Historical background of state system & international Society

‡State system evolved as soon as human beings started getting settled ‡They organized them in the form of family, tribe or clan ‡Their mutual interaction gave birth to the idea of international society where states started acting like units ‡E.g. Greek City states based on modern design

General Concept of International society
‡ Hedley Bull claims:
´International society is a society of states that exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one anotherµ

‡ States need to interact because of their interdependence; as they can·t stay isolated so they need to get engaged either in a positive way i.e. by cooperation or by conflicts

Treaty of Westphalia
‡ ‡ i) ii) iii) ‡ ‡ ´Thirty years Warsµ among different European Powers ended with ´Treaty of Westphaliaµ in 1648 It was based on three principles: The King is emperor in his own reign The ruler determines religion of his realm To prevent hegemony, balance of power should be maintained This treaty codified the concept of nation-state Though it could not end wars yet its concept of nationstate has been incorporated in UN charter

General Concepts
Revolution: It refers to fundamental change in power structure in a relatively short period of time. It can have economic, political or ideological reasons and can lead either to complete change or major transitions Civil War: It refers to a war between a state and domestic political actors that claim control over some part of the territory Monarchy: It is a form of government in which supreme power lies with an individual who is the head of state. He transfers this power to his descendants on the heredity principle. It has two types: i) Constitutional monarchy ii) Absolute monarchy

Republic: It is a form of government where people have authority to rule their country on the basis of a set of rules usually constitution. No single person has got authoritative position Democracy: Democracy is a form of government in which supreme power lies with the people. It also emphasizes on ¶separation of power· in terms of three main institutes i.e. Executive, Legislature and Democracy Dictatorship: It is an autocratic form of government in which state is ruled by a dictator i.e. an authoritarian.

Colonialism: Colonialism is the extension of a nation·s sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by establishment of colonies over there in order to rule natives of that land, e.g. Subcontinent before independence Neo-colonialism: To extend one·s influence in another sovereign territory without being physically present over there, e.g. US influence in different countries Capitalism: It refers to economic system in which means of production are owned by private persons. It is based on the principle of free-market; hence ¶state is the mean and individual is the end· Socialism: It aims to have a socio-economic system in which property and its distribution are subject to control by the community. In this system, ¶individual is the mean and state is the end·

Communism: It refers to a socio-economic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless society based on common ownership of the means of production. They are atheists by religion Leftist: Left wing denotes a political group that seek to reform or abolish existing social order in favor of more equal distribution of wealth. Hence it emphasizes on social change Rightist: Right wing tends to preserve traditions. They believe in social equity rather than social equality

‡ Nationalism: It refers to someone¶s identification with a group of people on the basis of some common attributes. It can be taken as a broad concept like, Muslim Ummah/nationalism or a narrow one, e.g, Baloch/Punjab nationalism ‡ Ideology: Common set of beliefs that can lead a group of people to act in a particular manner, like Islamic ideology that led to the creation of Pakistan ‡ Power: It means ability to influence other

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