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Visual Secret Sharing

INDEX
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Visual Secret Sharing Definition Schemes in Visual Secret Sharing Concept of Pixel Expansion and Contrast Objective of the proposed scheme Overview of the proposed scheme. Proposed algorithm for videos Verification of shares with the POB number system. Advantages of the proposed scheme. Comparison with the known results in literature.

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Visual Secret Sharing

VISUAL SECRET SHARING

ecurity of visual data is important issue in the design of the communication systems.

ata hiding techniques and Visual Secret Sharing are used to introduce confidentiality and security when visual data are transmitted through unsecured communication channels.

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Visual Secret Sharing

VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

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Visual Secret Sharing

PIXEL EXPANSION & CONTRAST


Two important factors used to determine the efficiency of any cryptographic schemes are Pixel Expansion and Contrast. The difference measure between a black and a white pixel in the reconstructed image is called contrast. The number of sub-pixels that each pixel of the original image is 0 1 1 0 0 0 encoded into1 each transparency is termed pixel 1 on expansion. 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

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Expansion = 2
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Contrast=(21)/2=0.5
Visual Secret Sharing

CONTD..
ny loss of information during reconstruction phase leads to the reduction in the quality of the recovered image. This is called Contrast.

Pixel expansion refers to the number of subpixels in the generated shares that represents a pixel of the original input image.

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Visual Secret Sharing

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED SCHEME


ixel expansion must be zero uality of the secret image should be retained in the recovered image. he size of the share should not reveal the original size of the secret. oseless encryption. orrupted shares should be clearly identified before using them for decryption. utomatic modification of shares so that if the shares are hacked after a period of time they should be invalid.
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OVERVIEW OF THE ALGORITHM


Permutation Modification Generation

Image

earranged Image

Reshape d Image

Encrypte d Image

Association 1,2,.., k k, ..,n

Share 1
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Share k
Visual Secret Sharing

Share n
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DECRYPTION OF THE SHARES

tep 1: permutation matrices are defined in such a way that there exists only one 1 in each row and column. tep 2: Taking the positions of 1 each row will result in K x 1 matrix for each permutation matrix. Also the each column generator matrix to each of the shares. This results the concept that only if k shares of secret image is obtained it will be able to generate the generator matrix.
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ENCRYPTION OF VIDEOS
Frame Generation Selection of I-frame Difference from I -frame to other frames

YES Store the difference in Iframes log file

Threshold> no. of difference

NO

Encrypt the current I-frame Take current frame as next I-frame

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VERIFICATION OF ENCRYPTED SHARES


n cryptography, a secret sharing scheme is verifiable if auxiliary information is included that allows players to verify their shares as consistent. n verifiable secret sharing (VSS) the object is to resist malicious players, such as (i) a dealer sending incorrect shares to some or all of the participants, and (ii) participants submitting incorrect shares during the reconstruction protocol. n standard secret sharing, the dealer is assumed to be honest.

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POB NUMBER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION.


ermutation Ordered Binary (POB) Number System takes two nonnegative integral parameters, n and r, where n >=r. The system is denoted by POB(n, r). In this number system, we represent all integers in the range 0, . . . ,n!/(n-r)! r! -1, as a binary string, say = bn-1, bn-2, bn-3, .., b2, b1,b0 of length n and exactly r 1s ach digit of this number, say, bj is associated with its position value, given by j * j!/pj! (j-pj)! Where pj = pi i from 0 to j

he original values are obtained V(B) (B) = bj * j!/(j-pj)!pj! j from 0Visual Secret Sharing to n-1

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ALGORITHM - POB
enerate POB-number corresponding to a given POBvalue. In a POB(n, r) number system, if a POB-value, value is given, the algorithm generates POB(n,r) number :B such that V (B) = value. nput : Three numbers: n; r and value with r <= n and 0 <= value <= n!/r!(n-r)!
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utput: The POB-number B = bn-1bn-2 . b0

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ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SCHEME

imple coding ixel expansion is little with this scheme. When the k and n values are higher pixel expansion is considerably low. ontrast is maintained olor darkening phenomenon is also considered with this scheme.
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COMPARISONS WITH THE KNOWN RESULTS IN THE LITERATURE.

1 :the pixel expansion of colour (k, n)-VCS under the visual cryptography model of Naor and Shamir 2 : whether or not the construction is based on the halftone technique 3 : whether or not the increase in the number of colours of the recovered secret image will increase the pixel expansion. 4 : whether or not the colour model of the construction considers the colour darkening phenomenon during stacking of pixels with the same colour. 5 : whether or not the recovering of the secret image requires the assistance of
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computing devices.

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Constructions Ours Cimato et al. Hou and TU Shyu et al. Yang and chen Liu Wu lin Yang and liah

COMPARISONS WITH THE KNOWN RESULTS IN THE LITREATURE.


C1 0 N/A 1 Log c * m 1 1 Cm C2 No No Yes No No No No C3 No Yes No Yes No No Yes C4 Yes No Yes No No Yes No

C5

yes No No No No No No

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COMPRESSION RATES
AS N AND K SHARES INCREASES PIXEL EXPANSION COMES DOWN TO ZERO..

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APPLICATIONS
roviding high level security for Closed Circuit Television footages and perfect recovery. toring vital financial documents multiple servers where each server stores only a part of the information. ecuring video chat applications
powerful encryption utility that brings military strength encryption with just one click.
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edical applications, Xray image of a patient.

REFERENCES
di Shamir, How to Share a Secret, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, Nov. 1979. ohsen Heidarinejad, Amirhossein Alamdar Yazdi and Konstantinos N. Plataniotis Algebraic Visual Cryptography Schemes for Images (2008). oni Naor and Adi Shamir -Visual Cryptography (1994). . Sreekumar and Dr. S. Babu Sundar An efficient secret sharing scheme for n out of n scheme using POB number system. xis Communications-H.264 Video compression standard.New possibilities within
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video surveillance.(2008)

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THANK YOU

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