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Introduction to the nervous system

General Principles of the nervous system

NERVOUS SYSTEM

SOMATIC

AUTONOMIC

SOMATIC

BRAIN

CRANIAL NERVES

SPINAL CORD AND

PERIPHERAL NERVES

AUTONOMIC

SYMPATHETIC

PARASYMPATHETIC

MENINGES
1. DURA MATER Outer covering
2. ARACHNOID MATER Middle covering 3. PIA MATER Inner most covering

OUTSIDE

SKULL EPIDURAL SPACE DURA MATER SUBDURAL SPACE ARACHNOID MATER CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) PIA MATER BRAIN MATER
INSIDE

BRAIN

FOREBRAIN

MID-BRAIN

HIND BRAIN

EG CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

PONS

MEDULLA OBLONGATA
CEREBELLUM

BRAIN STEM
MID BRAIN PONS MEDULLA OBLONGATA

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVISIONS OF BRAIN


TELENCEPHELON CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, AND BASAL GANGLIA DIENCEPHELON THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS, EPITHALAMUS, SUBTHALAMUS MESENCEPHALON MID BRAIN

Internal Capsule
White matter pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.

CRANIAL NERVES

Nerves I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens VII Facial VIII Auditory IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Accessory XII Hypoglossal

Type sensory sensory motor* motor* mixed motor*

Function olfaction (smell) vision (Contain 38% of all the axons connecting to the brain.) eyelid and eyeball muscles eyeball muscles Sensory: facial and mouth sensation Motor: chewing eyeball movement

mixed

Sensory: taste Motor: facial muscles and salivary glands


hearing and balance Sensory: taste Motor: swallowing main nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) swallowing; moving head and shoulder tongue muscles

sensory mixed mixed motor motor*

Basal Ganglia
Large subcortical nuclear masses (gray mater) derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres. Which regulates the movements.

Reticular Formation
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.

Thalamus
Paired bodies containing mostly gray substance and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.

Hypothalamus
Its a collection of nuclei present in the floor & lateral wall of third ventricle. Is responsible for regulation of internal environment.