Effectiveness ± Number of Transfer
Units) Method
max
Q
Q
transfer heat . max l Theoretica
transfer heat Actual
= = \
If the inlet or outlet temperatures are not given,
the LMTD-method becomes cumbersome to use.
It is thus advisable to use the Effectiveness-NTU
method. The method can be formulated from
the following definitions:
Effectiveness:
¸ )
min
C m
A U
NTU

=
Minimum thermal capacity
pmax. temp. difference
In general:
Actual heat transfer is given by
Theoretical maximum heat transfer by:
Hence, we obtain the effectiveness as:
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
Ci Co
C
Ho Hi
H
T T C m T T C m Q = =

¸ ) ¸ )
Ci Hi
min
T T C m Q =

¸ ) ¸ )
¸ ) ¸ )
¸ ) ¸ )
¸ ) ¸ )
Ci Hi min
Ci Co C
Ci Hi min
Ho Hi H
T T C m
T T C m
T T C m
T T C m

=

= \

For a counter-flow heat exchanger:
Let
and
Which, on using the definition for LMTD, leads to
an expression for the effectiveness as:
¸ ) ¸ )
min H
C m C m

=
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
C
H
max
min
C m
C m
C m
C m
R

= =
¸ ) . J
¸ ) . J R 1 NTU
R 1 NTU
e R 1
e 1

= \
¸ ) ¸ )
min C
C m C m

=
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
H
C
max
min
C m
C m
C m
C m
R

= =
¸ ) . J
¸ ) . J R 1 NTU
R 1 NTU
e R 1
e 1

= \
If, instead
then
We end up with the same effectiveness:
Counter flow Parallel flow
¸ ) ¸ )
H C
C m C m

" ¸ ) ¸ )
H C
C m C m

Similar expressions are used for other types of
geometry.
For example, for a parallel double-pipe heat
exchanger, the effectiveness is:
¸ ) . J
R 1
e 1
R 1 NTU
+

= \
+
Next we shall look at some applications of these
concepts.
Typical thermal design problems
 Problem #1
± Given the entrance temperature of the two
streams, given one exit temperature;
± Find heat transfer area, A.
 Problem #2
± Given entrance temperature of the two
streams, given the heat transfer area, A;
± Find the exit temperatures of the two
streams.
Objective: Calculation procedure and advantages
/ disadvantages of:
Double pipe
Shell and tube
Cross flow heat exchangers
1. Double Pipe Heat Exchangers:
Double Pipe Heat Exchangers
Arrangements:
Advantages:
- low pressure loss
- small applications (simple, cheap to build)
- counter flow: high effectiveness; parallel flow:
quick (short) fetches.
Disadvantage:
- requires large surface area (footprint on floor) if
large heat transfer rates are needed.
2. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers:
Advantages:
- ideal for large scale applications
- commonly used in petrochemical industry where
dangerous substances are present (protective
shell)
- compact design or double tube heat exchanger.
Disadvantages:
- very bulky (heavy construction), baffles are used
to increase mixing
- subject to water hammer and corrosion (behind
baffles)
- high pressure loses (recirculation behind baffles)
Heat transfer calculations:
Using counter flow, double pipe heat exchanger
definition for the temperatures
T A U Q A =
¸ )
F
T / T ln
T T
T
1 2
1 2
A A
A A
= A
Co Hi 1 Ci Ho 2
T T T T T T = A = A
Heat exchanger correction factor plot for one
shell pass and an even number of tube passes
=
+
Heat exchanger correction factor plot for two shell
passes and twice an even number of tube passes
For n-shell passes with an even number of tubes:
Again, for boiling or evaporation R p0
so that \ = 1 ± e
-NTU
Cross flow and compact heat exchangers
Overview: Cross-flow and compact heat
exchangers are used where space is limited. These
aim to maximize the heat transfer surface area.
Cross-flow Heat Exchangers:
Commonly used in gas (air) heating applications.
The heat transfer is influenced by whether the
fluids are unmixed (i.e. confined in a channel) or
mixed (i.e. not confined, hence free to contact
several different heat transfer surfaces).
e.g.: both fluids unmixed: air-conditioning devices
e.g.: both fluids mixed: boilers
In a cross-flow heat exchanger the direction of fluids are
perpendicular to each other. The required surface area,
A
cross
for this heat exchanger is usually calculated by
using tables. It is between the required surface area for
counter-flow (A
counter
) and parallel-flow (A
parallel
) i.e.
A
counter
< A
cross
<A
parallel
Cross-Flows
may be mixed
or unmixed
Advantage: large
surface area-good
for transferring
heat to gases
Disadvantages:
heavy, high
pressure losses
Both fluids unmixed
Both fluids unmixed
One fluid unmixed
T A U Q A =
¸ )
F
T / T ln
T T
T
1 2
1 2
A A
A A
= A
Cross-flow heat exchangers have the same
analysis equations as before:
with F as the correction factor (see graphs). The
\-NTU method may also be used
Heat exchanger correction factor plot for single
pass, cross-flow with one fluid mixed
Heat exchanger correction factor plot for single
pass, cross-flow with both fluids unmixed
Compact heat exchangers: These are cross-flow
heat exchangers characterized by very large heat
transfer area per unit volume. In fact, the contact
area is so large that much of the flow behaves as
duct or channel flow.
For this reason, the heat-transfer is dominated by
wall effects and the characteristics cannot be
evaluated as for the other types.
For these heat exchangers, the heat transfer rate is
directly related to pressure loss.
Advantages:
- very small
- ideal for transferring heat to/from fluids with
very low conductivity or where the
heat transfer must be done in very small
spaces (e.g. electronic component cooling,
cryogenic cooling, domestic furnaces).
Disadvantages:
- high manufacturing costs
- very heavy
- extremely high pressure losses.
Examples of compact heat exchangers
To solve problems involving design and selection
(sizing) of compact heat exchangers it is first
required to find the effective pressure (static)
loss. This loss can be shown, based on
fundamental heat transfer principles, to be
directly related to the heat transfer rate based on
Colburn¶s analogy:
f ± friction factor, St ± Stanton number,
Pr ± Prandtl number and j
H
= Colburn factor
3
2
H
Pr St
8
f
j = =
These calculations can be quite involved and so
most design or sizing applications use data in
tables and graphs.
All material properties are calculated at the bulk
average temperature, i.e. at (T
1
+T
2
)/2, if T
1
= inlet,
T
2
= exit
Cp
Pr number andtl Pr
V
Q
=
¬
v
=
2
max
H
U
D
dx
dP
f factor Friction
V

=
Q
=
G D
Re
H
m

Reynolds number at the smallest diameter:
D
H
= hydraulic diameter at smallest cross-section
= 4 A
c
/ P
A
c
= smallest cross-sectional area
P = perimeter (circumference) of tube
µ = dynamic viscosity
¬ = thermal diffusivity
G = maximum mass flow rate flux
= mass flow rate
c
A
m
G

=
A
A
c
= o
Cp G
h
St =
o = ratio of open area to total frontal area (A)
h = heat transfer coefficient
Cp = specific heat capacity
¸ )
¦
|
¦

¸

+ ¦
'
+

'

o + = A
1
m
c 1
2
2
2
1
V
V
A
A
f 1
V
V
1
2
G V
p
Ap = pressure loss through heat exchanger
V
m
= (V
2
+ V
1
) / 2
Overall heat transfer coefficient UA is computed
from:
¸ ) ¸ )
h c
A h
1
A h
1
A U
1
+ =
(h A)
h
= hot fluid
(h A)
c
= cold fluid
A = effective heat transfer area
Then the heat transfer Q is:
T A U Q A =
Heat transfer and friction factor for a finned flat tube
heat exchanger
Heat transfer and friction factor for a finned circulator-tube
heat exchanger (details on next slide)
Summary
Summary of effectiveness equations
Heat exchanger Effectiveness:
type:
Heat exchanger Effectiveness:
type:
=
+
Heat exchanger Effectiveness:
type:
Example questions
Example 1 ± Finned flat tube heat exchanger
Air at 1 atm and 300 K enters a finned flat tube
heat exchanger (as in graph in an earlier slide)
with a velocity of 15 m/s. Calculate the heat
transfer coefficient (h).
Note at this temperature the air properties
(found from tables) are:
V = 1.1774 kg/m
3
Q = 1.983 x 10
-5
kg/ms
Cp = 1.0057 kJ/Kg
o
C
Pr = 0.708
Example 2 ± Shell and tube heat exchanger
Hot oil at 100
o
C is used to heat air in a shell and
tube heat exchanger. The oil makes 6 tube passes
and the air makes 1 shell pass. 2.0 kg/s of air
(specific heat of 1009 J/kg
o
C) is to be heated from
20 to 80
o
C. The specific heat of the oil is 2100
J/kg
o
C and its flow rate is 3.0 kg/s. Calculate the
area required for the heat exchanger for U = 200
W/m
2o
C.
Example 3 ± Finned-tube (both fluids unmixed)
cross-flow heat exchanger
A finned-tube exchanger is used to heat 2.36 m
3
/s
of air (specific heat of 1006 J/kg
o
C) at 1 atm from
15.55 to 29.44
o
C. Hot water enters the tubes at
82.22
o
C and the air flows across the tubes,
producing an average overall heat transfer
coefficient of 227 W/m
2o
C. The total surface area of
the exchanger is 9.29m
2
. Calculate the heat transfer
rate (kW) and the exit water temperature.
Note: We don¶t know whether the air or the water is
the minimum thermal capacity fluid. So try with the
air as the minimum fluid first and see if the \-NTU
equations give a possible solution. If not then we
have to use water as the minimum and iterate to a
solution.

Heat Exchangers
The most common types of energy conversion systems (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas/steam turbines, boilers) consist of three parts: 1. a combustion process generating heat and kinetic energy (K.E.) 2. a device for converting K.E. to mechanical (useful) energy 3. heat exchangers to recuperate the heat either for heating purposes or to increase efficiency.

The different applications of heat exchangers require different designs (geometries):

Heat Exchangers are classified according to their function and geometry: Function: 1. Recuperative: two fluids separated by a solid wall (this is the most common type) 2. Evaporative: enthalpy of evaporation of one fluid is used to heat or cool the other fluid (condensers/evaporators and boilers) 3. Regenerative: use a third material which stores/releases heat Geometry: 1. Double Tube 2. Shell and Tube 3. Cross-flow Heat Exchangers 4. Compact Heat Exchangers

Underlying calculation approach The heat transfer rate for most heat exchangers can be calculated using the LMTD-method (Log Mean Temperature Difference), if the inlet (T1) and outlet (T2) temperatures are known:

Q ! U A (T
(T2  (T1 (T ! F ln

(T2 / (T1 U = Overall heat transfer coefficient [ W/m2-oC ] A = Effective heat transfer surface area [ m2 ] F = Geometry correction factor (T = Log mean temperature difference .

the Effectiveness (\) ± Number of Transfer Units (NTU) method may be used: Q \! Q max UA NTU !  .Otherwise.

m C min .

C = Cold): (T1 (T2 .General Formulation for Heat Exchanger Analysis (LMTD-method) Most heat exchangers are characterized relative to a double-pipe heat exchanger (H = Hot.

We now want to derive the expression for LMTD for a counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger. This will be done by considering the first law (for counter flow): First globally:   Q ! U A (T ! .

m C H .

THi  THo ! .

m C C .

TCo  TCi Then locally: Apply the first law between points 1 and 2 (for counter-flow) Heat lost by hot side = Heat gained by cold side .

For counter-flow: Q!UA .

THo  THi  .

TCo  TCi ¨ THo  TCi ¸ ¹ ln © ª THi  TCo º !UA .

THo  TCi  .

this definition is valid for both Countercurrent and Co-flow (parallel) double-pipe heat exchangers. .THi  TCo ¨ THo  TCi ¸ ¹ ln © ª THi  TCo º (T2  (T1  Q!UA ¨ (T2 ¸ ln © ¹ ª (T1 º By using the notation 1 and 2. as shown on the graphs.

heat transfer Q max UA NTU !  . The method can be formulated from the following definitions: Effectiveness: Actual heat transfer Q \! ! Theoretica l max . It is thus advisable to use the Effectiveness-NTU method. the LMTD-method becomes cumbersome to use.-NTU (Effectiveness ± Number of Transfer Units) Method If the inlet or outlet temperatures are not given.

m C min Minimum thermal capacity p max. difference . temp.

In general: Actual heat transfer is given by   Q ! .

m C H .

THi  THo ! .

m C C .

TCo  TCi Theoretical maximum heat transfer by:  Q ! .

m C min .

THi  TCi Hence. we obtain the effectiveness as:   .

m C H .

THi  THo .

m C C .

TCo  TCi \! !   .

m C min .

THi  TCi .

m C min .

THi  TCi .

For a counter-flow heat exchanger: Let   .

m C H ! .

m C min   .

m C min .

m C H R! !   .

m C max .

leads to an expression for the effectiveness as: 1 e \! ?NTU .m C C and Which. on using the definition for LMTD.

1  R A 1 R e ?NTU .

1  R A .

If. instead   .

m C C ! .

m C min then   .

m C min .

m C C R! !   .

m C max .

m C H We end up with the same effectiveness: 1 e \! ?NTU .

1  R A 1 R e ?NTU .

1  R A .

Counter flow Parallel flow   .

m C C " .

m C H   .

m C C .

m C H .

for a parallel double-pipe heat exchanger. For example. the effectiveness is: 1 e \! 1 R ?NTU .Similar expressions are used for other types of geometry.

1  R A Next we shall look at some applications of these concepts. .

A. ± Find the exit temperatures of the two streams. A. given the heat transfer area. . ± Find heat transfer area.  Problem #2 ± Given entrance temperature of the two streams. given one exit temperature.Typical thermal design problems  Problem #1 ± Given the entrance temperature of the two streams.

Double Pipe Heat Exchangers: .Objective: Calculation procedure and advantages / disadvantages of: Double pipe Shell and tube Cross flow heat exchangers 1.

Double Pipe Heat Exchangers .

Arrangements: .

cheap to build) .low pressure loss . . Disadvantage: .Advantages: .counter flow: high effectiveness.requires large surface area (footprint on floor) if large heat transfer rates are needed. parallel flow: quick (short) fetches.small applications (simple.

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: .2.

.

commonly used in petrochemical industry where dangerous substances are present (protective shell) .subject to water hammer and corrosion (behind baffles) . baffles are used to increase mixing .compact design or double tube heat exchanger. Disadvantages: .ideal for large scale applications .Advantages: .high pressure loses (recirculation behind baffles) .very bulky (heavy construction).

Heat transfer calculations: Q ! U A (T (T2  (T1 (T ! F ln .

double pipe heat exchanger definition for the temperatures (T2 ! THo  TCi (T1 ! THi  TCo .(T2 / (T1 Using counter flow.

Heat exchanger correction factor plot for one shell pass and an even number of tube passes = + .

Heat exchanger correction factor plot for two shell passes and twice an even number of tube passes .

For n-shell passes with an even number of tubes: Again. for boiling or evaporation R p 0 so that \ = 1 ± e-NTU .

: both fluids unmixed: air-conditioning devices e. These aim to maximize the heat transfer surface area. hence free to contact several different heat transfer surfaces). not confined. confined in a channel) or mixed (i. e. Cross-flow Heat Exchangers: Commonly used in gas (air) heating applications.e.g.: both fluids mixed: boilers .e. The heat transfer is influenced by whether the fluids are unmixed (i.g.Cross flow and compact heat exchangers Overview: Cross-flow and compact heat exchangers are used where space is limited.

It is between the required surface area for counter-flow (Acounter) and parallel-flow (Aparallel) i. high pressure losses Cross-Flows may be mixed or unmixed In a cross-flow heat exchanger the direction of fluids are perpendicular to each other. The required surface area.Advantage: large surface area-good for transferring heat to gases Disadvantages: heavy. Acounter< Across <Aparallel . Across for this heat exchanger is usually calculated by using tables.e.

Both fluids unmixed One fluid unmixed Both fluids unmixed .

Cross-flow heat exchangers have the same analysis equations as before: Q ! U A (T (T2  (T1 (T ! F ln .

The \-NTU method may also be used .(T2 / (T1 with F as the correction factor (see graphs).

Heat exchanger correction factor plot for single pass. cross-flow with one fluid mixed .

cross-flow with both fluids unmixed .Heat exchanger correction factor plot for single pass.

the heat transfer rate is directly related to pressure loss. In fact. the contact area is so large that much of the flow behaves as duct or channel flow. For these heat exchangers.Compact heat exchangers: These are cross-flow heat exchangers characterized by very large heat transfer area per unit volume. For this reason. the heat-transfer is dominated by wall effects and the characteristics cannot be evaluated as for the other types. .

extremely high pressure losses. .high manufacturing costs . domestic furnaces).very heavy .very small . cryogenic cooling.g.ideal for transferring heat to/from fluids with very low conductivity or where the heat transfer must be done in very small spaces (e. Disadvantages: .Advantages: . electronic component cooling.

Examples of compact heat exchangers .

to be directly related to the heat transfer rate based on Colburn¶s analogy: 2 f jH ! ! St Pr 3 8 f ± friction factor.To solve problems involving design and selection (sizing) of compact heat exchangers it is first required to find the effective pressure (static) loss. based on fundamental heat transfer principles. St ± Stanton number. Pr ± Prandtl number and jH = Colburn factor . This loss can be shown.

These calculations can be quite involved and so most design or sizing applications use data in tables and graphs. T2 = exit Pr andtl number R Q Pr ! ! E V Cp Friction factor dP DH  f ! dx 2 V Umax . if T1 = inlet.e. i. at (T1+T2)/2. All material properties are calculated at the bulk average temperature.

Reynolds number at the smallest diameter: DH G Re ! Q  m G! Ac DH = hydraulic diameter at smallest cross-section = 4 Ac / P Ac = smallest cross-sectional area P = perimeter (circumference) of tube µ = dynamic viscosity E = thermal diffusivity G = maximum mass flow rate flux  m = mass flow rate .

Ac W! A h St ! G Cp W = ratio of open area to total frontal area (A) h = heat transfer coefficient Cp = specific heat capacity ¸ V1 G « A Vm » 2 ¨ V2 (p ! 1 ¬.

 W © V  1¹  f A V ¼ 2 ­ ª 1 º c 1½ 2 (p = pressure loss through heat exchanger Vm = (V2 + V1) / 2 .

Overall heat transfer coefficient UA is computed from: 1 1 1 !  U A .

h A c .

h A h (h A)h = hot fluid (h A)c = cold fluid A = effective heat transfer area Then the heat transfer Q is: Q ! U A (T .

Heat transfer and friction factor for a finned flat tube heat exchanger .

Heat transfer and friction factor for a finned circulator-tube heat exchanger (details on next slide) .

.

Summary .

Summary of effectiveness equations Heat exchanger type: Effectiveness: .

Heat exchanger type: Effectiveness: = + .

Heat exchanger type: Effectiveness: .

Example questions .

708 .Example 1 ± Finned flat tube heat exchanger Air at 1 atm and 300 K enters a finned flat tube heat exchanger (as in graph in an earlier slide) with a velocity of 15 m/s. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient (h).0057 kJ/KgoC Pr = 0.1774 kg/m3 Q = 1.983 x 10-5 kg/ms Cp = 1. Note at this temperature the air properties (found from tables) are: V = 1.

Calculate the area required for the heat exchanger for U = 200 W/m2oC. The specific heat of the oil is 2100 J/kgoC and its flow rate is 3.0 kg/s of air (specific heat of 1009 J/kgoC) is to be heated from 20 to 80oC.0 kg/s. . 2. The oil makes 6 tube passes and the air makes 1 shell pass.Example 2 ± Shell and tube heat exchanger Hot oil at 100oC is used to heat air in a shell and tube heat exchanger.

producing an average overall heat transfer coefficient of 227 W/m2oC. . If not then we have to use water as the minimum and iterate to a solution. Note: We don¶t know whether the air or the water is the minimum thermal capacity fluid. Hot water enters the tubes at 82.Example 3 ± Finned-tube (both fluids unmixed) cross-flow heat exchanger A finned-tube exchanger is used to heat 2. So try with the air as the minimum fluid first and see if the \-NTU equations give a possible solution.36 m3/s of air (specific heat of 1006 J/kgoC) at 1 atm from 15. The total surface area of the exchanger is 9.44oC. Calculate the heat transfer rate (kW) and the exit water temperature.29m2.22oC and the air flows across the tubes.55 to 29.

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