Multimedia Security

Part I: Digital Watermarking

Digital Watermarking? 

Allows users to embed some data into digital contents When data is embedded, it is not written at header part but embedded directly into digital media itself by changing media contents data 

How It Works

Data Hiding .

Types of Watermark  Visible  A visible translucent image which is overlaid on the primary image An overlaid image which cannot be seen. but which can be detected algorithmically  Invisible  .

it allows the primary image to be viewed. Overlay the watermark in a way which makes it difficult to remove.  .Visible Watermark  Logo or seal of the organization which holds the rights to the primary image. if the goal of indicating property rights is to be achieved. but still marks it clearly as the property of the owning organization.

Visible Watermark .

Invisible Watermark    Embedding level is too small to notice Can be retrieved by extraction software Applications:    Authentication Copyrighting Etc« .

Invisible Watermark .

Embedding Techniques  Spatial domain   Original needed Original not needed  Frequency domain   Original needed Original not needed  Spread domain .

Spatial Domain .

. x1 . f N   .... x N   Frequency components Embedding Extraction Exi ! f i  f i f i ! f i  Exi V ! v0 ....Frequency Domain  Watermarking signal to embed Host signal X ! x0 .... v1 ... f1 . v N F ! f 0 .

Frequency Domain .

Spread Spectrum .

Spread Spectrum .

Applications of Watermarking  Rights management Contents management Access/copy control Authentication    .

 Inseparable   Unchanging data file size  .Features of Watermarking  Invisible/Inaudible  Information is embedded without digital content degradation. Data size of the media is not changed before and after embedding operation because information is embedded directly into the media. compression and format transformation. because of the level of embedding operation is too small for human to notice the change. The embedded information can survive after some processing.

Technical Requirements for Watermarking Invisibility Robustness Capacity .

Movies and TV Content Digital Imagery Identity Documents Value Documents     .Digital Watermarking Alliance Represents applications and solutions for:  Audio and Music Content Video.

Digital Watermarking Alliance Members .

Digital Watermarking Examples  Copyright Communication     Copy Protection Monitoring Filtering/Classification Authentication/Integrity Asset/Content Management Rights Management Remote Triggering Linking/ELinking/E-Commerce  Product Serialization & Tracking     .

Potential Usage Models and Benefits User Software Usage Models Copyright Communication P2P systems only distribute non-copyright content Detect Copyright DWM Licensed Content Detect Content ID P2P systems can resell copyrighted content with license agreements with content owners Enhanced Content P2P systems provide or sell media content information and related items .

Copyright Digital Watermark Architecture Content Owner Audio/Video Master Embed Copyright and Content ID DWM User·s PC Rip Software Compressed Audio/Video File (e. MP3 file) User Software Detect Copyright and Content ID DWM for Secure and Enhanced content Rights & Info Database Content ID linked to rights.g. information and related content Provider Index Database Location (Centralized or Distributed) Can be used to address P2P and social network content Identification needs as well as providing identification of orphan works and access to metadata/networked information .

Filtering & Classification Copyrighted Access Legitimate Copy or License Content Filter 3 Non-Copyrighted  Can support existing. ISAN or ad identification codes. etc. established and/or new Classification Systems or content identifiers such as MPAA film ratings. Filtering can occur at the whole content level and/or at a more granular level identifying copyrighted. sensitive and/or questionable material for the given audience May be key element of identifying copyrighted content to support legitimate P2P distribution   .

Connected Content/Linking  Promoting & Facilitating M-Commerce MLocation based services Multimedia access      Captured CD e-logo links to web and music downloads  Streaming audio Music Multimedia Bookmarking DOWNLOAD  Ring tones  Buy tickets  Reviews  Tour dates  Samples  Band info .

Digital Media Serialization & Tracking    Identifies content owners and rights while communicating copyright information Awareness of watermarked content by consumer creates deterrent against unauthorized copying and distribution Provides accurate identification of source of unauthorized content discovered on the Internet and/or physical media Retail Content Embed Serial # (1) Embed Serial # (2) Recordable Media Content ID (1) At Point of Distribution Content Provider Track and take proper action Protected for privacy Detect Serial Number (2) At point of copying/re-distribution .

Multimedia Security Part II: Encryption .

Goals  Person authentication  Assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed Prevention of unauthorized use of a resource Protection of data from unauthorized disclosure Assurance that data received is as sent Protection against denial by the parties in a communication  Access control   Data confidentiality   Data integrity   NonNon-repudiation  .

Multimedia Data What separates multimedia data from traditional alpha numeric data?  Large in file size  May require real-time processing (especially realfor continuous media) Portable and mobile applications  .

Multimedia Encryption Approach  Signal scrambling    Historical approach Not compatible with modern multimedia compression Fast speed but low security Trivial solution High security but slow speed Most popular approach today Limited in its range of application Complementary to selective encryption Very fast computation speed  Total encryption with cryptographic ciphers    Selective encryption    Integrating encryption into entropy coding   .

Selective Encryption  Select the most important coefficients and then encrypt them with traditional ciphers such as DES Digitized Audiovisual data Media Compression System Coefficients Coefficient Selection Selected Coefficients Cryptographic Cipher Nonselected Coefficients Error Correction Coding Transmission channel or storage media  Advantages     Lower complexity High security level provided by traditional cryptology Less error correction coding redundancy Compatible with existing software and hardware modules .

Example: Selective Encryption for G.723.723.1  A popular low bit rate speech codec Vocoder Decoder synthesizes speech using the model  Based on the human voice generation model   LSP codebook indices Vocal Tract Linear filter LSP Decoder LSP Interpolator Lag of pitch predictors Gain vectors Pitch Decoder + Pitch Postfilter Synthesis Filter Formant Postfilter Fixed codebook gains and others Vocal Cord Excitation signal generation Excitation Decoder Gain Scaling Unit .1 Speech Coder  ITUITU-T Recommendation G.

Randomized Huffman Table Encryption 0 0 A 0 B 1 C 0 D 1 E 0 F 1 B G C 1 1 0 1 A 0 1 0 D 1 E 1 F 0 G 0 1 1 0 0 1 Huffman code #0 isomorphic tree! Huffman code #1 100011001010110111101111 BADCAEFG 110011001110110110111111 .

Multimedia Encryption with Randomized Entropy Coder    Select a good PRBG Select an r-bit random seed s (encryption key) Pseudo-random sequence output from PRBG(s) becomes seudothe key hoping sequence (KHS) Entropy Coder Input symbol s PRBG 1110 1011110 110001« KHS = 011000110 « .

Challenges  Real time constraint Potential cost constraint Potential bit rate increase Rate variation challenge Dynamic network conditions Transcoding challenge      .

efficient. secure and cost effective technique for multimedia security using digital watermarking and encryption .Conclusion  Multimedia security relevance Tradeoff approach based on application Goal is the design of an      efficient.

Thank you !!! .

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