IRON - CARBON DIAGRAM

IRON – IRON CARBIDE PHASE DIAGRAM

Iron – iron carbide phase diagram

FEATURES OF IRON-IRON CARBIDE DIAGRAM
Phases Present :
L – Liquid phase a ferrite Bcc structure Ferromagnetic Fairly ductile d Bcc structure Paramagnetic g austenite Fcc structure Non-magnetic ductile

Fe3C cementite Orthorhombic Hard brittle

Max. solubility of C in ferrite=0.022% Max. solubility of C in austenite=2.11%

REACTIONS :
Peritectic : L + d = g Eutectic : L = g + Fe3C

Different Phases existing in the diagram :

Eutectoid : g = a + Fe3C

1. Ferrite ( a )

2. Austenite(g)

Different transformations :
1. Peritectic transformation 2. Eutectoid transformation 3. Eutectic transformation

3. d - ferrite(d)

1. Ferrite ( a ) :
-Ferrite is an interstitial solid solution of carbon in low temperature B.C.C . a - iron - It is almost a pure iron -Solubility of Carbon in a - iron at room temp is 0.008% and increases with increase in temperature up to 0.025% at 727C - Soft and ductile ( hardness = 80 BHN ) -Can be cold worked without cracking -Ferromagnetic upto 786C and paramagnetic at 768C during heating - This temperature (768C) ferrite becomes paramagnetic called CURIE TEMPERATUIRE

2. AUSTENITE ( g ) :
- Austenite is an interstitial solid solution of carbon in F.C.C. g  iron - It can dissolve upto 0.2% carbon at 1147C . - Stable only above 727C . - It is soft,ductile,malleable.paramagnetic phase. - Extensively worket at the temperature of its existence.

3. d(d- Ferrite) :
- It is an intyerstitial solid solution of carbon in hidh temperature B.C.C. d -iron . - It is similar to a - ferrite except its occurrence at high temperature

4. Fe3C ( cementite) :
- It is an intermetallic compound of iron and fixed carbon content of 6.67% by weight. - Orthorhombic crystal structure with 12 carbon atoms and 4 iron atoms. - Extremely hard and brittle ( hardness = 900 VPN) - Ferromagnetic upto 210C and paramagnetic above this temperature - It is called iron carbide or carbide

1. Peritectic transformation :
Amount of d = 82.2% For hypoperitectic steels L+d
1492C

Amount of L = 17.8% For Hyperperitectic steels L+d g + L

d+g

Peritectic region of Fe-C phase diagram

2. EUTECTOID TRANSFORMATION :
Amount of ferrite = 88.1% Amount of cementite = 11.9%

- Austenite of 0.8% C decomposes at constant temperature of 727C and forms a mixture of ferrite and cementite. -This mixture of ferrite and cementite Is called PEARLITE -The properties of pearlite depends upon its interlamellar spacing again it depends upon cooling rate . -Hardness of peralite with usual cooling rate is between 230 and 270BHN - Interlamellar spacing means the distance between tow adjacent ferrite lamella. 3. EUTECTIC TRANSFORMATION : L
Const temp

S 1 + S2

s1 and s2 are two different solids , L is liquid

L
(of 4.3% C)

g
(of 2.0% C)

+

Fe3C
(of 6.67% C)

Liquid of 4.3% carbon transforms at constant temperature of 1147C and gives an eutectic mixture of austenite(of 2.0% C) and cementite. This eutectic mixture is called LEDEBURITE
Amount of pearlite = 40.4% Amount of Cementite = 59.6% Cementite is hard and pearlite is also fairly hard so Ledeburite is also hard and subsequentli brittle.

• A1 — The so-called eutectoid temperature, which is the minimum temperature for austenite.

• A3 — The lower-temperature boundary of the austenite region at low carbon contents; i.e., the gamma / gamma + ferrite boundary.
• Acm — The counterpart boundary for high-carbon contents; i.e., the gamma / gamma + Fe3C boundary. Sometimes the letters c, e, or r are included: • Accm — In hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which the solution of cementite in austenite is completed during heating.

• Ac1 — The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating, with the c being derived from the French chauffant.

• Ac3 — The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. • Aecm, Ae1, Ae3 — The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. • Arcm — In hypereutectoid steel, the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling, with the r being derived from the French refroidissant.

• Ar1 — The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling.
• Ar3 — The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. • Ar4 — The temperature at which delta-ferrite transforms to austenite during cooling.

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