multiplication etc. Can Machines think?  Yes/No?  If yes.  Manipulates data  Has a large data base  Processes data  Etc. Because it does addition. .

we are able to fill automatically.  Learns new things  When the same job is repeated by human brain several times. let us find what is thinking means??? Thinking means:  A human being interprets things  Creatively finds new ways  If insufficient data is given.  . we find methods to shorten the time. improve the performance etc. If NOT.

deeply divided into subfields to prove how to make the machines to think. .  Ai research is highly technical and specialized.“ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE” DEFINITION:  Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it.

the father of AI is considered to be Alan Turing.  Eventhough the subject began in sixties. Noam Chomsky. . who said that we can install knowledge in machines  Other contributors to the subject were. who standardized the language theory. and became very popular in late 1970s. Kurt Godel.History:  The word Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy – a famous Operations Researcher  The subject began in 1960s. Knuth etc. Von Neumann .

Alan Turing John McCarthy Von Neumann Noam Chomsky Kurt Godel Donald Knuth .

Human brain has this capacity . then we return back and try the other way. Back-tracking: We approach a problem just like we try to solve a mesh puzzle. When the path closes. we again return back. This is called back tracking.STANDARD CHARACTERISTICS:  The following are some of the standard characteristics of an intelligent machine. If that path also closes. people try to develop: 1. and try the different way.

Pattern Matching  We learn by copying the method adopted by another person. just like her mother.2. For example a child tries to cook with small vessels.  We usually copy the lives/ works of others to improve our lifestyle.  This technique is also important for an intelligent machine. .

Search techniques of a human brain: There are three different search techniques: a. Heuristic search Exhaustive search: Suppose a chess player wants to find his next move. he can think of all moves and then choose the best move. This is not possible Random Search: We sometimes choose a particular job randomly. . Random Search c.3. This method reduces the time of search. Exhaustive search b. but may not be the right search method.

Some intuition or idea comes to the brain automatically and this gives the right decision . . How to do this scientifically is still a big question. But some mathematical techniques like Bayesian approach helps to have heuristic search in computers.Heuristic search: This is the method by which the human brain usually works.

 People started developing languages having all these characteristics atleast partially.  The languages developed using these techniques are called fifth generation languages.  Prolog and Lisp are two languages having these characteristics. .

 Can learn by itself.PROLOG:  This was first developed by the British.  Has pattern matching techniques.  Prolog has the following characteristics:  Has exhaustive search techniques.  A very large data base can be incorporated. and which was used by the Japanese to develop thinking machines  Prolog is the acronym for programming in logic. .

LISP: Lisp is the acronym for List processing. It is used by the Americans to develop KIPS(Knowledge information processing systems) Prolog is very brittle (the program will crash even if it has a simple error) and Lisp is not as brittle as Prolog. but uses recursive functions for all its processing . Lisp has all the characteristics of Prolog.

till now experts do not believe that machines are capable of thinking. these languages helped to create a new set of software. which appear to be intelligent.  But. That is. . Eventhough Prolog and Lisp were used to make machines think. called expert systems. the languages do not make the machines to find new methods/solutions/ or creatively think.

developed using Prolog has helped to be like an expert doctor.EXPERT SYSTEMS:  An expert system is a system which acts like an expert in a particular area. For example a software called MYCIN. As it plays with other experts. . it gets better and better to win every player in the world. and it has won over several grandmasters in Chess. A software called FRITZ is an expert system on Chess playing.

Deep Blue .Kasparov Vs.

which makes wonderful gadgets to solve our daily needs. Washing machine.  These are used in TV. Presently there are embedded systems. Car AC etc. a) Motion and Manipulation b) Creativity Robotics . which are built in programs using Artificial Intelligence.

 The current area of research is to produce machines which work on Artificial Neural Networks.  It may also happen that one day the machines may start ruling over us.Conclusion:  Eventhough. because of their better intelligence and ability. and parallel processing. . the future is bright to develop machines which can think. the human brain is highly capable and is the most intelligent being.

PRIYADARSHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SULLURPET  MOUNICA.kumar@gmail.moni13343@gmail.: 8985584512 .BHARGAV KUMAR  email:    email: moni.: 8985843522  M.

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